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抚顺市人民医院治疗早泄多少钱华龙在线

楼主:普及养生 时间:2019年08月23日 02:25:07 点击:0 回复:0
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Yael:Its time for another installment of lunch with Don and Yael.雅艾尔:现在到了唐和雅艾尔共进午餐的另一环节。So, Don, what do you have for lunch today?那么,唐,今天午餐你吃什么?Don:An apple.唐:一个苹果。Yael:Thats it?雅艾尔:就这些吗?Don:And some water.唐:还有些水。Yael:Why so little?雅艾尔:为什么吃这么点?Don:Well, I ate out last night . . . and at restaurants you tend to get around four or five times as much food as nutrition experts recommend.唐:嗯,我昨晚出去吃的饭。。。在餐馆就餐的你倾向于摄入专家推荐4至5倍的食物营养。For example, if you order a steak, youll probably get a nice, juicy, twelve-ounce piece of meat.如果你点了牛排,你的餐盘里可能盛放的是一份不错,多汁,12盎司的肉。But experts say that you shouldnt eat more than five-and-a-half ounces of meat per day.但专家表示你每天不应该吃超过5盎司的肉。Yael:Wow. Why does that happen?雅艾尔:哇。为什么会这样?Don:Its partly due to the plate size.唐:这部分是由于盘子尺寸所致。Have you ever noticed that a lot of restaurants use oversize plates?你有没有注意到很多餐馆使用超大的盘子?Which leads to another factor . . .when youre paying for a meal, you expect those plates to be filled with food.这导致另一个因素,当你出去吃饭,你指望那些盘子装满食物。Get a four- or five-ounce piece of steak on your giant plate and you might not feel that youre getting your moneys worth.在4-5盎司牛排盛放到你巨大盘子后,你可能不会觉得你花出去的钱物有所值。Yael:Yknow, I somewhere that people are eating out more than ever.雅艾尔:我在哪里看到过人们会比以往更多出去吃饭。And if theyre eating larger than recommended portions at restaurants, I bet thats contributing to the obesity problem.如果他们吃的比餐馆推荐量还要多,我敢打赌这会导致肥胖问题。Don:Some experts think so.唐:一些专家也认为如此。But theres an easy solution . . . eat only some of whats on your plate and take the rest home.但是有简单的解决方案。。。只吃在你盘子里的,把其余的打包带走。Yael:Did you do that last night?雅艾尔:你昨天晚上是这样的吗?Don:Uh, no. Its kinda hard to stop eating when all that food is right there in front of you.唐:嗯,没有。满桌美食尽在眼前不吃的确有些困难。Yael:Well then, enjoy your apple. 雅艾尔:那就好好享受你的这餐苹果吧。 201310/261137Don: Holy guayule,Yale.唐:神圣的灰白银胶菊,雅艾尔。Yael: Holy what?雅艾尔:神圣的什么?Don: Guayule. Its a desert-dwelling shrub from the Southwest.唐:灰白银胶菊。它是一种生长在西南部沙漠中的灌木。Yael: What about guayule? I never even heard of it.雅艾尔:灰白银胶菊是什么样的?我从来没听过。Don: Several things. One of the most important features of the guayule plant is that it is a source of natural latex, ideal for making gloves and other natural rubber products used in the medical industry. But unlike the more common latex extracted from rubber trees, latex from guayule plants does not contain the proteins that cause severe allergic reactions in some people.唐:有几件事你应该了解一下。灰白银胶菊最重要的特点是它能分泌天然乳胶,是制造手套以及其它医疗工厂使用的橡胶制品的理想原料。但是跟常见的那些从橡胶树上提取的乳胶不同,从灰白银胶菊中提取的乳胶中没有会使人产生严重过敏反应的蛋白质。Yael: Nice.雅艾尔:不错。Don: But thats not all. Crop researchers have discovered that the guayule plant is a potentially valuable source of energy. After the latex is extracted from the plant, youre left with the ground up stems and branches—called “bagasse.” Bagasse from guayule contains about as much potential energy per pound as charcoal. USDA chemists are working to develop efficient methods to convert bagasse into ethanol and other consumer y products. Guayule has a few advantages as a source for biofuel. One is that it grows and thrives in the desert. That means it can grow in areas where other crops cant. Guayule shrubs can also be harvested year round, and require very little fertilizer or chemicals to grow. On top of that, the latex extraction process uses only water, no harsh solvents, so the process of producing latex and bagasse is relatively clean.唐:还不止这些呢。研究者们还发现银胶菊是一种很有开发前景的能源。当你把乳胶从植物里提取出来后,就会剩下一大堆银胶菊的秸秆,我们称为“甘蔗渣”。每磅甘蔗渣里含有的能量和每磅木炭一样多。美国农业部的化学家正在研发一种有效的方法,以便把这些甘蔗渣转化成乙醇和其他可供消费的产品。作为生物燃料,银胶菊有一些优势。其中一项就是他在沙漠中茁壮的生长,这就表示了它能在其他生物无法生存的环境中存活。银胶菊灌木一年就能收获吗?它全年都能收获,且只需要一点点肥料和化学药剂。除此之外,银胶菊的乳胶提取工艺只需要水就够了,不需要严格的溶剂。所以生产乳胶和甘蔗渣的过程是比较清洁的。Yael: That does sound promising. ILL look forward to hearing more about guayule in the future.雅艾尔:那听起来的确很有前途,我期望以后能多了解一些银胶菊的知识。Don: I suspect we will.唐:我猜会有机会的。201305/240321They can grow more than two metres long and weigh as much as three men. But the giant tortoises of ice age North America were even larger. Florida does have tortoises today, but on a much smaller scale. This is the gopher tortoise. 他们能够长到3米长,重量可与3个成年人的体重相当。但是在冰河时代的北美洲,巨型陆龟体型甚至更加巨大。佛罗里达现在也有乌龟,但是他们的体型很小。这就是穴居沙龟。Tortoises are cold-blooded animals. They rely on external temperature to keep themselves warm. Although Florida is plenty warm enough for much of the year, during the winter months, it can get cold. So to survive the winter, gopher tortoises must burrow and hibernate underground. The colder it gets, the deeper into their burrow they go. 乌龟是冷血动物。他们依靠外部温度保持自身温暖。尽管佛罗里达一年中的大部分时节都温暖如春,但是在冬天的几个月里,气温还是十分寒冷。因此,为了撑过寒冬,穴居沙龟必须在地下挖掘洞穴来进行冬眠。天气越寒冷,他们挖掘的洞穴越深。Giant tortoises, however, cant burrow. And they sleep above ground. They need relatively warm temperatures all year round. The fact they were in Florida during the ice age means that paradoxically the climate must have been more stable and even milder than it is today. So we know something of the climate, but what about the vegetation and the landscape. How did that look 13,000 years ago? 然而,巨型陆龟却没有挖掘的技能。他们在地上冬眠。他们一年都需要相对温暖的气温。这看起来与现实相驳,而事实上,他们可以在冰河时代的佛罗里达生存正意味着那时的气温一定比今天更加稳定,更加温和。因此我们可以推测出当时佛罗里达的气候,但是13000年前的植被以及地貌又是什么样子呢?Today Florida is one of the wettest parts of the continent, especially the vast swampy area known as the Everglades. Flooded grasslands stretches as far as the eye can see.如今,佛罗里达是北美洲湿度最高的地区之一,尤其是像佛罗里达大沼泽这样的一篇巨大的沼泽地。人们的视线内遍布着在侵泡在水中的草地。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/254544

Science and techonolgy科学技术The evolution of co-operation合作关系的演变Make or break?建立还是终止?Social networking tames cheats社交网络驯欺骗者HOW people collaborate, in the face of numerous temptations to cheat, is an important field of psychological and economic research.在无数互相欺骗的诱惑中,人们如何建立合作关系?A lot of this research focuses on the tit-for-tat theory of co-operation:这是心理和经济学研究的一个很重要的领域。关于这个领域的很多研究都集中在以牙还牙的合作理论:that humans are disposed, when dealing with another person,那就是,一个人在处理和另外一个人的关系时,to behave in a generous manner until that other person shows himself not to be generous.开始都会选择慷慨的态度,直到对方显露出不慷慨的迹象,这个时候也是合作关系终止的时候。At this point co-operation is withdrawn. Fool me once, in other words, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.用另外一种话说,就是欺我一回,罪过在你,欺我二回,罪过在我。When he encounters such a withdrawal of collaboration, the theory goes, the malefactor will learn the error of his ways and become a more co-operative individual.当遭遇这样的一次合作终止,如理论所说,作为合作规则的破坏者,他会开始反省他处事的过错,并且开始变成更加乐于合作的个体。And there is experimental evidence, based on specially designed games, that tit-for-tat does work for pairs of people.在特殊设计的游戏基础上得出的实验据显示,以牙还牙理论在两个人的关系中确实奏效。Human societies, though, are more complex than mere dyads.然而人类社会关系远比两两之间更为复杂。And until recently, it has been difficult to model that complexity in the laboratory.直到最近,这种复杂的关系还难以在实验室中模拟出来。But a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Nicholas Christakis and his colleagues at Harvard has changed that.但在这周,哈佛大学Nicholas Christakis和他的同事在国家科学院院刊上发表的论文改变了这个状况。Dr Christakis arranged for a collaboration-testing game to be played over the web, with many participants.Christakis士在网上安排了一场多人参与的实验测试游戏。As a result, he and his team have gained a more sophisticated insight into the way co-operation develops.经过这个实验,他和同事对人际合作发展方式有了更深的理解。Dr Christakis used what is known as a public-goods game for his experiment.Christakis士在这个实验中采用称为公共利益的游戏。At the beginning of such a game, points are doled out to each participant.游戏之初,每个参与者分发到少量的分数。During every round, players are given the opportunity to donate points to their neighbours.在接下来每一轮游戏中,参与者都有机会赠送分数给他的邻居。Points so donated are augmented by an equal number from the masters of the game.赠送者的分数能够在游戏管理者那里得到与之舍出分数相等量的增长。If everyone co-operates, then, everyone ends up richer.如果参与者都合作的话,每个人最终分数都会比最开始的多。A defector who refuses to donate to his co-operating neighbours will, however, benefit at the expense of those neighbours.而拒绝赠送分数的破坏者却从他邻居们的损失中获益。At the game’s end, the points are converted into real money, to ensure that proper incentives are in place.为了保适当的奖励到位,游戏后这些分数可以变换成钱。To play his large-scale public-goods game, Dr Christakis recruited 785 volunteers via Mechanical Turk—a service provided by Amazon,为了展开这个大型的公共利益游戏,Christakis士通过网上零售商亚马逊提供的土耳其机器人网络务招收了785名志愿者。an online retailer, that works by farming out small tasks to an army of individual workers.这是个发包小任务给个体劳动队伍的务网络。Each volunteer was randomly assigned links to, on average, eight other players.在这个网络上,每个志愿者大约和八个随机分配的参与者连接组队,Together, they played repeated rounds of one of three variations of the game.并根据三种设定的游戏模式重复开展。In the first, participants always interacted with the same group of people.第一种模式,参与者总是和同一组人合作。In the second, the connections were randomly reshuffled after each round.第二种模式,每一轮游戏后合作者都随机重组。In the final version, one-third of the possible pairings between participants were chosen at random after each round.最后一种,每一轮后,三分之一的组合将被选中并随机重组。One player from each pair was first told or reminded of how the other had behaved in the previous round, and was then asked whether he wanted to break his connection with that player,组合中一人会被告知或提醒他的合作对象在前面一轮游戏中的表现,他可以选择是否解除和这个人的合作,如果他已经有一个合作对象的话;if he aly had one, or form a new connection, if he had not.如果他没有合作对象,他则可以选择是否建立新的合作联系。In all versions of the game, roughly 60% of players started out co-operating.在所有三种模式中,大约60%的参与者最开始都是遵守合作规则。However, in the first two, this decreased over time as the pernicious influence of the freeloaders sp.可是头两种模式中,随着吃白食恶劣影响的扩展,遵守的人数也跟着下降。The larger the fraction of a subject’s partners who defected in a given round, the less likely that person was to co-operate in the next—classical tit-for-tat.一个参与者合作过的对象中破坏规则的人数比例越高,这个参与者在下一轮的游戏中越不可能遵守合作规则-典型的以牙还牙。However, this tit-for-tat retaliation was not enough to save co-operation, and after a dozen rounds only 10-20% of the players were still willing to co-operate.然后,这种以牙还牙的报复并不能拯救合作的持续,在十几轮游戏后,只有10-20%的参与者还愿意合作。In the variant where participants had some choice over whom they interacted with, though, the amount of co-operation stayed stable as the rounds progressed.然而在参与者可以选择合作对象的模式中,合作的人数随着游戏的进行保持稳定。When Dr Christakis and his team looked at how the relationships between players were evolving in this third version,而Christakis士和他的团队观察第三种模式中参与者的关系如何演变时,they found that connections between two co-operators were much more likely to be maintained than links that involved a defector.他们发现没有碰到过破坏者的组合更容易保持合作。Over time, the co-operators accumulated more social connections than the defectors did.在游戏中,合作者比破坏者积累了更多的合作关系。Furthermore, as they were shunned, the defectors began to change their behaviour.而且,被拒绝后,破坏者也开始改变他们的行为。A defector’s likelihood of switching to co-operation increased with the number of players who had broken links with him in the previous round.在前面一轮游戏中和他中止合作的人越多,他越有可能转向合作者。Unlike straightforward tit-for-tat, social retaliation was having a marked effect.不像简单的以牙还牙,社会报复有一个标记作用。The next question, then, is whether such a mechanism holds outside the laboratory.接下来的问题是,这样的一个机制在实验室外是否可行?To find out, Dr Christakis has forged links with some anthropologists. They hope to report the answer soon.为了找出,Christakis士已经和一些人类学家取得联系。他们希望能够很快得出结论。 /201306/243470

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