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2019年12月07日 10:09:29 | 作者:康泰热点 | 来源:新华社
With the tropical sun beating down, the exposed flat is one of the most hostile environments on the reef, for a fish caught out here, it should mean certain death.在热带炎日的暴晒之下,裸露出的平地是珊瑚礁最为残酷的地方之一。对于困在这里的鱼而言,无疑只有死路一条。But not for this one.但不包括这只。Its an epaulette shark, it cant breath out of water, but it survives here by shutting down some parts of its brain and increasing the blood supply to others.这是一只肩章鲨,它离开水就不能呼吸。但可以关掉一部分脑功能,以增加另一部分的血液供给。Not only that, it can walk on land.不只如此,它还可以用鳍行走。This abilities make it a speciallized reef-top hunter.这些技能使得它成为礁石顶部的狩猎专家。Manoeuvering around the confined space of a rock pool, its master of all it surveys.它游刃有余地在狭小的潮汐池中巡视,不放过任何一个角落。Nothing is safe, not even animals hiding under the sand.没有动物能逃脱它的搜捕,藏身沙子下面也是徒劳。It scans for smells and for tiny electric signals given off by the bodies of hidden creatures.因为躲藏者的味道和生物电出卖了它,肩章鲨也可以侦测到。Its detected a crab.它搜索到一只螃蟹。It doesnt need shark teeth, because it simply sucks up its prey.无需尖牙利齿,肩章鲨就可以直接将猎物吸入口中。The epaulette isnt the only shark able to adapt to a change of the tides.善于利用潮汐涨落捕猎的鲨鱼不只肩章鲨。201410/338087How many of you are just thinking about it right now.有多少人现在正在脑补这部电影Its making tons of money.Its the NO.1 film in the country.电影赚了一大票 国内票房第一And now other studios are just trying to catch.现在其他制片公司都竞相模仿Whenever something is popular,everyone tries to make a version of it.只要某样东西成了潮流 大家就都竞相模仿This is Disney. Look at what Disney is...这是迪士尼 看看迪士尼在Its a classic Disney movie and this is what they are doing.这是部迪士尼的经典影片 这是他们最新的版本Its you?, isnt it?Just so.Theyre all looking at you.是你 对不对 是我 他们都在看你Believe me. They are all looking at you.I dont do romance.相信我 他们是在看你 我不会玩浪漫Thats not right.I remember that Cinderella was an innocent story这可不对 我记得;灰姑娘;是一个about a prince with a foot fetish.Now look at them.关于恋足癖王子的纯情故事 你看看现在50 Shades of Grey is not the only big movie at the Box Office at this weekend.这周不止;五十度灰; 这一部大片上映Theres ;American Sniper; And theres ;Sponge Bob;.还有;美国狙击手;和;海绵宝宝;That movie is supposed to be...这部电影被认为是 /201510/404854

Europe Dual citizenship in Germany德国 双重国籍在德国Jus sanguinis revisited血统主义死灰复燃?How not to treat people with more than one passport怎样不来对待拥有多重国籍的人Backing Turkey and Germany together期望土耳其能与德国“联姻”The case of a woman from Hanau, in Hesse, shows why Kenan Kolat, leader of Germany’s Turks, calls the German citizenship law “absurdity cubed.” Born in Germany to Turkish parents, she was a dual citizen. According to the law, she had to relinquish one passport between her 18th and 23rd birthday. She chose to forgo the Turkish one. But the Turkish bureaucracy was slow, her birthday came—and her German citizenship went instead.一位来自哈瑙的女士在海赛的亲身经历,向我们解释了德国土耳其社区组织的领袖Kenan Kolat认为德国《国籍法》“荒谬至极”的原因。作为出生在德国的土耳其人,她具有双重国籍。但依据国籍法规定,她必须在18岁到23岁期间选择放弃一个国籍。德国国籍是她最终的选择,但是由于土耳其相关机构办事缓慢,直到她生日那天,她的德国国籍也没有生效。International law has never fully embraced multiple citizenship. Many countries frown on it, though others take a more relaxed attitude. Germany, however, manages to make it especially complicated for citizens of foreign origin. Its traditional approach goes back to a law passed before the first world war. Based on jus sanguinis (“right of blood”), it gave citizenship to anybody of German descent, but not to foreigners born in Germany, as countries such as America and France that practise jus soli (“right of soil”) do. Then, in 1999, a centre-left government added the two notions together. This would have let a woman born in Germany to Turkish parents be simultaneously German and Turkish. But that law coincided with a regional election in Hesse, where the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) seized on the issue to mobilise its conservative base in opposition. The CDU won the state and took control of the upper house, where it blocked the new law.国际法从来没有真正包容过多重国籍。尽管有一些国家允许自己国家的人拥有多重国籍,但还是有很多国家不承认多重国籍。而德国对外籍人申请申请加入德国国籍的条件十分严苛,最传统的办法还要追溯到一战前通过的法条。依据 jus sanguinis(“血统主义),拥有德国国籍公民的后代自动拥有德国国籍,但是出生在德国的外籍子女并不能获得德国国籍。而像美国、法国等国家则实行 jus soli (“出生地主义”)。随后,1999年,德国左翼党将这两种方法都采纳了进来。这样,出生在德国的土耳其后裔就能同时获得德国和土耳其国籍。但是这新法条的颁布正好与在海赛举行的地区大选的时间不谋而合。在海赛,右派保守党基民党(CDU)抓住了这个问题不放,利用其来动员保守方反对法条的通过。最终CDU赢得了大选,控制了高层,并且封锁了新法条的颁布。A compromise was reached in 2000. Children born in Germany to foreign parents after 1990 can get two passports but have to choose one citizenship before they are 23. This year, the first cohort of such children, about 3,300, reach that age. From 2018 the number will reach 40,000 a year or more. There are about half a million such cases all told, more than two-thirds of them of Turkish descent.然而,在2000年,德国《国籍法》却做出了让步。在1990年之后出生在德国的外籍子女能够获得双重国籍,但是必须在他们23岁之前做出选择哪个国籍的决定。这一年,符合年龄标准的第一批试点孩子大约有3300人。预计到2018年,人数会增加到每年40000人甚至更多。已经知晓的大约有50万这样的案例,其中超过三分之二的人是土耳其后裔。Yet not all young dual citizens must choose. A child born to a German parent in America, say, retains both passports for life. So does a child born to a Greek or Spanish parent in Germany, because dual citizenship is allowed for members of the European Union and Switzerland. This seems unfair to the Turks. This week Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the Turkish prime minister, said as much to Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, during her visit to Turkey. (Mrs Merkel also explained that, though happy for Turkey’s EU accession talks to continue, she retained her “scepticism” about its ever becoming a member.)而今,不是所有拥有双重国籍的年轻人都必须做出选择国籍的抉择。据一位出生在美国的德国小孩所称,他可以终生保留双重国籍。出生在德国的希腊或西班牙小孩同样也能获得这样的待遇,因为双重国籍已经被允许发放给欧盟成员国以及瑞士的公民。这样似乎对土耳其人并不公平。本周,在德国总理Angela Merkel访土期间,土耳其总理Recep Tayyip Erdogan传递了上述意图。(默克尔女士也表示,虽然很高兴看到土耳其加入欧盟谈判得以继续进行,但是她对土耳其加入欧盟仍保持“怀疑”态度。)Besides being unjust and creating two classes of citizens, the law is a nightmare to administer, says Ulrich Kober at Bertelsmann Stiftung, a think-tank. Because countries like Iran do not let citizens renounce their citizenship and others make it costly or difficult, German law in theory grants exceptions. But the rules are not clear, reckons Kay Hailbronner, a lawyer. To make the decisions even more arbitrary, the 16 German states process the paperwork, and each uses different forms.新法条的颁布不仅仅是一种不公平的表现形式,并且在市民中划分出了2种阶级,而且还是管理者的噩梦,Bertelsmann Stiftung的一位智囊团成员 Ulrich Kober这样说道。由于像伊朗这样的国家不允许其居民放弃伊朗国籍,而其他人要想取消伊朗国籍也是件困难的事且费用昂贵,所以德国国籍法按理应该允许例外情况,但事实上,法条中规定地十分模糊,Kay Hailbronner律师这样认为。德国的16个州甚至独立处理法条的相关文件,并且各自使用不同形式的文件,结果决策变得更加随意。What better way to irritate those citizens whom Germany’s politicians say they want to integrate? Mr Kober thinks Germany should simply allow dual citizenship. So do the centre-left parties hoping to replace Mrs Merkel’s government in September’s election, as well as the CDU’s coalition partner, the Free Democratic Party. It may yet happen.如德国的政治家所言,有什么更好的办法能够安抚那些想要融入德国的居民呢?Kober先生认为德国要做的不过是简简单单地允许双重国籍。就像希望能在9月份的大选中击败默克尔政府、基督教民主联盟和自由民主党的左党一样。它总有一天会实现的。翻译:朱大素译文属译生译世201610/471995

Until recently, many ecologists didnt study the effect of evolution on population dynamics because evolution is much slower than the predator-prey cycle.直到最近,许多生态学家都没有研究种群动态进化所带来的影响,因为进化的速度远远慢于捕食的周期。But a study suggests that adaptive evolution might actually play a role in the dynamics ofthe predator-prey relationship.但是研究表明,适应性进化可能影响着掠食者与被掠食者之间的动态。Cornell University biologists studied the population dynamics of green algae and rotifers, the microscopic aquatic animals that feed on them.康乃尔大学的生物学家研究了以绿藻为食的轮虫的种群动态。They expected that the rotifers would eat the algae and multiply until the algae population crashed.他们预测,轮虫将会吃掉绿藻并繁衍后代直到绿藻的种群锐减。This would then cause the rotifer population to crash, which would allowthe algae population to recover, and the whole cycle to begin again.由于绿藻的减少,轮虫的种群也会锐减,这时绿藻种群便开始恢复,整个循环周期便又开始了。What they observed, however, was that there was some lag between the time the algae population reached a certain density and the time the rotifer population began its recovery.但是他们观察到在绿藻种群到达一定的密度之后,轮虫种群并没有立刻开始恢复。Why? And how does evolution fit into all this?为什么呢?进化过程是如何与之一致的呢?Well, it turns that some algal cells are resistant to digestion, although this resistance comes at a cost: they reproduce more slowly.实际上,有些藻类细胞会对消化产生抵抗性。尽管这些抵抗也是有代价的:它们的繁殖更加缓慢。As the more dominant, non-resistant strains of algae crashed, the resistant algal cells began cloning themselves more rapidly, and this temporarily stabilized the algae population.由于处于优势,不抗消化的绿藻品种数量减少,抗消化的绿藻细胞开始更加快速的繁殖,这就暂时稳定了绿藻种群。In the meantime, the rotifer population crashed because the rotifers had less to eat,allowing the non-resistant strains of algae to recover.同时,轮虫种群随着它们食物的减少而减少,这就让不抗消化的绿藻品种开始恢复。Once the non-resistant algae became common again, the rotifer population increased, completing the cycle.一旦不抗消化的绿藻又变得普遍了,轮虫种群就开始增长,完成整个循环周期。So basically, adaptive evolution enabled the algae population to reestablish itself by delaying the time it took the predator population to recover.因此,适应性进化使得绿藻种群能够通过拖延捕食者种群恢复的时间来重建自己。Understanding the effects of adaptive evolution may help scientists to better understand the behavior of drug-resistant bacteria and outbreaks of disease.对适应性进化影响的了解将会帮助科学家更好的明白抗药菌的行为以及疾病的爆发。201412/348429

The world economy世界经济Weaker than it looks比看起来更糟Growth is healthy in America and Britain. But most of the world economy is in trouble美国和英国正在稳健增长,但世界其他经济体却麻烦不断。FOR the American and British economies it has been a long road out of the woods, but the journey is nearing its end. Americas unemployment rate fell below 6% in September. Britains economy, where output was up 3.2% in the year to June, is growing faster than any other big rich countrys. Central bankers are counting the days until they can raise interest rates.对于美国和英国来说,它们的经济情况离高枕无忧还为时尚早,但至少已经看见希望。美国的失业率在9月份降到了6%一下。英国的经济产出到6月份增加了3.2%,是发达国家中增长的最快的一个。央行已经蠢蠢欲动准备加息了。Virtually everywhere else, however, the news is grim and getting grimmer. The euro zone, the worlds second-biggest economic area, seems to be falling from a feeble recovery back into outright recession as Germany hits the skids. Shockingly weak industrial production and export figures mean Germanys GDP is likely to shrink for the second consecutive quarter—a popular definition of recession. Japan, the worlds third-biggest economy, may also be on the edge of a downturn, because Aprils rise in the consumption tax is hurting spending more than expected. Russias and Brazils economies are stagnant, at best. Even in China, still growing at a suspiciously smooth 7.5% a year, there are worries about a property bust, a credit bubble and a fall in productivity.但在世界其他地方,关于经济情况的新闻一个比一个糟糕。由于德国经济下滑,拖累欧元区这个世界第二大经济区从步履蹒跚的复苏直接退回到衰退之中。工业生产和出口数据出人意料的疲软,这就表明德国的GDP很可能会连续两个季度萎缩——而这是经济衰退的公认定义。日本是世界第三大经济体,也可能处于经济不景气的边缘,因为4月份上调消费税对于出的抑制比想象的更严重。俄罗斯和巴西的经济,就算往好了说也是处于停滞的状态。中国仍然以7.5%的年增长率平稳发展,这个数据值得怀疑,即便如此,其房地产崩溃、信贷泡沫和生产率下降仍然令人担忧。Such a lopsided world economy is unlikely to be stable. Either the weakness outside the Anglo-Saxon world proves temporary, or it will spook financial markets and darken the outlook everywhere. The conventional view is that global growth will strengthen in 2015 as Americas surge buoys other places, and as the recent weakness elsewhere proves temporary. The IMF reckons global growth will rise to 3.8% next year. This newspaper, however, is more worried on two counts. First, todays weakness, especially in the euro area, could last longer than investors expect; and second, the lopsided growth could itself fuel destabilising shifts, particularly in the dollar.如此失衡的世界经济不可能继续保持稳定。要么西方世界以外的其他地区可以明其经济疲软是暂时的,要么金融市场就会受到拖累,令世界各地的前景更加黯淡。传统观点认为,全球各地的经济将会受到美国的提振,在2015年得以巩固,而最近的疲软则是暂时的。国际货币基金组织(IMF)认为,明年的全球增长率将能达到3.8%。然而,本刊对两点表示担忧。第一,今天的疲软现状,尤其是在欧元区,持续时间会比投资者预期的要长;第二,失衡的经济增长本身也可能加速不稳定的转换,尤其是美元。The euro area is in a far bigger mess than the headline figures suggest because its growth has long been flattered by Germany. Italy has been in recession for two years; Frances economy has been stagnant for months. Now that Germany is in trouble, the chances of a Japan-style deflationary spiral have risen sharply. German policymakers remain pigheadedly opposed to the stimulus the euro area needs. Even as their own economy has stalled, they are determined to balance the budget in 2015. They want to force France to cut its deficit, they show little interest in a euro-wide investment scheme, and their opposition explains why the ECB is going so slowly with a bond-buying scheme to address deflation. The quantitative easing that markets expect is months off, if it happens at all.欧元区所处的困境比头条新闻显示的数据更加艰难,因为它的经济增长一直依赖于德国。意大利身陷经济衰退已经两年了;法国经济也连续数月处于停滞状态。现在德国也不行了,因此欧元区很有可能出现类似日本的螺旋式通货紧缩。德国的决策者仍然顽固地反对在欧元区实施刺激措施提振需求。即使德国自己的经济状况已经停滞,他们仍然决定要在2015年平衡预算。他们希望法国能缩减赤字,且对于欧洲范围内的投资计划缺乏兴趣,他们的反对解释了为什么欧洲央行通过购买国债来解决通货紧缩的计划一直进展缓慢。市场预期的量化宽松即便能执行的话,也要等数月之后。The euro zones prospects are grimmest, but other weaklings are also a long way off recovery. In Japan, for instance, the economy is due to get clobbered by another rise in the consumption tax in October 2015. And with commodity prices falling and China slowing, it is hard to see how other emerging economies will accelerate, even if America is growing.欧元区的前景最为黯淡,但其他表现疲弱的经济体也远谈不上复苏。比如在日本,2015年10月将会第二次上调消费税,这很可能再次重挫经济。在物价下降、中国经济增速减缓的情况下,即便美国在增长也很难提振其他新兴经济体。Optimists see the stronger dollar as a simple means to export Americas recovery elsewhere; but that too is more complicated than it first looks. The greenback is certainly on the rise, fuelled by faster growth and the prospects of tighter monetary policy from the Fed. On a trade-weighted basis, it is up 6.3% since July, and is at a six-year high against the yen and two-year high against the euro.It looks likely to go higher: dollar surges tend to stretch over several years.乐观主义者将强势美元视为有利于世界其他地方恢复对美国的出口,但这一点也比表面上更复杂。由于经济快速增长和美联储更为紧缩的货币政策,美元确实在走强。经过贸易加权计算,美国经济自从7月以来增长了6.3%,美元兑日元处于6年来的高位,兑欧元处于2年来的高位。而且看起来美元将在未来几年内还会继续走高。This should be good news for the weaklings: their exporters will get more competitive, while pricier imports will ward off deflation. But it could also bring risks. Currencies have a tendency to overshoot. Firms and governments that have borrowed in dollars in recent years will have to pay more. Dollar borrowing by emerging-market firms has risen dramatically since 2008, to an estimated 70% of total bond issuance. And the temporary boost from a cheaper currency could provide the likes of France, Italy and Brazil (and increasingly Germany) yet another excuse to put off structural reform.这对于疲弱的其他经济体应该是好消息:他们的出口会更有竞争力,同时高价的进口会避免通货紧缩。但这也伴随着风险。货币有失控的趋势,近年借了美元债务的公司和政府将不得不付更多。新兴市场中借贷美元的公司自从2008年以来就越来越多,估计占债券保险总数的70%,更廉价的货币能暂时提振像法国、意大利和巴西(德国也有这样的趋势)等国家的经济,但也令他们有了推迟结构性改革的借口。The prescription for the weaklings is simple: heal thyself. Rather than waiting for America to solve their problems, the laggards should treat the recent spate of bad news as a wake-up call. The ECB should start bond-buying forthwith. The Japanese government should delay the rise in the consumption tax until the economy recovers. Countries that can afford it, notably Germany, should invest in infrastructure. And even America and Britain should be wary, especially over tightening monetary policy too quickly. There is a lot that can go wrong—and they dont want to be dragged back into those woods again.给疲软经济体的良方很简单:自我医治。与其等待美国帮他们解决问题,他们应该将近年来一连串的坏消息视作警示。欧洲央行应该立即开始买债行动。日本政府应该等到经济复苏之后再提升消费税。实力尚存的国家,尤其是德国,应该投资基础设施建设。即使是美国和应该也应该小心谨慎,特别是不要过早紧缩货币政策。随时都有可能出岔子—他们可不想再重新回到经济衰退的悲惨境地。译者:邓小雪 译文属译生译世 /201410/335718

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