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2020年01月20日 11:56:44 | 作者:网上知识 | 来源:新华社
Women who give birth may be biologically ;older; than women who don#39;t, a new study suggests.一项新研究发现,生过孩子的女性在生理上会比那些没有生过的更老。For the study, the researchers analyzed information from 1,556 US women ages 20 to 44 who took part in a national survey from 1999 to 2002, which involved giving blood samples.在该研究中,研究人员们分析了20-44岁之间的1556名美国女性信息,她们参加了1999年至2002年期间的全国调查,并给出了血液样本。The researchers looked at the genetic material inside the women#39;s cells, specifically the length of their telomeres. 研究人员们观察了这些女性细胞内的遗传物质,尤其是她们端粒的长度。These are caps on the ends of chromosomes that protect the chromosomes from damage. 这些位于染色体末端的小帽子能够保护染色体不受损。Telomeres naturally shorten as people age, but the structures don#39;t shorten at the same rate in every person. 人们在变老的过程中,端粒也会自然缩短,但这个结构在每个人身上变短的速度均不同。The longer a person#39;s telomeres are, the more times their cells could hypothetically still divide, research has shown. 一个人的端粒越长,他们的细胞理论上能够分裂的次数就越多。Thus, telomeres are considered a marker of biological age — that is, the age of a person#39;s cells, rather than the individual#39;s chronological age.并且,端粒也被科学家们视为生理年龄的标记,即一个人的细胞年龄,而不是他们的实际年龄。Women in the survey who said they#39;d given birth to at least one child had telomeres that were about 4 percent shorter, on average, than those of women who#39;d never given birth. 在研究中,至少生过一个孩子的女性端粒长度平均比那些未生产过的女性短百分之四。The findings held even after the researchers took into account other factors that could affect telomere length, including the women#39;s chronological age, body mass index and smoking habits.即便研究人员们考虑了其它能影响端粒长度的因素(比如她们的实际年龄、身体质量指数和吸烟习惯),这些发现依旧站得住脚。These findings suggest that a ;history of live birth may be associated with shorter telomeres,; 这些发现表明生产史可能与更短的端粒之间存在着联系。The researchers wrote in their abstract, which was presented at the meeting of the American Public Health Association in Denver.该研究的概述在美国公共卫生协会于丹佛市举办的会议上发布。The study was not designed to determine the reason behind the link, the researchers said. 该研究并未探究这一联系背后的原因,But one hypothesis is that having children increases stress levels, and high stress has been linked with shorter telomeres, the scientists said.但有猜测认为生孩子会增加女性的压力,而高压与更短的端粒有关。;It is possible that pregnancy, birth and child-rearing can induce chronic stress, leading to shorter telomere length perhaps through an inflammatory pathway,; said study researcher Anna Pollack, an assistant professor and environmental and reproductive epidemiologist at George Mason University. 美国乔治梅森大学的助教、生态环境与生殖流行病学家安娜.波莱克参与了该研究,她表示:有可能怀、生产和抚养孩子带来了慢性压力,并通过炎症通路缩短了端粒长度。However, because the survey was conducted at a single point in time, the researchers cannot determine which came first in the women#39;s lives — giving birth or having shorter telomeres, Pollack said. 然而,由于调查是在某个时间点开展的,研究人员们无法确定生孩子与更短的端粒长度之间,哪一个先出现。It#39;s also possible that for some yet-unknown reason, women with shorter telomeres are more likely than women with longer ones to have children, Pollack said.波莱克说,有可能出于某些未知的原因,端粒更短的女性比端粒更长的女性更有可能生孩子。More studies are needed that follow women over time and measure the length of their telomeres before, during and after pregnancy, she said.她说,还需要进一步的追踪研究来确定女性的端粒在生孩子之前、怀期间和产后的长度。;It would be interesting to see how telomere length changes during pregnancy, after birth and during the child-rearing years, and how these changes compare to women who do not have children,; Pollack said.波莱克说:观察端粒长度在期、产后和养育孩子过程中的变化,并将其与没有生过孩子的女性比较是一件非常有趣的事情。 /201611/478328Inviting Grandma over for dinner may actually extend her life - and increase its quality - a new study shows.一项新研究表明,邀请奶奶过来吃晚饭可能会延长她的寿命,并提高她的生活质量。Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco found that loneliness plays a large role in the decline so often associated with old age. The study followed 1,600 adults, with an average age of 71 - despite controlling for socioeconomic status and health, the lonely consistently held higher mortality rates. Nearly 23% of lonely participants died within six years of the study, as opposed to only 14% of those that reported adequate companionship.旧金山加利福尼亚大学的研究员们发现:孤独在与老年人相关的衰老中扮演重要角色。该研究对1600名成年人进行了调查——平均年龄为71岁——尽管控制了社会经济状态和健康,孤独参试者的死亡率始终较高。近23%的孤独参试者在研究开展的6年内离世,而报告称只有14%的人享有足够多的陪伴。;The need we#39;ve had our entire lives - people who know us, value us, who bring us joy - that never goes away,; Barbara Moscowitz, senior geriatric social worker at Massachusetts General Hospital, explained to The New York Times.“我们一生都会有这样的需要——希望那些了解我们、尊重我们、给我们带来欢乐的人永远不会离开,”芭芭拉#8226;莫斯科维茨在接受《纽约时报》的采访时说道。她是马萨诸塞州总医院的高级老年社会工作者。The elderly place great value in those relationships, so much so that they often overlook a great deal more than their children or even their grandchildren do. It comes down to important relational skills, Rosemary Blieszner, a professor of human development at Virginia Tech, told The New York Times - skills that our grandparents have had a lifetime to hone.老年人对这些关系十分重视,以至于他们盼望自己的孩子甚至是孙子/女比儿子辈或孙子辈盼望他们要多得多。说到底,就是重要的关系技能,弗吉尼亚理工大学人类发展学教授罗斯玛丽#8226;布利兹纳在接受《纽约时报》采访时说道——也就是祖父/母一辈子都在磨炼的技能。;They#39;re pretty tolerant of friends#39; imperfections and idiosyncrasies, more than young adults,; she said. ;You bring a lot more experience to your friendships when you#39;re older. You know what#39;s worth fighting about and not worth fighting about.;“相比年轻的成年人,他们对朋友的缺陷和癖好更能容忍,”她说道。“年老时,你会给自己的朋友带来更多体验。你知道什么值得争取,什么不值得争取。”Beyond inviting our older relatives and friends into our homes, it#39;s important to encourage elderly relationships - which is why, despite popular belief, older folks tend to thrive in independent or assisted living environments. These living arrangements provide more ways to mingle, to connect, to thrive.除了邀请上了岁数的亲戚和朋友来家里叙旧,鼓励老年人相互建立友谊也很重要——撇开普通人的想法,这就是为什么老年人往往会在独立或有帮助的生存环境中活的开心的原因。因为这些生活安排为他们提供更多的方式去社交、接触、繁荣。Spending quality time with Grandma and Grandpa helps them, but it benefits us, as well - the symbiotic relationship is undeniable. They get the companionship and conversation so crucial to every day life, and we get their stories, their hugs and, best of all, those famous, secret recipe cookies.与祖父祖母一起度过美好时光既能帮助他们,又能使我们受益匪浅,同时——共生关系是不可否认的。他们得到了对日常生活至关重要的陪伴和交流,我们则获得了他们的故事、拥抱、最棒的是还能得到那些好吃饼干的秘方。译文属 /201701/487204

The sales pitch that ;Are you sure you want a tall-sized cup of Starbucks coffee?; has gone viral recently on Chinese social media Wechat after a loyal customer of the global coffee chain expressed dissatisfaction to its serving attitude online.在一位星巴克的金卡顾客在网上公开发文表达对星巴克务态度的不满之后,关于星巴克中杯咖啡的段子“您确定您要中杯咖啡么?”便在微信朋友圈迅速流行开来。Lin Guotong posted on Wechat on Sunday that he was asked twice when ordering a tall-sized cup of coffee at Starbucks by a waiter: ;Are you sure you want tall?; and ;Tall is the smallest size here we have?;林国童在上周日在微信上发文声讨,称自己去星巴克买中杯咖啡时被店员连问两遍:“您确定是中杯吗”“中杯是我们最小的杯型哦”。Lin said he has been a gold membership of Starbucks since 2010 when he bought 30 cups of coffee there at a time.林国童表示自己早在2010年就因为一次性买了三十杯咖啡而成为星巴克的金卡顾客。;I#39;m a loyal customer of Starbucks, having once bought over 200 cups of coffee in one year. But still they would consistently question me about size and recommend larger options,; he said.“我是店内的金卡老顾客,一年内能买两百多杯咖啡。但店员还总是一直追问我的杯型选择,还进行大杯的低端推销,这让我特别不舒。”他说道。He complained about it to Starbucks China CEO Wang Jingying that ;As a gold member of Starbucks (qualified when buy 25 cups of coffee in one year) since 2012, I don#39;t need this kind of service and don#39;t deserve staff questioning my choice.;林国童在文章中对星巴克中国CEO王静瑛隔空喊话:“作为一个2012年开始就持有金卡的老顾客(星巴克里级别最高的一种会员卡,需要在一年里消费满25杯才能拥有),务员不应该质疑我的杯型选择,更不应该再对我进行这么低端的推销。”The message soon circulated on Wechat rapidly and caused heated discussion. The post had been over 500,000 times with 3,000 comments.这篇文章一经发表便在朋友圈迅速发酵,引来各种各样的讨论。该文章的阅读量已经超过了50万次、有3000多条留言。Netizens have different opinions. Some think that such a selling method is normal and should not anger anyone, while others have conveyed discontent over Starbucks services saying that behavior like repeatedly promoting extra products and reciting indifferent promotion lines really bore them.网友们对此持不同意见。一些人认为这种营销手段稀疏平常,没必要对此大惊小怪。而另外一些人则也向星巴克表达了自己的不满,认为这种低端促销咖啡的手段令自己感到非常恼火。Ordering tall sized coffee at Starbucks suddenly becomes popular. Some customers even intentionally go to buy tall sized coffee only to see how staff react.此事一出,星巴克的中杯咖啡一时间颇受消费者青睐。还有不少消费者特意赶到星巴克的门店里,点一杯中杯咖啡,就是为了看看店员的反应。The effect on social media soon aroused attention of Starbucks China. Lin received a call as well as an email from the company, promising that they would improve their service and provide better experience to customers.此次事件在社交网络上的影响很快引起了星巴克中国的回应。林国童于晚些时候受到了该公司的电话以及邮件形式的回复,并且星巴克承诺将提高务质量,争取让顾客拥有愉快的消费体验。Starbucks further explained that questioning customer#39;s choice serves only to confirm their order and means nothing more.此外,星巴克还解释称,询问顾客的杯型选择,只是为了确定他们的订单,并无其他目的。 /201611/480715

What went wrong?出了什么问题?Don’t worry: it happened to all of us before. Even if you spent time looking for the right shade and brand, it can sometimes end up wrong. There can be various reasons behind the problem that you can keep in mind for the next coloring process.不要担心:我们所有人之前都遇到过这个问题。即使你花费了很长时间寻找合适的牌子,但是结果有时候仍是会出现问题。问题背后的原因可能多种多样,在你下次选择染发过程的时候要牢记这一问题。Most often, there is a problem with the development period of the hair dye. If you would like to go from really light to dark, you don’t have to leave it on for as long (and sometimes hair dye descriptions fail to mention that).通常来说,染发剂的着色过程会有问题。如果你想从浅色变成深色,你不必等很长时间(而且有时候染发剂的说明书也没有提到这一点。)Similarly, if your hair is very damaged or has been processed (lightened, permanently straightened), the dye will probably need less time.同样地,如果你的头发受到了很严重的损伤,或者已经被处理过了(染了较浅的颜色,永久性拉直),染发可能会需要较短的时间。The Right Shampoo合适的洗发水Probably the easiest and less damaging way to get your hair color a bit lighter is to use a lightening or clarifying shampoo. If your hair is only one shade darker than desired, this can solve the issue for you. Because these products have a deep-cleansing effect, they can tone down the darkness better than regular shampoos.坑你最简单和最不伤害头发的方式就是把头发染成浅色,使用亮发或者澄清洗发水。如果你的头发只是比你预期的颜色稍微深一点,那这就能解决你的问题。因为这些产品有很强的清洁效果,这些洗发水比其他常规的洗发水,能更好地褪掉深色的染发剂。You can use it like a normal shampoo: leave it on your head for a few minutes, then gently wash off. Repeat the process a few times for better results, but to cure the possible drying effect of using too much deep-cleanse, apply a nourishing conditioner to the ends of your hair.你可以像正常的洗发水一样使用它们:把洗发水放涂在头上几分钟之后,轻轻洗干净。为了达到更好的效果,可以重复几次这一过程,但是为了防治使用过多深度清洁洗发水导致的头发干燥,可以将滋养的护发素涂在你头发的发尾处。Dye Remover染色去除剂Bigger changes require more efficiency. If you are totally freaked out by your dark hair and would like an immediate solution, you can try hair dye removers.更大的变化需要更多的效果。如果你完全被你深色的头发吓到了,想要立刻解决,你可以使用头发染色去除剂。Don’t forget that color removers won’t change your hair back to its original color (unfortunately, it will take a longer time to get back the natural shade of your hair).不要忘了染色去除剂不会让你的头发恢复到原始的颜色(不幸的是,这需要花费更长的时间恢复到你头发的天然颜色)。 /201702/494132

Bamboo Articles竹器The styles of bamboo articles vary from place to place. The bamboo articles in Zhejiang have superb forms,made with slender bamboo strips as the body and wider bamboo strips as handles. Not only are they strong end durable, but also their different tints and widths produce diverse artistic effects. The bamboo articles in Fujian province have more than ten different patterns including the Cross pattern and the flowering crabapple pattern,often tinged with gold or other colors to make it look more pretty.竹器的款式因地而异。竹器在浙江拥有极好的形式,用细竹条做机身和用宽竹篾为手柄。它们不仅坚固耐用,而且它们不同的色和宽度会产生不同的艺术效果。福建省的竹制品有超过十个不同的模式,包括十字架图案和海棠图案,往往略带金色或其他颜色,使其看起来更加漂亮。 /201610/468111

During Plant Week, my Kindergarten students learn all about the importance of plants in our lives, the different kinds of plants in our area, and (their favorite) how plants grow. Each student got their very own little terra cotta planter and were shown how to fill them with dirt, plant seeds, and water them.时值种植周,幼儿园的学生们学习了植物在我们生活中的重要性、我们所生活的区域生长的各种植物,他们最感兴趣的部分便是,植物是如何生长的。每个学生都发有一个小的陶土种植盆,用来教他们装土,播种,浇水。So we did our activity in the classroom, they filled them up with dirt, they had so much putting the seeds in, and the next step was to take them just outside of classroom and water each of them before we went to recess.我们在教室里进行了一项活动,他们把自己的小盆里放满土,然后播种,接下来我们就要出教室来逐个盆浇水然后再休息。One student in particular, bless his heart, was still a little behind on his motor skills, and pretty much flooded his planter when trying to water it.其中有个学生,劳作技能相比其他同学稍显逊色,因为他浇水过量,他暗暗地祈祷自己的植物能正常的发芽。His classmates snickered, of course, which really upset him, and I had to intervene and assure him that he would be able to redo his flower pot when we came back from recess. Well, little did we all know that his pot was going to have an unexpected sprout.当然,其他同学都偷偷嘲笑他,这让他很难过。我不得不介入并安慰了他,然后向他保休息时间过后,让他重新播种。然而,我们都不知道他的花盆出乎意料的“发芽”了。Of course, being late spring in Mississippi, it was an especially hot afternoon. So as we were approaching our door from recess, which takes us right past their flower pots, I hear this thrilled ;Miss Welch, Miss Welch!! Look what#39;s coming out of my flower pot!!;...在晚春的密西西比州,天气愈发的燥热起来。我们休息以后走到教室门边,那里正好放着之前播种的花盆,我听到一阵喊叫:“韦尔奇老师,韦尔奇老师!快看!我的花盆里有什么!”Being that it had only been about an hour since we planted the seeds, I had NO idea what I was about to see. But there it was, a goofy frog head poking out of the 70% cool water-30% dirt mixture of his flower pot.那是我们一个小时前才种下的种子,我完全想象不出来里有什么好看的。但是确实有值得一看的东西,只见从7比3水土混合的花盆里透出一只蠢萌的青蛙头。Somehow that frog found his way into his flower pot to cool off on that hot day, and his flower pot, which initially was the butt of his classmates jokes, was now main attraction for the rest of the day.天气这么热那只青蛙也许只是想在他的花盆里凉快一下。之前还被同学们嘲笑的花盆,现在(因为那只青蛙)成了瞩目的焦点。The frog was gone the next day, but my student didn#39;t want to redo his flower pot... he did, however, put fresh water in it everyday ;just in case the froggy wanted to come back and cool off;... Precious, such a sweetheart第二天青蛙不见了,那个学生却没有重新播种,而且他还每天放新鲜的水。想着小呱呱可能还会想回来乘凉,真是个少见又贴心的孩子呢。 /201704/506018

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