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三明市做包皮手术大概多少钱福州市弱精费用Russia-Georgia Conflict Puts Turkey in Vulnerable Position俄格冲突令土耳其处于尴尬境地 The Russia-Georgia conflict has put Turkey in a tight spot. Will Turkey side with the ed States, its NATO ally, and let more U.S. military ships into the Black Sea to assist Georgia? Or will it choose Russia which also shares a Black Sea coast with Turkey? Ever since Turkey joined NATO in 1952, it has hoped to never have to make a choice between the alliance and its Russian neighbor to the north. 俄罗斯和格鲁吉亚的冲突把土耳其置于尴尬的处境。土耳其会持其北约盟友美国,允许更多美国军舰进入黑海为格鲁吉亚提供援助呢?还是会选择持跟土耳其共享同一片黑海海域的俄罗斯呢?自从土耳其1952年加入北约以来,土耳其一直希望永远不要在北约盟国和北边的邻国俄罗斯之间做出抉择。Turkey has been playing the role of mediator between various parties in the region: the ed States and Iran; Israel and Syria; Pakistan and Afghanistan. But as more U.S. warships pass through the narrow Turkish-controlled strait into the Black Sea to deliver aid to Georgia, a time for choosing sides may have arrived. 土耳其一直在该地区各方之间扮演调停人的角色,包括美国和伊朗之间,以色列和叙利亚之间,以及巴基斯坦和阿富汗之间。不过,随着越来越多的美国军舰通过土耳其控制的狭长海峡进入黑海,给格鲁吉亚送去援助物资,土耳其要在美国和俄罗斯之间做出选择的时刻可能已经到来了。Last weekend, U.S. warships used the Turkish straits to deliver aid to Georgia. A Russian official condemned the move and warned Turkey it was obliged to enforce the rules of an agreement that gives a 21 day limit on any warship from a country that does not border the Black Sea.  上个周末,美国军舰通过土耳其控制的海峡给格鲁吉亚运送援助。俄罗斯官员谴责了这一行动,并警告土耳其必须执行一项协议,对非黑海沿岸国家的军舰进入黑海实行21天的限期。The Turkish government is responsible for policing the 32-kilometer Bosporus, the only route for ships traveling to the Black Sea, under the Montreux agreement of 1936. The Bosporus provides sole access for ships to Georgia's Black Sea ports. 根据1936年签订的蒙特勒协议,土耳其政府负责管辖32公里长的斯普鲁斯海峡,这是船只进入黑海的唯一通道。斯普鲁斯海峡也是船只抵达格鲁吉亚黑海各港口的唯一入口。International relations expert Soli Ozel of Istanbul's Bilgi University said this has put Turkey in a precarious position. 伊斯坦布尔比尔基大学国际关系专家厄泽尔表示,这种情况将土耳其置于危险的境地。"Turkey is a NATO member and is also a neighbor of Georgia's and great supporter of Georgia both economically and militarily," he said. "And Turkey controls the passage from and to the Black Sea. Therefore whatever happens next Turkey is going to find itself impacted by the developments." 厄泽尔说:“土耳其是北约成员国,也是格鲁吉亚的邻国,从经济和军事方面都是格鲁吉亚重要的持者。土耳其又控制着进出黑海的通道。因此,接下来不论发生什么情况,土耳其都会发现自己受到事态发展的连累。”Also at stake is Turkey's trade relations with Russia. Turkey's trades more goods with Russia than any other country, mostly because of Turkey's dependence on Russian gas.  土耳其跟俄罗斯的贸易关系也将受到威胁。土耳其跟俄罗斯的商品进出口贸易超过任何其它国家,这主要因为土耳其依赖俄罗斯的天然气。"We have very good economic relations with Russia," said Ozel. "Our trade is over billion and we are overly dependent on Russian gas at 64 percent and 40 percent for Russia oil." 厄泽尔说:“我们跟俄罗斯的经济关系非常好。两国之间的年贸易额超过100亿美元,我们大量依赖俄罗斯的天然气和石油,我们从俄罗斯进口64%的天然气和40%的石油。”Turkey has been trying to boost trade with Moscow as it struggles with a current account deficit that's growing as energy costs soar. 能源出的不断高涨使土耳其国际收中的经常帐户出现逆差。为了扭转贸易赤字,土耳其一直争取增加跟俄罗斯的贸易。But Russia has introduced new custom regulations which, according to the Turkish trade minister Kursad Tuzmen, could cost Turkey as much as billion. Tuzmen attacked the regulations as political, saying Moscow may be punishing it for allowing the U.S. ships to pass through the Bosporus.  不过,据土耳其贸易部长图兹曼介绍,俄罗斯实行了新的海关规定,可能让土耳其成本增加30亿美元。图兹曼抨击这项新的海关规定有政治目的,他说莫斯科可能利用新的海关规定对土耳其允许美国军舰通过斯普鲁斯海峡进行惩罚。Tuzman said that on September 1 Turkey will impose curbs on Russian exports and withdraw support for its membership of the World Trade Organization. 图兹曼说,土耳其将于9月1号开始对从俄罗斯进口的商品实行限制,并且不再持俄罗斯加入世界贸易组织。But a Turkish diplomatic source said that Ankara is determined not to be drawn into the conflict. Much of the Turkish media is also calling for a neutral stance. 不过土耳其外交消息人士说,安卡拉决心不卷入这场冲突。大多数土耳其媒体都呼吁土耳其保持中立。With the Turkish prime minister visiting Moscow and Tbilisi, Ankara is now working hard to secure peace. Soli Ozel doesn't believe such efforts have much chance of success, but still thinks they are important. 土耳其总理访问了莫斯科和第比利斯,极力维护和平。厄泽尔认为,这些努力不大可能成功,但他仍然认为这些努力非常重要。"For the moment I see it as an empty shell and as a good will gesture. If anything comes out of it will be good, and if nothing comes out of it no one will blame Turkey," said Ozel. "It is better than what the Europeans can and would do anyway." 厄泽尔说:“从现在看,我认为这些努力只是空架子,是一种友善的姿态。如果有结果的话那当然好,如果没有任何结果,谁也不能责怪土耳其,总比欧洲人能够和愿意做的那些好。”This weekend Georgia's foreign minister, Eka Tkeshelashvili, is due to visit Turkey, while his Russian counterpart, Sergey Lavrov, is expected next week. While few people give little chance of any breakthrough, experts say the real motive behind such efforts is for Turkey to balance its relations between Russia and the West. But with another U.S. warship headed to the Black Sea this weekend, those efforts are predicted to get increasingly difficult. 格鲁吉亚外长特克舍拉什维利定于这个周末访问土耳其,俄罗斯外长拉夫罗夫则于下星期到土耳其访问。尽管几乎没有人认为这些访问会取得任何突破,但是专家认为,对于土耳其来说,这类努力背后的真正动机是平衡同俄罗斯和西方国家之间的关系。不过,这个周末又有一艘美国军舰将驶入黑海,预计,上述努力会遇到越来越大的难度。200808/46915龙岩激素六项检查大概多少钱 US Recognizes Kosovo, Reaffirms Friendship With Serbia美国和欧洲几盟国承认科索沃独立The ed States joined major European allies in recognizing the independence of Kosovo from Serbia. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said recognition is the only viable option to promote stability in the region. 美国和欧洲主要盟国一起承认科索沃从塞尔维亚独立,美国国务卿赖斯说,承认科索沃独立是促进地区稳定的唯一可行选择。U.S. recognition of Kosovo came as no surprise, since the Bush administration strongly supported last year's plan of U.N. envoy Martti Ahtisaari to give the breakaway Serbian province internationally-supervised independence. 美国承认科索沃并不出人意料,因为布什政府坚决持联合国特使阿赫蒂萨里去年提出的计划,让脱离塞尔维亚的科索沃省在国际监督下独立。In a written statement that followed recognition announcements by several U.S. European allies, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said independence is the only viable option for stability, given the region's turbulent history. 在几个欧洲盟国宣布承认科索沃独立后,美国国务卿赖斯在一份书面声明中说,从这个地区动荡历史来看,独立是实现稳定的唯一可行选择。Rice rejected the notion advanced by Russia and others that Kosovo independence will spur other secessionist movements, saying it cannot be seen as a precedent elsewhere. 俄罗斯等国说,科索沃独立将激励其他分离主义运动,赖斯反驳说,不能把科索沃独立看成是为其他地方开辟了先例。She said the unusual combination of factors in Kosovo's recent history, including ethnic-cleansing against its ethnic-Albanian majority, are not found elsewhere and make it a special case.  赖斯说,科索沃近代史上独特的综合因素,包括对在科索沃占多数的阿尔巴尼亚族裔的种族清洗,并没有发生在其他地方,这是一个特殊例子。At the same time, Rice reaffirmed U.S. friendship with Serbia and urged Belgrade - which bitterly opposed independence - to work with the ed States and its EU partners on shared goals including the protection of Kosovo's Serb minority. 与此同时,赖斯重申了美国对塞尔维亚的友谊,她敦促坚决反对科索沃独立的贝尔格莱德和美国以及欧盟夥伴国合作,实现保护科索沃塞族少数民族等共同目标。[In Belgrade, Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica told parliament the U.S. continues a policy of using force against his country, and ordered the ambassador, Ivan Bujacic, to return home.]In a telephone conference call with reporters, Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs Nicholas Burns stressed the U.S. interest in good relations with Serbia and in helping Belgrade - a diplomatic outcast since the 1990's Balkans conflict - find a future with Europe: 美国国务院负责政治事务的国务次卿伯恩斯强调,美国愿意和塞尔维亚保持友好关系,并且愿意帮助贝尔格莱德在欧洲找到前途。自从1990年代巴尔干冲突以来,贝尔格莱德遭到外交排斥。伯恩斯说: "We see Serbia as part of Europe and we know that the Balkans is the last part of Europe that has not received the benefits of the end of the Cold War, economic or political," said Nicholas Burns. "Yugoslavia had to break up, and it did, and this is the last vestige of the former Yugoslavia - the fact that Kosovo has now become free and independent. Now we hope the Serb people, the Kosovars, the Bosnians, the Montenegrins, the Croatians, Albanians, Macedonians - all of them - can look towards a future in Europe, and that is with the EU and NATO." “我们把塞尔维亚看成是欧洲的一部分,我们知道巴尔干地区是在冷战结束后没有得到经济或是政治好处的最后一个欧洲地区。南斯拉夫不得不分裂,后来分裂了。而科索沃宣布独立使得南斯拉夫解体彻底完成。现在我们希望塞尔维亚人、科索沃人、波斯尼亚人、黑山人、克罗地亚人、阿尔巴尼亚人和马其顿人,所有的人一起展望在欧洲的未来,也就是加入欧盟和北约。” Burns said Rice, in Africa with President Bush, telephoned Serbian President Boris Tadic to stress that theme Sunday and also talked to Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, whose government has called Kosovo's independence move illegal. 伯恩斯说,正和布什总统在非洲访问的赖斯国务卿星期天打电话给塞尔维亚总统塔迪奇,强调了这个主题,赖斯还和俄罗斯外长拉夫罗夫通了话。俄罗斯政府称科索沃独立是非法行动。The under-secretary said the Bush administration has been deferential to Russia and delayed recognizing Kosovo to allow for more negotiations between Serbia and the Kosovars co-chaired by Moscow, the ed States, and European Union, the so-called Troika. 伯恩斯国务次卿说,布什政府尊重俄罗斯的意见,曾经推迟承认科索沃的独立,以便让塞尔维亚和科索沃之间进行更多的谈判。这些谈判由莫斯科、美国和欧盟联合主持,被称作是三驾马车。He said when those talks failed late last year, it was time to move ahead on recognition, but he expects no fundamental rift with Moscow that will harm other areas of U.S.-Russian cooperation: 伯恩斯说,去年谈判失败后,就应该承认科索沃独立,可是他不希望和莫斯科有根本上的分歧,以免影响美俄在其他领域的合作。"For countries to say somehow this [recognition] is a shock, or that this is not a correct step politically or legally, we just fundamentally disagree with that point," said Burns. "So I do not expect any kind of crisis with Russia over this. We expect the Russians to be supportive of stability in the region. And I think that all of us are going to be requesting that people remain calm, and that the Kosovar authorities be allowed to establish this government and to move forward." 他说:“有些国家说,承认科索沃独立令人震惊,或者不是正确的政治和法律步骤,我们根本不同意这种观点。我不希望和俄罗斯在这个问题上产生危机,我们希望俄罗斯人持那个地区的稳定。我认为,我们要求大家保持冷静,让科索沃当局成立政府,向前迈进。” Burns stressed that the 17,000 - member NATO force in Kosovo, which includes 1,600 U.S. troops, will remain indefinitely along with European Union police to assure security and protect the interests of the ethnic-Serbs. 伯恩斯强调,由1万7千人组成的北约驻科索沃部队,其中包括1600名美国军人,要无限期地留在那里,和欧盟警察一起确保该地区安全以及保护塞尔维亚少数民族的利益。He said the ed States and European partners are planning a donor's conference for Kosovo in the coming months to support the newly-independent government and that it can expect 5 million in bilateral U.S. aid for 2008, a four-fold increase over last year.  伯恩斯说,美国和欧盟夥伴国正计划组织捐赠会议,在今后几个月里为新独立的科索沃政府提供持,预计2008年科索沃将得到美国3亿3千5百万美元的援助,比去年的援助增加4倍。200802/27460Car Bomb Kills 17 in Syrian Capital大马士革汽车炸弹炸死至少17人 A car bomb has exploded in the Syrian capital, Damascus, killing at least 17 people and wounding 14 others. The target of the blast was not immediately clear.叙利亚首都大马士革发生汽车炸弹爆炸事件,造成至少17人死亡,14人受伤。目前还不清楚这次爆炸针对的目标是谁。Syrian state television says the vehicle, packed with 200 kilograms of explosives, went off Saturday near a crowded intersection, leading to the holy shrine of Sayyeda Zeinab, popular with Shi'ite Muslim pilgrims.叙利亚国家媒体报道说,星期六,这辆载有200公斤炸药的汽车在一个拥挤的交叉路口爆炸。这条路通往什叶派穆斯林常去的赛义达泽纳布圣殿。Shi'ite pilgrims from both Iraq and Iran frequent the shrine, and a tour-bus was reportedly damaged by the explosion.来自伊拉克和伊朗的什叶派穆斯林经常到那里去。据报道,一辆观光巴士被炸毁。Eyewitnesses say the explosion created a large crater in the road, and that nearly 20 vehicles were destroyed. Windows from dozens of nearby buildings were also blown out and shards of glass littered the area.目击者说,爆炸把路面炸出一个大坑,炸毁了至少20辆汽车。附近几十座建筑的玻璃都被震碎,碎玻璃散落四处。One man, who lives in the neighborhood, describes what happened to Syrian Television.一个住在附近的男子向叙利亚电视台描述了当时的状况。"It felt like an earthquake," this man says, "so we went outside to see what happened. Our entire building was damaged, and five of my family members are at the hospital."他说:“感觉好像地震,所以我们跑到外边看看出了什么事。我们整栋建筑都被炸毁了,我家有5个人在医院里。”A Syrian police precinct borders the site of the explosion, and may have been a possible target, but most of the victims were reportedly civilians.一个叙利亚警察分局就在爆炸地点旁边,有可能是爆炸目标,但是据报道,大部分遇难者是平民。Syrian security forces immediately closed off the neighborhood to investigate the cause of the bombing. Syria's Interior Minister Bassam Abd al-Megid is calling the bombing an "act of terrorism."叙利亚安全部队立刻封锁了这个地区,调查爆炸起因。叙利亚内政部长马吉德说这个事件是“恐怖行动”。"It was a cowardly act," he says. "We are investigating, and we have dispatched our anti-terrorist squad, to figure out the cause." He says it is not yet known who was behind the bombing, but we will ultimately find out.他说,“这是懦弱的行动。我们正在调查。我们已经派出反恐小组查找原因。”他说还不清楚是谁策划了这次爆炸,但我们最终会找出来。Neighboring Iraq has witnessed a plethora of explosions targeting Shi'ite religious shrines in recent years, and Syria reportedly houses close to two million Iraqi refugees.临近的伊拉克近几年也发生过针对什叶派圣殿的爆炸攻击。据报道,叙利亚收容了将近200万伊拉克难民。Another car bomb, in February, killed Hezbollah terrorist Imad Mughniyah in a residential neighborhood of Damascus. Syrian officials accused Israel of the killing, but Israel denied responsibility. 今年2月发生的一起汽车爆炸在大马士革一个居民区炸死了真主党恐怖分子穆尼亚。叙利亚官员指责是以色列所为,但以色列否认对这次事件负责。Mughniyeh, was implicated in deadly attacks against Western and Israeli targets in the 1980s and '90s.穆尼亚涉嫌在上个世纪80年代和90年代对西方国家和以色列展开过致命袭击。A key advisor to President Bashar al-Assad was also killed in the port city of Tartous, in August, but no one claimed responsibility. And an advisor to Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal was assassinated under mysterious circumstances, two weeks ago.今年8月,叙利亚总统阿萨德的一位重要顾问在港口城市塔尔图斯被炸死,但没有人出面承担责任。两个星期前,激进组织哈马斯领导人马沙尔的一位顾问在神秘的情况下被刺杀。Israeli agents attempted to kill Meshaal, who is now based in Damascus, in 1997, in the Jordanian capital, Amman.以色列情报组织曾经在1997年试图在约旦首都安曼刺杀马沙尔。马沙尔现在住在大马士革。200809/50857龙岩去那家医院检查胎停

福建检查不孕去那好三明市看无精症那家医院好 Japan Extends Economic Sanctions Against North Korea日本宣布对北韩经济制裁延长半年 Japan has extended economic sanctions against North Korea, citing the reclusive country's lack of progress on an international nuclear disarmament agreement. The extension of sanctions comes as six-party nuclear talks continue to stall. 日本延长了对北韩的经济制裁期限,理由是这个封闭自守的国家在执行解除核武装的国际协议方面缺乏进展。日本是在朝核六方会谈仍陷于停顿的情况下延长有关制裁的。 Japan's economic sanctions against Pyongyang will remain in place for another six months. They were first imposed in October 2006 after North Korea infuriated the international community by testing a nuclear device. That same month it also test-fired a long-range missile. 日本对北韩的经济制裁将延长六个月。有关制裁是2006年十月开始行使的,之前北韩进行的一项核武器试验激怒了国际社会。同在2006年十月,北韩还试射了一枚远程导弹。Japan's top government spokesman, Chief Cabinet Secretary Nobutaka Machimura, said North Korea has failed to fully account for all of its nuclear activities, as stipulated in an international agreement to end its nuclear program. 日本人政府的首席发言人、日本内阁官房长官町村信孝说,北韩没有遵照中止本国核项目的国际协议规定,没有全面汇报本国所有的核活动。Machimura said the sanctions are meant to demonstrate Japan's resolve to seek a comprehensive resolution of the nuclear and missile issues.  町村信孝说:“有关制裁旨在展示日本寻求全面解决核武器及导弹问题的决心。”He noted that Tokyo is prepared to end part or all of the sanctions if North Korea takes action to resolve those issues, and settle a long-standing abduction dispute that has prevented the two from forging diplomatic relations for decades.  他指出,如果北韩采取行动解决那些问题并解决引发长期争端的绑架问题,那么日本当局准备部分或全面中止制裁,有关绑架的争端几十年来一直阻挠两国建立外交关系。The six party talks on resolving the North Korea nuclear dispute has made progress, but the discussions have stalled pending North Korea's full accounting of its nuclear activities, including the plutonium that was used to power its first nuclear test blast in 2006.  朝核六方会谈取得了一些进展,但是北韩至今尚未全面说明本国所有的核活动,包括为它2006年第一次核试爆提供动力的金属钸的问题,有关会谈因而陷于停顿。 Pyongyang has received energy and economic aid in return for complying with disarmament steps, but has not yet complied with a declaration agreement that was due at the end of 2007. 平壤得到了能源和经济援助,作为它同意采取解除本国核武装步骤的回报,但是北韩至今尚未遵行呈交核活动完整清单的协议,根据协议,北韩应在2007 年年底前交出这份清单。Tomohito Shinoda is a professor of politics at the International University of Japan. He says Japan is especially sensitive to the threat of North Korea's nuclear and ballistic missile program because it is so close to its militaristic neighbor. 日本国际大学政治科学系副教授信田友仁说,日本对北韩的核弹及弹道导弹项目构成的威胁特别敏感,因为日本是北韩这个有军事野心国家的近邻。"Many Japanese experts believe that their nuclear weapons could be targeted to American forces in Japan," he said. 信田友仁说:“许多日本专家认为,北韩的核武器可能针对驻日美军。”In 1998, North Korea shocked the world by launching a long-range ballistic missile that flew over Japan before falling into the ocean. The ed States and Japan have been working since then to strengthen Japan's defense mechanisms in case of an attack by North Korea. 1998年,北韩发射远程弹道导弹的行动震惊世界,这枚导弹在坠入海洋前飞越了日本上空。美国和日本从那时以来一直努力加强日本防务机制,以便对付北韩可能发动的袭击。A lack of progress on resolving the abduction dispute between North Korea and Japan is another reason why Tokyo is extending the sanctions. Machimura reiterated that Japan would not establish diplomatic relations until the issue is resolved.  北韩和日本之间旷日持久的绑架纠纷不得解决也是东京延长制裁的另一个原因。町村信孝重申,日本在绑架问题尚未解决前不会与北韩建立外交关系。North Korea admitted in 2002 that it kidnapped 13 Japanese nationals in the 1970's and 80's to train its spies. Five have returned to Japan, and Pyongyang says the other eight are dead. Japan says North Korea must provide more information about its citizens, and says others may have been kidnapped, but Pyongyang considers the case closed. 北韩2002年承认曾经为了训练本国间谍而在上世纪七十年代和八十年代绑架了十三名日本人。其中五人已返回日本,平壤说,另外八人已经死亡。日本表示,北韩必须提供有关这些日本公民的更多信息,并说可能还有其他人也曾被绑架,但是北韩却认为有关案件已经结案。 200804/34377福州做输卵管疏通去那比较好

福州做第三代试管婴儿那个医院好Analysts Say Economic Crisis Started with Bad Housing Loans美经济危机最大原因为缺少监管? The economic crisis has sp into many areas of the U.S. economy--banks, investment firms, insurance companies, and even the oil markets. Experts seem to agree that the trouble started with bad loans in the housing industry, and grew into a widesp crisis of confidence. 美国的经济危机已经扩散到许多领域,包括业、投资公司、保险公司,甚至石油市场。专家们似乎一致认为,所有麻烦都起源于房屋市场的坏债,然后逐步发展成范围广泛的信心危机。Gus Faucher, the Director of Macroeconomics at the economic website Moody's Economy.com, is one of many experts who say the crisis began in the U.S. housing market. He says prices rose unrealistically high and credit was given too easily. "We had people who, in retrospect, were given mortgage loans but should not have been given mortgage loans because they really could not afford them. So now we are seeing the effects of that," he said. 穆迪经济网站宏观经济主任格斯·福谢是许多认为眼下的经济危机最初始于美国房屋市场的专家之一。他说,房价涨得远远超出实际价格,而借贷又太容易。福谢说:“现在回头看一看,有些得到房屋贷款的人根本就不应该得到,因为他们根本就无法偿还。所以我们现在就看到了后果。”International economist Robert Scott, at the Washington-based Economic Policy Institute, blames the Federal Reserve--the U.S. central bank--for allowing housing prices to rise too high. "For the last seven or eight years, until just the last year or so, Alan Greenspan, the former Chairman of the Federal Reserve, said that the housing market was sound, that there was nothing wrong with the rise in housing prices, (which) many, many economists were saying was unsustainable. So he let that bubble build up, he did nothing about it, and he bears a lot of responsibility for this crisis," Scott said. 设在华盛顿的经济政策研究所的国际经济学家罗伯特·斯考特怪罪美国中央“美联储”放任房价无节制地增长。斯考特说:“在过去七八年里,美联储主席格林斯潘一直在说,房屋市场是健康的,房价上涨也没有任何问题。但是许多经济学家却认为,这样高的房价是难以维持的。因此,是格林斯潘放任泡沫越吹越大,他要对眼下的危机承担很大的责任。”But that may not be the whole reason. Ted Truman, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, says while the financial woes started in the mortgage lending industry, the causes of those problems have been afflicting other financial markets. "Everybody calls it a subprime crisis, in the sense that if no subprime mortgages had ever been made, we would not have had a crisis. And even the thought that it is all about housing, I think, is an exaggeration. It is about easy credit, and financial engineering that went wild, and people who thought that the good times would never come to an end and were planning accordingly," Truman said. 但是这并不是所有的原因。彼特森国际经济研究所的资深研究员泰德·杜鲁门说,虽然麻烦始于房贷业,但是其他金融市场也问题重重。杜鲁门说:“每个人都说这是一场次级房贷危机,意思是说如果次级房贷没有出现麻烦,就不会出现现在的危机。我认为,即使把它说成整个房屋市场的麻烦,也是夸大其词。问题的根源在于金融机构滥发信贷,让人们感到经济的大好时光无边无际,并基于这种认识来计划投资。”According to Faucher, the bad loans that were handed out by mortgage lenders are still causing trouble for consumers and for financial institutions. "There are simply a lot of bad housing-related securities out there. Those are falling in value. The problem is, we are not sure who is holding all of those. And as we find out about institutions that are holding them, those institutions start to fail, and that is causing problems throughout the entire financial system."Faucher says banks are reluctant to lend to one another, because they are not sure which institutions are holding bad debt. He says the banks are also reluctant to make loans, so the entire system is coming to a halt. According to Faucher, worries that one failing financial institution could drag down others led the U.S. government to buy out most of the huge insurance company A.I.G."The Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department were concerned that A.I.G. is involved in many different financial markets. And they were concerned that if A.I.G. failed, that would bring down the entire financial system. So therefore, they decided to step in and have, essentially, the federal government take over the firm."Many economists, including Scott, believe tighter regulation could have prevented the crisis. "Mistake number one was failing to regulate the financial sector. We should have required them to hold much greater reserves. They are not required to hold any reserves now. Secondly, we should have limited which they can invest in these high-risk assets," Scott said. 包括经济政策研究所的罗伯特·斯考特在内的许多经济学家都认为,强化监管有可能防止眼下经济危机的发生。斯考特说:“最大的错误在于失去了对金融行业的监管。我们本应当要求他们增加储备金。按照法规,他们现在不需要有任何的储备金。第二个错误是,我们本应当对哪些人可以在高风险领域进行投资加以限制。”Robert Reich, who was Labor Secretary under President Bill Clinton, says the troubles have worsened to this point because there was not enough regulation of the financial industry between 2002 and 2006, when the economy was strong.  克林顿总统任内的美国劳工部长罗伯特·赖克说,麻烦越来越大的根本原因在于从2002年到2006年,当美国经济状况很好的时候,对金融行业没有足够的监管。"Wall Street increased its borrowing dramatically. Our financial institutions increased borrowing much faster than economic growth. Individuals increased their borrowing, also, much faster than economic growth. But nobody was minding the store. Our regulators were not overseeing the system to make sure that there was adequate disclosure (and) capital requirements, so that information could get to the right people at the right time. The system was no longer transparent," he said. 赖克说:“华尔街大把大把地借钱,金融机构的借贷大大地超过了经济增长的速度。个人借贷也大大超过了经济的增长。没有人查看收平衡。我们的监管人员也没有尽职尽责地监督我们的体系,保有足够的信息公布和融资要求,以便让相关信息在正确的时候达到决策者手中。整个制度不再透明。”Reich says America's financial markets need to adhere to the same standards that the U.S. encourages in other countries. "The ed States continues to tell developing nations, as the I.M.F. and World Bank continue to tell developing nations, that they have to have a transparent capital market before capital will be attracted to them. Well, the same principle applies to the ed States. Unless our markets are transparent, capital, at some point, is going to be afraid and start stampeding out of those markets, and that is exactly what has happened," he said.In recent days, both U.S. presidential candidates, Republican John McCain and Democrat Barack Obama, have advocated tighter regulation of financial institutions. And U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson is said to be considering creating an institution to deal with troubled banks and investments. 近日来,两位总统候选人--共和党的麦凯恩和民主党的奥巴马--都在提倡加强对金融机构的监管。据称,美国财政部长保尔森正在考虑建立一个专门的机构,来处理身陷困境的和投资公司。200809/49446 福州附属第一医院宫外孕手术好不好费用多少龙岩做试管婴儿去哪好

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