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抚顺市望花医院治疗早泄多少钱抚顺特殊钢有限公司职工医院看泌尿科怎么样抚顺市轻工局职工医院官网专家在线咨询 Rabbits Down Under澳大利亚的兔子In 1859, an unassuming Australian landowner named Thomas Austin got the hunting bug. Eager for something to shoot, he released twenty-four wild rabbits onto his property and had a jolly time tracking them down. Unfortunately, some of the rabbits managed to escape and, as rabbits are known to do, began to breed like…well, rabbits.1959年,澳大利亚一位默默无名的地主——Thomas Austin在打猎上碰到了瓶颈。在强烈的打猎欲望的催使下,他在自家的土地上放生了24头野兔。一时之间,他的一大乐趣便是找出那些兔子。可偏偏就有那么一些兔子逃了出去,做着我们所知兔子该做的事——生殖繁衍。By 1900, Austin was dead but his unwanted legacy lived on in the form of a rabbit infestation that sp throughout the entire Australian continent. Desperate landowners scrambled to capture over two million rabbits per year, but this hardly made a dent in the rabbit population. Rabbits, it seemed, had taken up permanent residence down under.1900年,Austin去世了。但是他那些让人头疼的“遗产”却已然遍布整个澳大利亚大陆,它们成群结队地袭击着一个个的庄园,让人头疼不已。农场主们别无他法,只能大量地捕兔子。每年,农场主们能捕到超过两百万只兔子,可是,这只能算是冰山一角,区区两百万对兔子这一群体不够成任何影响。就这样,兔子俨然已成澳大利亚的“常住居民”。With its long ears, twitching nose, and adorable hopping ability, the individual rabbit is fairly cute. Multiply that bunny by millions, however, and they begin to seem entirely sinister. The great Australian rabbit infestation was ecologically devastating. The buck-toothed creatures helped extinguish nearly one-eighth of Australia’s native mammal species and led to the extinction of countless numbers of plants, leading to widesp soil erosion.乍看上去,长长的耳朵,抽动的鼻子和蹦蹦跳跳的可爱姿势,兔子真的是可爱得不行。当然,这只是针对一只兔子而言。如果是上百万只兔子聚在一起,那简直就是灾难。澳大利亚兔子的“横行霸道”从生态学上来看简直就是毁灭性的。这些长着小龅牙的生物“帮助”澳大利亚八分之一的土著哺乳动物走向灭绝,顺道再让不计其数的植物从此消逝,最后的结果便是,澳大利亚严重的大面积水土流失。The Australian government tried to corral the rabbits by building so-called rabbit-proof fences across vast stretches of land. Undaunted, the rabbits burrowed under. Finally, in the 1950s, the Australians resorted to chemical warfare, injecting several rabbits with myxoma, an experimental virus known to target and kill rabbits. The virus sp, and the rabbit population dropped from six-hundred million to one-hundred million.澳大利亚政府也曾圈出大片土地,围上所谓的防兔围栏,试图将兔子都赶到一个地方。可是,这些兔子是毫无畏惧的,它们从地底挖了洞,就这样就逃了出来。到后来的20世纪50年代,澳大利亚人终将化学药物投入了人兔大战中。人们将粘液瘤注入兔子体内,粘液瘤是一种用来杀兔子的实验用病毒。随着该病毒的传播,兔子数量从6亿只急速减至1亿只。But that’s still a lot of rabbits, and those with a natural resistance to the virus began breeding with a fury. And so, the rabbit wars carry on still.但是,1亿仍是一个很大的数目。而且有些兔子天生就对这种病毒有抗体,接着这些兔子开始迅猛繁殖。因而,直至今天,在澳大利亚这片土地上人兔大战仍在进行着。 /201301/222092抚顺治疗前列腺囊肿什么医院好

抚顺怎么治疗男性尿道炎抚顺东洲区搭连地区医院治疗阳痿多少钱 Science and technology科学与技术Prevention of cancer预防癌症Wonder drug特效药Aspirin continues to amaze15:17:29For more than a headache治的不仅仅是头疼FOR thousands of years aspirin has been humanitys wonder drug.几千年来,阿司匹林就一直是人类的特效药。Extracts from the willow tree have been used for pain relief in folk medicine since the time of the ancient Greeks.从古希腊开始,在民间医药中,人们就用柳树的萃取物缓解疼痛。By 1897 a synthetic derivative acetyl salicylic acid of the plants active ingredient was created.1897年,这种植物中的有效成分的人工合成衍生物诞生了,This allowed aspirin to become the most widely used medicine in the world.于是阿司匹林变成了世界上应用最广泛的药品。In recent years its benefits as a blood-thinning drug have led to it being prescribed in low doses of around 50mg to reduce deaths from stroke and heart attack.最近几年,由于阿司匹林的防血凝功能,在用其治疗中风和心脏病的时候,剂量很小,维持在50mg的水平左右。There were also hints that aspirin may help prevent some cancers.也有迹象表明阿司匹林可以帮助预防一些癌症。But these were mostly based on observational studies, which can be misleading.不过这些结论大多都是在观察研究的基础上的,因而有可能产生误导。The gold standard of scientific evidence is the randomised controlled trial, preferably one with a lot of people and held over a long time.国际上科学据的标准是由随机对照实验得出的结果,尤其是那些有很多人参与又经过很长时间的实验。The results of just such a trial, published in the Lancet, suggest that aspirin is indeed an astonishing drug.而就是这样一份发表在《柳叶刀》上的论文表示阿司匹林的确是一种让人吃惊的药物。Peter Rothwell at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and his colleagues looked at deaths due to cancers during and after randomised trials of daily aspirin.来自牛津的约翰?拉德克里夫医院的彼得?罗思韦尔和他的同事们研究了在每日用阿司匹林的随机对照实验期间或者之后因癌症而死亡的病例。The trials had actually been started to look at how useful aspirin was for preventing heart attacks and strokes.这一实验本是为了研究阿司匹林在防止心脏病和中风方面的疗效的,Nevertheless, the data from the 25,570 patients enrolled in eight trials was also revealing about cancer.然而八项试验25570名患者的数据也揭示了阿司匹林对于癌症的疗效。In trials lasting between four and eight years, the patients who had been given aspirin were 21% less likely to die from cancer than those who had been given a placebo.在那些历时4到8年之间的实验中,用阿司匹林的患者因癌症而死亡的概率比那些用安慰剂的患者小了21%。These results were based on 674 cancer deaths, so are unlikely to represent the kind of statistical oddity that can beset studies on cancer risks that sometimes create headlines.这些结果是在674例癌症死亡病例的基础上得出的,所以不大可能是所谓的统计学上的例外。对癌症风险的研究会因这种例外而受挫,有时甚至会闹成大新闻。The benefits of aspirin were also apparent many years after the trials had ended.试验结束后的很多年后,阿司匹林的效果也仍旧明显。After five years, death rates for all cancers fell by 35% and for gastrointestinal cancers by 54%.五年后,所有癌症的死亡率下降了35%,而胃肠道癌症的死亡率则下降了54%。A long-term follow-up of patients showed that the 20-year risk of cancer death remained 20% lower in those who had taken aspirin.一项长期的病情跟踪报告显示,那些用阿司匹林的患者的20年内的癌症死亡风险比那些不用的低了20%。The study revealed that the effect takes time to accrue, so aspirin must be taken over a long period.这项研究揭示了阿司匹林的效果是随着时间而递增的,所以必须长期用才行。The latent period for improving oesophageal, pancreatic, brain and lung cancer was about five years of aspirin taking on a daily basis.每日用阿司匹林对改善食管癌,胰腺癌,脑癌和肺癌的潜伏期为5年,For stomach and colorectal cancer the effects took ten years and for prostate cancer about 15 years.对胃癌和结直肠癌则要花10年才能起作用,而前列腺癌则要15年。The means by which aspirin prevents cancer is not well understood.这意味着目前还不清楚阿司匹林到底是怎么预防癌症的。It is believed that it inhibits an enzyme that promotes cell proliferation in tumours.研究人员认为阿司匹林阻碍了一种在肿瘤内部促进细胞增殖的酶的活动。The researchers also found that small daily doses of aspirin were enough, and that taking more than 75mg conferred no additional benefits.研究者还发现,每天用小剂量的阿司匹林就已足够,剂量超过75mg后不会再增加效果。Those starting on aspirin in their late 40s or 50s benefit most.那些从四五十岁末就开始用阿司匹林的人得到的效果最好。Current guidelines on using aspirin for reducing the chances of a stroke or heart attack rightly warn of the small risk of ulcers and of dangerous bleeding in the stomach.目前在用阿司匹林治疗中风或者心脏病时,用药说明上会明确提醒有可能出现溃疡和危险性胃出血。These guidelines will probably have to be revised given the new findings.而鉴于这些新发现,这些说明很可能将要被修改了。However, it remains unlikely that popping aspirin will be recommended for everyone like a vitamin supplement.不过阿司匹林泡腾片不大可能像维生素补充剂一样被推广至每一个人。Aspirin is a highly cost-effective treatment:用阿司匹林是一种非常划算的治疗:taking it for five to ten years easily beats initiatives to screen for breast and prostate cancers.只要吃五到十年,就能打败那些让你做乳腺癌或者前列腺癌扫描的建议。To put it another way, ask yourself what a pharmaceuticals firm might charge for a drug that would reduce the chance of death by cancer by 20%—and then note that 100 days supply of low-dose aspirin can cost less than a dollar.换种说法,问问你自己,什么样的医药公司在看到100天的小剂量阿司匹林供应量还值不到一美元时,会对这种能够减少20%癌症死亡几率的药品开价呢?By anyones measure, that is a bargain.不管按照哪一方的标准,这都是一笔非常划算的交易。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/228078抚顺清原县看男科好吗

抚顺市职业病防治院人民医院地址 Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Scitech Today on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。Well, you may have heard the myth, but do all of those antibacterial products really make bacteria stronger? Joining us now from the Museum of Science, Boston is Dr. Duane Hill. Good to have you here.我们都听说过关于抗菌产品的传说,抗菌产品真的只是会使细菌进化得更加强大吗?来自波士顿科技馆的士Duane Hill将向我们做详细介绍。你好。Oh good morning. How are you?观众们上午好,主持人你好。Im good. So are we talking about, you know, what you spray on your kitchen counter and wipe up?你好。我们需要谈论的是喷洒在厨房台面然后再擦掉的消毒剂吗?Sort of, I mean, a lot of those common household disinfectants, ur, that we think of things like Lysol or even things like wet wipes, things like that, have disinfectants in them. Theres one research. Theres one piece of research that was on in Ireland not too long ago, looked at a common disinfectant called benzalkonium chloride which is the disinfectant that we find in wet wipes, things like Lysol and a lot of those products, even cosmetics that we use everyday.某种程度上说,是的。我是说一般的家用除菌用品比如煤酚皂溶液,湿纸巾这类用品都含有消毒剂。有一项研究,也就是不久前爱尔兰的一项研究显示在湿纸巾,煤酚皂溶液这类产品,甚至是每天都可能用到的化妆品中存在一种名叫氯化苯甲烃铵的物质。Ok,and the findings are interesting.It was actually making the bacteria grow stronger.好的,这项研究结果很有趣,因为这些物质可以促进细菌的生长。Exactly. What they did was they exposed these bacteria, a kind of bacterium called Pseudomonas, it causes a lot of different health conditions in humans. They exposed these bacteria to this benzalkonium chloride, this just infecting for only about a month. And what they found was that the bacteria became not only more resistant to the disinfectant itself but also to the antibiotic Sypro. So the bacteria kind of got a two for one learning by being exposed to this common disinfectant.没错,研究人员找到一种名为假单胞菌的细菌,一种能引起人类疾病的细菌。研究人员将这种细菌与氯化苯甲烃铵相互接触。仅仅一个月的时间,研究人员发现这些细菌的抗药性就增强了,甚至能对抗抗生素。因此,暴露在抗菌药物下,细菌反而生长得更加旺盛。And why does that happen?那么,为什么会这样呢?Well, I mean, when you think about it, a lot of the things that we have at our disposal, disinfectants, antibiotics are poisons from the point of view of the bacteria. And bacteria have these little things calls efflux pumps. Just little pumps that the cells use, we actually use them ourselves, different ones to pump poisons out of their cells. And what they think was happening is that the bacteria that could figure out how to defend themselves against this disinfectant also use those same pumps to protect themselves against the antibiotic sypro.当我们想要对付细菌的时候,有很多选择。消毒剂,抗生素都是细菌的天敌。细菌细胞有一种叫做外排泵的功能,和我们人类的基本相同,都是将有毒物质排出机体的功能。正如人体细胞,细菌细胞同样能对抗抗细菌产品甚至是抗生素,把它们排出体外以保护自己。Does that mean you should throw away your little wet wipes?这是说我们要扔点湿纸巾这些产品吗?Absolutely not. No one is saying that we should stop using disinfectants. Disinfectants are really important part of our arsenal against bacteria. But I think what the research is suggesting is that physicians, public health professionals, we ourselves need to kinda think about what some of the side-effects might be from these disinfectants and not just grab them and use them so indiscriminately. We need to kind of think about it.当然不是,没有人说我们不能够实用抗细菌产品。抗细菌产品是我们对抗细菌的有效武器。但我认为这项研究想要做的是提示医生们,以及所有的卫生行业从业者们,我们不能不加选择地一味使用抗菌产品而忽视它的副作用,我们应当适当地考虑一下。Woo its interesting, Dr. Duane Hill, thank you so much for joining us this morning.很有趣,Duane Hill士,谢谢你的介绍。Oh, my pleasure!不客气!And youll be sure to join us every Thursday morning at this time for Scitech Today. You can also log on to the Museum of Science website at MOS.ORG欢迎每周四早上准时收看Scitech Today,或者关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/182735新宾满族县妇幼保健院割包皮手术抚顺市新宾县人民医院网上挂号

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