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2019年07月22日 01:53:24来源:家庭医生共享

  • The Western Jin Dynasty was a state mainly composed of privileged landlords.西晋王朝是一个门阀贵族的政权。Most political and economic measures instituted by the Emperor Wu(Sima Yan) meant to protect the benefits of these few for the landlords and gentry dorminated the government.晋武帝司马炎在完成统一之后对晋朝的官制、兵制、法制等一系列政治制度进行了调整,但由于晋臣多为前朝的名门望族,故而他们提出的政治改革措施多以保障其自身利益为主。The Western Jin government allowed officials of different ranks to possess different amounts of fields, tenants and dependent families. In this way, the privilege of the bureaucratic landlords was acknowledged.允许官吏按官品高低占有不同数量的土地和佃客、荫户,承认官僚地主的特权。The system of “ classifying talented people into nine grades for government appoint-ment” established in the Wei had undergone great changes, with most government positions being held by officials from powerful or privileged families. This system ultimately became a tool for those families to expand their own power.曹魏时制定的“九品中正制”,到了西晋,已发生相当大的变化,中正官职多为世族门阀出身的官僚所把持,这一制度变成他们培植门阀私家势力的重要工具。The increasing strength of the powerful families during this period intensified the conflict between the officials and the commoners, which weakened the power of the rulers and buried the seeds of great social upheaval.西晋统治时期,豪强大族的势力得到发展,士庶之间的矛盾不断扩大,削弱了西晋的统治力量。门阀士族的空前发展,构成了与皇权的矛盾,也直接成为魏晋南北朝时期动乱的根源。The extravagant, corrupt and wasteful life of the court rendered the righteous no cause.这一时期,统治集团奢侈腐化,聚敛了大量财产,互相争豪比富。In those turbulent days many gentry-officials and scholars felt despaired and escaped from reality and politics by indulging themselves in wine and mere talks.许多士人身处乱世,遂悲观消极、逃避现实、不问政事,终日饮酒清谈,玩世不恭。Hence metaphysical discourse and learning flourished amongst the literati.于是清谈、玄学之风一时大盛。 /201512/415729。
  • If you#39;ve always wanted to speak another language, or just want to understand your Spanish boyfriend, then you#39;re in luck.如果你想学会说一门外语,又或者仅仅是想听懂你西班牙男朋友说的话,那么恭喜你了。Thanks to the internet, it#39;s become easier and easier to learn a new language - and you don#39;t even have to pay a penny.有了互联网,学外语变得越来越简单,甚至还不需要花钱。You can watch foreign films on Youtube or streaming sites, order books from every country in the world and chat online.你可以在Youtube和其他流媒体网站上看外语片,上网订购外语书籍,和外国人网上聊天。Millions of language learners now also use Duolingo, a free app which treats learning like a game. Practicing earns you points and unlocks new levels of vocabulary.现在数百万语言学习者都在使用“多邻国”(Duolingo),一款免费的应用软件。用它学外语就跟玩游戏似的,用户要通过不断的练习赚得点数来解锁新词。We asked one super user, Matthias Salzger, about his experience and what tips he has for beginners.马蒂亚斯#8226;萨尔泽格是其中一位超级用户。在我们的采访中,他谈到了自己的学习经历,并为初学者提供了些小窍门。#39;Thanks to my online Spanish, I was top of my class#39;“多亏我在网上学习了西班牙语,现在我是班上的第一名。”I started using Duolingo in June 2013. After seeing it in a Youtube I thought: “It would be cool to speak some Spanish.” Soon I was hooked.我是在2013年6月开始用“多邻国”的。那时我在Youtube上看到一个介绍“多邻国”的视频,心想:“如果会说点西班牙语,那一定很酷。”很快我就沉迷其中了。I learnt all of my early Spanish on Duolingo. In fact, I switched schools in the autumn of 2013 and found out I had learned in three months on Duolingo what my new classmates had in three years. I passed a test the school required me to take with flying colours and quickly was at the top of my class.我用“多邻国”完成了西班牙语入门。2013年秋我转学了,然后我发现我在“多邻国”上仅仅用了三个月就学会了同学们三年才学会的东西。我出色地通过了学校安排的测试,很快就成了班上的第一名。Besides Spanish , I learnt some Italian on Duolingo, what I believe to be almost conversational Esperanto , and a good chunk of my French.除了西班牙语,我还在“多邻国”上学了一些意大利语。我认为意大利语是日常对话中使用最多的语言。我的法语也有很大一部分是在在“多邻国”上学的。Duolingo can only get you so far. After you#39;ve got the basics, . And then some more. Skip the children#39;s books and start with the stuff that you#39;re actually interested in. Other than that, try watching a movie or a TV series.但“多邻国”的帮助也是有限的。在“多邻国”上只能学到基础知识,以后就要靠阅读了。要在这一过程中逐渐扩大阅读量。阅读时跳过那些儿童书籍,直接找你感兴趣的东西来读。此外还可以试着看看外语电影或电视剧。The most important tip in my opinion is to do what#39;s fun for you.在我看来学外语最重要的一点就是,要用你感兴趣的方法来学。I guess my level in Spanish now is around B1-B2 (intermediate). I didn#39;t get there with Duolingo alone. I also quite a bit, watched some cartoons in Spanish and attended a language school in Spain for two weeks.我估计我的西班牙语水平在B1和B2级左右(中级水平)。这不完全是在“多邻国”上学的。我还阅读了很多文章,看了一些西班牙语的动画片,还在西班牙的一所语言学校学了两星期。But you don#39;t need expensive programs like Rosetta Stone, a private teacher or even language classes. The really important factor is that you stay motivated and stick with it.你不必花很多钱购买“如师通”软件(Rosetta Stone)、请私人老师或是报班上语言课,但最重要的是你要一直有动力,要坚持学下去。Matthias#39; 7 tips for learning a language:马蒂亚斯学外语的7个小窍门:1. Set yourself a goal给自己设定目标This goal could be finishing the Duolingo tree, or being able to speak with your friend in their native language. Work every day at it!目标可以是完成“多邻国”的任务树,也可以是达到能与外国朋友对话交流的水平。每天向着自己的目标迈进吧!2. Team up with other learners和其他学习者相互促进When using Duolingo, don#39;t forget to use the sentence discussion and the grammar notes too. The discussion boards are also worth taking a look at (only available in the web version).在用“多邻国”的时候,别忘了看讨论区和别人的语法笔记。讨论区真的很值得一看(这个功能只在网页版上才有)。Ask questions, look for people to learn alongside with and if you#39;re aly there check out Lingots For Stories, a weekly writing challenge managed by myself and other great Duolingo members.记得多多提问,还可以和别的学习者结伴学习。如果你都做到了,不妨参加一下“写故事赚点数”(Lingots For Stories)的活动吧。这是我和其他优秀学习者一同发起的写作比赛,每周举行一次。3. Start ing学会阅读Check out your local library or the internet (a lot of books can be found as pdf downloads). Now here comes what might seem like a bizarre tip: don#39;t use a dictionary!去你所在地的图书馆看看,或者直接在网上阅读(很多书可以以pdf的格式下载下来)。我还有个建议,可能听起来会有点奇怪:阅读时别查字典!Instead, try to understand the word from its context. This might be incredibly hard in the beginning, but I promise it gets easier. You won#39;t forget the words, as you might if you just look them up. And don#39;t worry about getting it wrong as you#39;ll encounter the word again and correct your mistake.别用字典查词,而是根据上下文理解单词的意思。可能刚开始会读得很艰难,但是我保到后面会变得越来越容易。如果你只是查字典的话,很容易就把这个单词的意思忘了,但是用这种方法就不会。你也不必担心判断错了词义,因为你还会在下文里遇到同样的词,到时可以纠正自己的错误理解。4. Watch films看电影Try watching a movie or TV series. You can stream it online. If you can#39;t do that legally, see if the movies you own have an audio track in your language of choice. Youtube is also a great source for foreign language material.试着看看外语电影和电视剧吧。你可以直接在网上观看。如果没有正版片源,就找找这部片有没有那门语言的音轨。Youtube上也有很多外语学习的资源。5. Follow your interests根据自己的兴趣去学I#39;ve tried ing children#39;s books in Spanish but found them so boring that I never got past the first few pages. Then I Ficcionesby Jorge Luis Borges, which is quite a difficult book, and I loved it. As a rule of thumb, if you wouldn#39;t or watch it in your native language, you also shouldn#39;t in your second language.我曾经尝试阅读过西班牙语的儿童书籍,但这实在是太无聊了,我看了几页就看不下去了。后来我看了《尔赫斯小说集》(Ficciones by Jorge Luis Borges),虽然阅读起来很难,但很对我的口味。一般来说,对一本书或一部电影如果你连母语版都提不起兴趣,那么就别尝试外语版了。6. Chat和外国人聊天If you know somebody who speaks the language you#39;re learning you should definitely try to get them to talk with you.如果你正在学一门外语,又刚好认识说这门语言的人,那么你当然得想办法和他们说说话。7. Be patient保持耐心The cost of learning a language isn#39;t money but your time. It can take years.学一门外语不一定要花钱,但一定要花时间。有时甚至会花上几年。Don#39;t expect a language course to just shove the knowledge into your mouth. You have to earn it.别以为报外语班就一定能学到知识,一定得有自己的努力才行。 /201602/426157。
  • For many men, the idea that they have a better sense of direction than women was never in doubt, but now a scientific study has proved it.很多男性都坚信自己的方向感要比女性的强,而现在更有科学研究实了该说法。Researchers from Norway scanned the brains of volunteers as they completed navigation tasks to discover men are more adept at finding their way because they use a separate part of their brain.挪威的研究人员在志愿者完成导航任务后,对他们的大脑进行了扫描,结果发现男性更善于找路,因为他们的大脑中有单独的区域分管方向识别。Adding fuel to the fire, when women had testosterone dropped onto their tongues, their navigational skills improved.更不可思议的是,向女性舌头上滴了睾丸素后,她们的方向感也提升了。Using 3D goggles and a joystick, a total of 36 participants - 18 men and 18 women - had to orient themselves in a large virtual maze while functional images of their brains were continuously recorded.共有36人参与了此项研究,男女各18人。他们需要佩戴3D眼镜,使用操纵杆在一个巨大的虚拟迷宫中找出路。与此同时,研究人员会跟踪记录这些人的大脑运转图像。In the MRI scanner, they were given 30 seconds for each of the 45 navigation tasks. One of the tasks, for example, was to #39;find the yellow car#39; from different starting points.在核磁共振扫描仪内,研究对象只有30秒的时间完成每项任务,一共有45项导航任务。其中有个任务要求研究对象在不同的起点“找一辆黄色的车”。The men solved 50 per cent more of the tasks than the women.最终男性比女性多完成了50%的任务。According to lead researcher Dr Carl Pintzka from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), women and men have different navigational strategies.本次研究首席研究员、来自挪威科技大学(NTNU)的卡尔·彼斯卡士认为,女性和男性的导航策略不同。Men use cardinal directions – the use of north, south, east and west - during navigation to a greater degree.男性在找路时,很大程度上使用基本方位,比如东南西北。#39;Men#39;s sense of direction was more effective. They quite simply got to their destination faster,#39; he said.他说:“男性的方向感更有效率。他们能更快到达目的地。”#39;If they#39;re going to the Student Society building in Trondheim, for example, men usually go in the general direction where it#39;s located,#39; Dr Pintzka explained.彼斯卡士解释道:“举例来说,如果男性想去特隆赫姆的学生社团大楼,他们一般都会朝着目的地大致的方向走。”#39;Women usually orient themselves along a route to get there, for example, ;go past the hairdresser and then up the street and turn right after the store.;#39;“女性通常会顺着一条路线走,比如过了理发店后,一直朝前,走过商店再右转。The study shows that using cardinal directions is more efficient because it is a more flexible strategy.研究表明,使用基本方位的效率更高,因为这个策略更加灵活。The destination can be reached faster because the strategy depends less on where you start.使用基本方位能让人更快到达目的地,因为它不依赖起点的位置。Images of the brain showed that both men and women use large areas of the brain when they navigate, but some areas were different.大脑扫描图表明,男性和女性导航时都会使用大面积的大脑区域,但部分区域有所区别。The men used the hippocampus more, whereas women used their frontal areas to a greater extent.男性更多会用到海马体,而女性很大程度上会使用额叶区。#39;That#39;s in sync with the fact that the hippocampus is necessary to make use of cardinal directions,#39; added Dr Pintzka.彼斯卡士补充道:“这个发现与前面的结果是一致的,因为使用基本方位时必须要用到海马体。”He explained the findings in evolutionary terms.他认为这是人类进化的结果。#39;In ancient times, men were hunters and women were gatherers. Therefore, our brains probably evolved differently.“古时,男性是狩猎者,女性是采集者。因此我们的大脑进化方式很有可能不同。”#39;For instance, other researchers have documented that women are better at finding objects locally than men. In simple terms, women are faster at finding things in the house, and men are faster at finding the house,#39; Dr Pintzka said.彼斯卡士说:“比如,其他研究人员发现,女性要比男性更善于找到附近的东西。简单来说就是女性能更快地找到房子里的东西,而男性在找房子在哪的时候更快。”During a second experiment, a separate group of women was given a drop of testosterone under their tongue just before they were going to solve the maze puzzles.在第二个试验中,研究人员向一组单独的女性试验对象的舌下滴一滴睾丸素,然后让她们进行迷宫测试。In this step, 42 women were divided into two groups.过程中,42位女性分为两组。Half of them received a drop of placebo, and 21 got a drop of testosterone under the tongue.其中一组女性的舌下滴入的是安慰剂,另一组21人滴入的是睾丸素。The study was double-blinded so that neither Dr Pintzka nor the women knew who got what.该研究是双盲测试,彼斯卡士和女性试验对象都不知道滴入的试剂是什么。#39;We hoped that they would be able to solve more tasks, but they didn#39;t.“我们希望她们能完成更多的任务,但实际上并未如此。”#39;[However], they had improved knowledge of the layout of the maze, and they used the hippocampus to a greater extent, which tends to be used more by men for navigating,#39; he said.他说道:“然而,她们对迷宫的布局认知有所提升,在很大程度上利用了海马体,但还是不及男性的使用程度。”Losing one#39;s sense of direction is one of the first symptoms in Alzheimer#39;s disease.失去方向感是阿尔茨海默病的先兆之一。He hopes that by understanding how men and women use different brain areas and strategies to navigate, researchers will be able to enhance the understanding of the disease#39;s development, and develop coping strategies for those aly affected.他希望,研究人员能在了解男性和女性使用不同大脑区域和策略进行导航的原理后,增强对阿尔茨海默病发病原理的认识,为方向感受到影响的患者找到应对策略。 /201512/415062。
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