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郑州华山医院祛疤痕价钱费用郑州第一人民医院口腔科Nokia Corp.#39;s decision to sell its handset business to Microsoft Corp. and focus on wireless-network equipment is the Finnish company#39;s latest attempt in its 148-year history to reinvent itself during a crisis. It also marks the effective end of a national champion and onetime global tech giant. 诺基亚公司(Nokia Corp.)决定将手机业务卖给微软公司(Microsoft Corp.),转而聚焦无线网络设备。这不仅是这家拥有148年历史的芬兰公司在危机中重塑自我形象的最新尝试,也标志着诺基亚作为芬兰企业领袖和全球科技巨头生涯的终结。 #39;This is end of an era in Finland,#39; Jan Vapaavuori, the country#39;s minister of economic affairs said Tuesday. The deal with Microsoft will have a #39;mental effect,#39; he said, since Nokia long has been an important international brand with Finnish roots. 芬兰经济事务部部长瓦帕沃里(Jan Vapaavuori)周二说,这是芬兰一个时代的终结。他说,诺基亚与微软的这笔交易将产生“心理影响”,因为长期以来诺基亚一直是带有芬兰血统的国际重要品牌。 Founded in 1865, when engineer Fredrik Idestam set up a wood-pulp mill in southwestern Finland, Nokia has had a history of radical shifts in its business. The first was at the turn of the 20th century, when the company moved into making rubber boots and other products. 诺基亚1865年由工程师伊德斯坦(Fredrik Idestam)在芬兰西南部创立,最初是一家纸浆生产厂,之后经历了一系列业务上的剧变。第一个剧变发生在20世纪初,该公司开始生产橡胶靴和其它产品。 In 1967 the company merged with partner Finnish Cable Works, which had been developing radio telephones for the country#39;s army. Nokia in the early 1980s went on to become one of the first players in the cellphone industry 1967年,诺基亚与合作伙伴芬兰电缆厂(Finnish Cable Works)合并,后者为芬兰军队研发无线电话。上世纪80年代初,诺基亚开始成为手机业最早的生产厂家之一。 It introduced the Mobira Senator car phone in 1982, only a year after the creation of the Nordic Mobile Telephone service, the world#39;s first international cellular network. 1982年,诺基亚发布了车载电话Mobira Senator。在此之前,北欧移动电话(Nordic Mobile Telephone)务问世仅一年时间,这也是世界上首个国际蜂窝网络。 Nokia unveiled its first hand-held phone in 1987, the Mobira Cityman, the same year that GSM was adopted as the European standard for mobile networks. 1987年,诺基亚推出了该公司第一部手持电话Mobira Cityman。同年,欧洲启用全球移动通讯系统(GSM)作为手机网络标准。 But Nokia ran into financial trouble at the end of the 1980s after acquiring unprofitable television-set factories in Europe. 但在收购了欧洲不赚钱的电视机生产厂后,诺基亚于上世纪80年底末陷入了财务困境。 In 1992 Jorma Ollila, a former Citibank executive, became chief executive and decided to focus on telecommunications. That worked-for a while. Nokia#39;s success boosted its share price, and at its peak in 2000, the company was valued at 303 billion euros(0 billion at today#39;s exchange rate). 1992年,花旗(Citibank)前高管奥利拉(Jorma Ollila)成为诺基亚首席执行长,决定带领诺基亚专注于电信业。此举在一段时间内奏效了。诺基亚的成功提振了公司股价。2000年,诺基亚红极一时,其估值曾达到3,030亿欧元(按现在的汇率计算是4,000亿美元)。 But misplaced bets would change Nokia#39;s fortunes. 但错误押注会改变诺基亚的命运。 Nokia executives predicted that producing traditional cellphones would be unprofitable by 2000, so the company in the 1990s started spending billions of dollars to research mobile email, touch screens and faster wireless networks. Nokia introduced its first smartphone, the Nokia 9000, in 1996-more than a decade before the first iPhone was released. 诺基亚高管们预计,生产传统手机在2000年之前将变得无利可图,于是该公司在上世纪90年代开始花费数十亿美元研究手机邮件、触摸屏以及更快的无线网络。诺基亚于1996年推出了其第一款智能手机诺基亚9000(Nokia 9000),比第一款iPhone早了十多年。 U.S. rival Motorola Inc. scored a world-wide hit with the thin Razr flip phones, however, and Nokia faced criticism from investors over its focus on high-end smartphones. 然而诺基亚的美国竞争对手托罗拉(Motorola Inc.)凭借轻薄的Razr翻盖手机在全球大获成功,诺基亚却面临着投资者对其专注于高端智能手机的抨击。 Former Nokia finance chief Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo took the helm from Mr. Ollila and merged Nokia#39;s smartphone and basic-phone operations, with the result that the more-profitable basic-phone business started calling the shots. Returning to a focus on traditional phones, Nokia found itself at a disadvantage when the iPhone was unveiled in 2007. As Apple Inc.#39;s AAPL +0.28% phone gained popularity, Nokia tried to play catch-up. 前诺基亚首席财务长康培凯(Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo)接替奥利拉担任首席执行长,将诺基亚的智能手机与基础手机业务合并,结果是更为有利可图的基础手机业务开始发号施令。重新关注传统手机后,在2007年iPhone推出时,诺基亚发现自己处于不利地位。随着苹果(Apple Inc.)的手机越来越受欢迎,诺基亚试图迎头赶上。 Nokia#39;s relationship with Microsoft began as Canadian Stephen Elop took the reins of the Finnish company in 2010 and decided to scrap the company#39;s effort to revamp its aging Symbian operating system, opting instead for Microsoft#39;s Windows platform. Nokia cut tens of thousands of jobs, sold its elaborate seaside headquarters in Espoo, Finland, and scaled back research and development, the company#39;s onetime jewel. Last year the company closed its last remaining phone factory in Finland. 加拿大人埃洛普(Stephen Elop)于2010年掌控这家芬兰公司,并决定废弃公司试图改进老旧的塞班(Symbian)操作系统的举措,转而选择了微软的Windows平台,诺基亚与微软的合作由此开始。诺基亚削减了数万个职位,卖掉了在芬兰埃斯波(Espoo)精心建造的海滨总部,并缩减了该公司曾经引以为豪的研发。去年,该公司关闭了芬兰最后一家手机工厂。 Meanwhile, the handset business has struggled. 与此同时,其手机业务陷入困境。 While Nokia#39;s flagship Lumia series has received good reviews, the company has failed to make a dent on its main competitors, Apple and Samsung Electronics Co. Nokia#39;s second-quarter revenue from phone sales was less than 25% what it was in the first quarter of 2011, when Nokia#39;s tie-up with Microsoft was announced. 虽然诺基亚的旗舰Lumia系列获得好评,但该公司没能对苹果和三星电子(Samsung Electronics)等主要竞争对手造成冲击。诺基亚第二季度手机销售收入还不到2011年一季度诺基亚宣布与微软合作时的25%。 Now, with the handset operation gone, what remains is network-gear business Nokia Solutions and Networks. Nokia bought Siemens #39;s SIE.XE -0.51% stake in the operation, formerly Nokia Siemens Networks, this summer for about .2 billion. Nokia also has a business that provides maps to Microsoft Windows devices and in-car navigation systems. 现在,失去手机业务之后,剩下的是网络设备业务Nokia Solutions and Networks。诺基亚今年夏天以大约22亿美元收购了西门子(Siemens )在以前的诺基亚西门子通信公司(Nokia Siemens Networks)的股份。诺基亚还有一项业务是为微软的Windows设备和车内导航系统提供地图。 /201309/255237河南光子脱毛医院 Karim Keshavjee, a Toronto physician and digital health consultant, crunches mountains of data from 500 doctors to figure out how to improve patient treatment. But it’s a frustrating slog to get a computer to decipher all the misspellings, abbreviations, and notes written in unintelligible medical shorthand.卡里姆o科夏瓦杰是多伦多的一名医生和网络健康顾问,他要从500名医生那里反馈的海量数据中总结出怎样才能更好地治疗病人。但是众所周知,医生的“书法”本来就堪比天书,要想让电脑识别出其中的拼写错误和缩写更是难于登天。For example, “smoking information is very hard to parse,” Keshavjee said. “If you the records, you understand right away what the doctor meant. But good luck trying to make a computer understand. There’s ‘never smoked’ and ‘smoking 0.’ How many cigarettes does a patient smoke? That’s impossible to figure out.”比如科夏瓦杰指出:“患者是否吸烟是个很重要的信息。如果你直接阅读病历,你马上就能明白医生是什么意思。但是要想让电脑去理解它,那就只能祝你好运了。虽然你也可以在电脑上设置‘从不吸烟’或‘吸烟0’的选项。但是一个患者每天吸多少烟?这几乎是电脑不可能搞明白的问题。The hype around slicing and dicing massive amounts of data, or big data, makes it sound so easy: Just plug a library’s worth of information into a computer and wait for valuable insights to pour out about how to speed up an auto assembly line, get online shoppers to buy more sneakers, or fight cancer. The reality is much more complicated. Data is inevitably “dirty” thanks to obsolete, inaccurate, and missing information. Cleaning it up is an increasingly important and overlooked job that can help prevent costly mistakes.由于宣传报道把大数据吹得神乎其神,因此很多人可能觉得大数据用起来特别简单:只要把相当于一整个图书馆的信息插到电脑上,然后就可以坐在一边,等着电脑给出精辟见解,告诉你如何提高自动生产线的生产效率,如何让网购者在网上购买更多的运动鞋,或是如何治疗癌症。但事实远远比想象复杂得多。由于信息会过时、不准确和缺失,因此数据不可避免地也有“不干净”的时候。如何把数据变“干净”是一个越来越重要但又经常被人忽略的工作,但它可以防止你犯下代价高昂的错误。Although techniques are improving all the time, scrubbing data can only accomplish so much. Even when dealing with a relatively tidy set of information, getting useful results can be arduous and time-consuming.虽然科技一直都在进步,但是人们在净化数据上能想到的法子并不多。即便是处理一些相对较“干净”的数据,要想获得有用的结果往往也是件费时费力的事情。“I tell my clients that the world is messy and dirty,” said Josh Sullivan, a vice president at business consulting firm Booz Allen who handles data crunching for clients. “There are no clean data sets.”思艾伦咨询公司(Booz Allen)副总裁约什o沙利文说:“我对我的客户说,这是个混乱肮脏的世界,没有完全干净的数据集。”Data analysts start by looking for information that’s out of the norm. Because the volume of data is so huge, they typically hand the job over to software that automatically sifts through numbers and text to look for anything unusual that needs further review. Over time, computers can improve their accuracy in spotting what’s belongs and what doesn’t. They can also better understand what words and phrases mean by clustering similar examples together and then grading their interpretations for accuracy.数据分析师一般喜欢先寻找非常态的信息。由于数据量太巨大,他们一般都会把筛选数据的工作交给软件来完成,来寻找是否有些反常的东西需要进一步检查。随着时间的推移,电脑筛选数据的精确性也会提高。通过对类似案例进行分类,它们也会更好地了解一些词语和句子的含义,然后提高筛选的精确性。“The approach is easy and straightforward, but training your models can take weeks and weeks,” Sullivan said.沙利文说:“这种方法简单直接,但‘训练’你的模型可以需要一周又一周的时间。”A constellation of companies offer software and services for cleaning data. They range from technology giants like IBM IBM -0.24% and SAP SAP 0.12% to big data and analytics specialists like Cloudera and Talend Open Studio. A legion of start-ups are also trying to get a toehold as data janitors including Trifacta, Tamr, and Paxata.有些公司也提供了用来净化数据的软件和务,其中既包括像IBM和SAP一样的科技巨头,也包括Cloudera和Talend开放工作室从事等大数据和分析的专门机构。一大批创业公司也想争当大数据的看门人,其中有代表性的包括Trifacta、Tamr和Paxata等。Healthcare, with all its dirty data, is one of the toughest industries for big data technology. Electronic health records make medical information increasingly easy to dump into computers, but there’s still a lot room for improvement before researchers, pharmaceutical companies and hospital business analysts can slice and dice all the information they want.由于“不干净”的数据太多,医疗业被认为是大数据技术最难搞定的行业之一。虽然随着电子病历的普及,将医疗信息输入电脑的难度已经变得越来越低,但是研究人员、制药公司和医疗业分析人士要想把他们需要的数据尽情地拿来分析,在数据上要提高的地方还有很多。Keshavjee, the doctor and CEO of InfoClin, a health data consulting firm, spends his days trying to tease out ways to improve patient treatment by sifting through tens of thousands of electronic medical records. Obstacles pop up all the time.健康数据咨询公司InfoClin的医生兼CEO科夏瓦杰花了很多时间,希望数以万计的电子医疗病历中筛选有用的数据,以提高对病人的诊疗水平。但他们在筛选的过程中却不断遇到阻碍。Many doctors neglect to note a patient’s blood pressure in their medical records, something that no amount of data cleaning can fix. Simply determining what ails patients—based on what’s in their files—is surprisingly difficult for computers. Doctors may enter the proper code for diabetes without clearly indicating whether it’s the patient who has the disease or a family member. Or they may just enter “insulin” without mentioning the underlying diagnosis because, to them, it’s obvious.很多医生在病历中没有记录病人的血压,这个问题是无论哪种数据净化方法都修复不了的。光凭借现有病历的信息去判断病人得了什么病对电脑来说就已经是一项极其困难的任务。医生在输入糖尿病编号的时候,可能忘了清楚地标注究竟是患者本人得了糖尿病,还是他的某个家人得了糖尿病。又或许他们光是输入了“胰岛素”三个字,而没有提到患者得了什么病,因为这对他们来说是再明显不过的事情。Physicians also use a lot of idiosyncratic shorthand for medications, illnesses and basic patient details. Deciphering it takes a lot of head scratching for humans and is nearly impossible for a computer. For example, Keshavjee came across one doctor who used the abbreviation”gpa.” Only after coming across a variation, “gma,” did he finally solve the puzzle—they were shorthand for “grandpa” and “grandma.”医生用来诊断、开药和填写病人基本信息时会大量用到一套独特的速记字体。即使让人类来破解它也要大为头痛,而对于电脑基本上是不可能完成的任务。比如科夏瓦杰提到有个医生在病历中写下“gpa”三个字母,让他百思不得其解。好在他发现后面不远处又写着“gma”三字,他才恍然大悟——原来它们是爷爷(grandpa)和奶奶(grandma)的缩写。“It took a while to figure that one out,” he said.科夏瓦杰说:“我花了好半天才明白它们到底是什么意思。”Ultimately, Keshavjee said one of the only ways to solve the problem of dirty data in medical records is “data discipline.” Doctors need to be trained to enter information correctly so that cleaning up after them is less of a chore. Incorporating something like Google’s helpful tool that suggests how to spell words as users type them would be a great addition for electronic medical records, he said. Computers can learn to pick out spelling errors, but minimizing the need is a step in the right direction.科夏瓦杰认为,解决数据“不干净”的终极方法之一是要给病历制定一套“数据纪律”。要训练医生养成正确录入信息的习惯,这样事后净化数据时才不至于乱得一团糟。科夏瓦杰表示,谷歌有一个很有用的工具,可以在用户进行输入时告诉他们如何拼写生僻字,这样的工具完全可以添加到电子病历工具中。电脑虽然可以挑出拼写错误,但是让医生摒弃不良习惯才是朝着正确的方向迈出了一步。Another of Keshavjee’s suggestions is to create medical records with more standardized fields. A computer would then know where to look for specific information, reducing the chance of error. Of course, doing so is not as easy as it sounds because many patients suffer from multiple illnesses, he said. A standard form would have to be flexible enough to take such complications into account.科夏瓦杰的另一个建议是,在电子病历中设置更多标准化的域。这样电脑就会知道到哪里去找特定的信息,从而减少出错率。当然,实际操作起来并没有这么简单,因为很多病人同时身患好几种疾病。因此,一个标准的表格必须拥有足够的灵活性,把这些复杂情况全部考虑进去。Still, doctors would need to be able to jot down more free-form electronic notes that could never fit in a small box. Nuance like why a patient fell, for example, and not just the injury suffered, is critical for research. But software is hit and miss in understanding free-form writing without context. Humans searching by keyword may do a better job, but they still inevitably miss many relevant records.但是出于诊疗的需要,医生有时需要在病历上记下一些自由行文的东西,这些内容肯定不是一个小格子能装得下的。比如一个患者为什么会摔倒,如果不是受伤导致的,那么原因就非常重要。但是在没有上下文的条件下,软件对于自由行文的理解只能用撞大运来形容。筛选数据的时候,如果人们用关键词搜索的话可能会做得更好些,但这样也难免会漏掉很多有关的记录。Of course, in some cases, what appears to be dirty data, really isn’t. Sullivan, from Booz Allen, gave the example the time his team was analyzing demographic information about customers for a luxury hotel chain and came across data showing that teens from a wealthy Middle Eastern country were frequent guests.当然,在有些案例中,有些看起来不干净的数并不是真的不干净。思艾伦咨询公司副总裁沙利文举例说,有一次他的团队为一家豪华连锁酒店分析顾客的人口统计数据,突然发现,数据显示一个富有的中东国家的青少年群体是这家酒店的常客。“There were a whole group of 17 year-olds staying at the properties worldwide,’ Sullivan said. “We thought, ‘That can’t be true.’ “沙利文回忆道:“有一大群17岁的青少年在世界各地都住这家酒店,我们以为:‘这肯定不是真的。’”But after some digging, they found that the information was, in fact, correct. The hotel had legions of young customers that it didn’t even realize were there, and had never done anything to market to them. All guests under 22 were automatically logged as “low-income” in the company’s computers. Hotel executives had never considered the possibility of teens with deep pockets.但做了一些挖掘工作后,他们发现这个信息其实是正确的。这家酒店有大量的青少年顾客,甚至连酒店自己也没有意识到,而且酒店也没有针对这部分顾客做过任何促销和宣传。所有22岁以下的顾客都被这家公司的电脑自动列入“低收入”群体,酒店的高管们也从来没有考虑过这些孩子的腰包有多鼓。“I think it’s harder to build models if you don’t have outliers,” Sullivan said.沙利文说:“我认为如果没有离群值的话,构建模型会更难。”Even when data is clearly dirty, it can sometimes be put to good use. Take the example, again, of Google’s spelling suggestion technology. It automatically recognizes misspelled words and offers alternative spellings. It’s only possible because Google GOOG -0.34% has collected millions and perhaps billions of misspelled queries over the years. Instead of garbage, the dirty data is an opportunity.即便有时数据明显不干净,它有时依然能派上大用场。比如上文提到的谷歌(Google)的拼写纠正技术。它可以自动识别拼写错误的单词,然后提供替代拼写。这个工具之所以有这样神奇的功用,是因为谷歌在过去几年中已经收集了几亿甚至几十亿个拼写错误的词条。因此不干净的数据也可以变废为宝。Ultimately, humans, and not machines, draw conclusions from the data they crunch. Computers can sort through millions of documents, but they can’t interpret the findings. Cleaning data is just one of step in a long trial and error process to get to that point. Big data, for all its hype about its ability to lift business profits and help humanity, is a big headache.最终,从大数据中获得结论的是人而不是机器。电脑虽然可以整理几百万份文件,但它并不能真的解读它。数据净化就是为了方便人们从数据中获取结论而反复试错的过程。尽管大数据已被奉为能提高商业利润、能造福全人类的神器,但它也是个很让人头痛的东西。“The idea of failure is completely different in data science,” Sullivan said. “If you they don’t fail 10 or 12 times a day to get to where they should be, they’re not doing it right.”沙利文指出:“失败的概念在数据科学中完全是另一回事。如果我们每天不失败10次或12次来试错,它们就不会给出正确的结果。” /201407/312874“This,” wrote the Google Ventures general partner David Krane yesterday on Twitter. “10 years ago, today. A day I’ll never forget…”谷歌创投(Google Ventures)普通合伙人戴维·克莱恩8月19日在Twitter上写道:“这是10年前的今年。我永远无法忘记的一天……”The object in question was the photo-of-a-photo seen above, of Google executives preparing to ring the opening bell of Nasdaq in New York on August 19, 2004. As Fortune wrote yesterday, Google was a much smaller company then. It was involved in far fewer businesses, had dramatically less revenue, and employed just five percent of the people it does today.他所说的正是上面我们看到的那张图,那是2004年8月19日,谷歌高管团队准备在纽约敲响纳斯达克(Nasdaq)开市钟时的合影。正如《财富》杂志(Fortune)另一篇报道中所写的那样,那时的谷歌还是一家小公司,公司业务比现在小得多,更没有如此巨额的收入,员工人数也只有如今的百分之五。The people on stage for Google’s initial public offering that day didn’t even represent 1% of the company’s employees at the time, but many of them were important to the company’s early success. Below, a list of who those people are, what role they played on that day in 2004, and where they are today.谷歌上市当天,登台的人数甚至不到当时公司总人数的1%,但其中许多人对于公司早期的成功发挥了重要作用。下面是照片中各位人物的介绍,他们在2004年谷歌上市当天的角色,以及他们的现状。In the front row前排Left to right:从左到右:Unknown Nasdaq executive身份不明的纳斯达克高管David Krane—then, Google’s director of Global Communications and Public Affairs;now, general partner at Google Ventures.戴维o克莱恩——时任谷歌全球通信及公共事务部总监;现任谷歌风投普通合伙人。George Reyes—then, Google’s chief financial officer; now, retired.乔治o雷耶斯——时任谷歌首席财务官;现已退休。Eric Schmidt—then, Google’s chief executive officer; now, Google’s executive chairman.埃里克o施密特——时任谷歌首席执行官;现任谷歌执行董事长。Larry Page—then, Google’s president of products; now, Google’s chief executive officer.拉里o佩奇——时任谷歌产品总裁;现任谷歌首席执行官。Robert Greifeld—then and now, Nasdaq’s chief executive officer. (You may remember him for bearing the criticism for Facebook’s botched IPO in 2012.)罗伯特o格雷菲尔德——时任及现任纳斯达克首席执行官(2012年,他曾因Facebook IPO被搞砸饱受批评。)Unknown Nasdaq executive身份不明的纳斯达克高管In the back row后排Left to right:从左到右:Mona Chu—then, Google’s director of SEC reporting amp; technical accounting; now, unknown. (She left Google in June 2013, according to her LinkedIn profile.)莫娜o朱——时任谷歌SEC申报与技术会计总监;现状未知(根据其在LinkedIn上的资料,她已于2013年6月离开谷歌。)Unknown executive身份不明的高管Mark Fuchs—then, Google’s vice president of finance and chief accountant; now, unknown.马克o福克斯——时任谷歌财务副总裁兼总会计师;现状未知。Pietro Dova—then, Google’s corporate controller and finance director; now, a founding partner at XG Ventures (with ex-Googler Andrea Zurek).彼得罗o多瓦——时任谷歌公司控制官兼财务总监;现任风险投资公司XG Ventures创始合伙人(与原谷歌员工安德里亚o祖瑞克合作)。Marissa Mayer—then, Google’s director of consumer Web products; today, Yahoo’s president and chief executive officer.梅丽莎o梅耶尔——时任谷歌消费者网络产品总监;现任雅虎(Yahoo)总裁兼首席执行官。Douglas Merrill—then, Google’s chief information officer (he stitched together the IT behind the very complicated, multi-bank “Dutch” auction system); now, founder and chief executive of ZestFinance.道格拉斯o梅里尔——时任谷歌首席信息官(他将非常复杂的多“各自付费”拍卖系统进行了成功整合);现任金融公司ZestFinance创始人兼首席执行官。Tim Armstrong—then, Google’s vice president for advertising sales; now, AOL’s chairman and chief executive officer.蒂姆o阿姆斯特朗——时任谷歌广告销售副总裁;现任美国在线(AOL)董事长兼首席执行官。Omid Kordestani—then, Google’s senior vice president for worldwide sales and field operations; now, Google’s interim chief business officer (since the departure of Nikesh Arora last month) and special advisor to the CEO.奥米德o柯德斯塔尼——时任谷歌全球销售与现场运营高级副总裁;现任谷歌临时首席商务官(自上个月尼科什o阿罗拉离职以来)及CEO特别顾问。Michael Grimes—then and now, head of global technology investment banking at Morgan Stanley.迈克尔o格兰姆斯——时任及现任根o士丹利(Morgan Stanley)全球科技投资部门主管。Jeff Donovan—then, a Google lawyer; now, unknown.杰夫o多诺万——时任谷歌律师;现状未知。David Drummond—then, Google’s vice president and general counsel; now, Google’s senior vice president for corporate development and chief legal officer.大卫o德拉蒙德——时任谷歌副总裁兼总法律顾问;现任谷歌公司发展高级副总裁兼首席法务官。 /201408/323622郑大第一附属医院切眼袋多少钱

郑州大学附属医院脱毛手术多少钱郑州大学附属医院祛疤价钱费用 The hospital room may be due for a checkup. 医院病房或许该做一次检查了。Doctors and nurses, architects and designers all say the room setting has an important but largely neglected role to play in the delivery of quality care and outcomes. 医生和护士、建筑师和设计师都说,病房环境对于优质护理与优质诊疗结果的达成发挥着重要的作用,然而这种作用基本上都是被忽略了的。Consider infections. One out of every 20 patients admitted to a hospital picks up an infection while there, according the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These infections can be serious and deadly, and they cost the U.S. billion a year. 以感染为例。据美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)数据,在美国,每20个入院病人就有一人在住院期间感染某种疾病。这些疾病有可能是严重而致命的,每年为此付出的代价高达100亿美元。But recent studies indicate that at least half can be avoided. And the design of patient rooms is one of the best places to start. 但近期研究表明,至少一半的感染是可以避免的。病房的设计是最佳切入点之一。The hospital room has changed little since the post-World War II years, when there was a shift to semiprivate rooms from wards. But even then, the patient wasn#39;t central to the plan. Now, the patient room of the future is being designed as a safe, private, comfortable place conducive to healing. 二战之后的那些年里,多人共用的大病房被陆续改为二到四人共用的半私密病房,之后基本上就没有变化。然而即便在当时,病房的改造也不是围绕病人而展开的。如今,未来的病房正在被设计成一个安全、私密、舒适、有利于康复的地方。#39;With all the knowledge we#39;ve gained,#39; says Douglas Wood, director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation, #39;we can increasingly create an environment in the hospital to minimize the transmission of bacteria, increase the circulation of air, and reduce pain, discomfort and poor clinical outcomes.#39; 梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)创新研究中心主任道格拉斯#12539;伍德(Douglas Wood)说:“利用我们已经获知的各种知识,我们越来越有能力在医院里面打造一种最大化降低细菌传播,增加空气循环,减少疼痛、不适和劣质诊疗结果的环境。”Hospital officials from across the U.S. and abroad have traveled to New York to see the prototype patient room shown here. Designed by NXT Health, a nonprofit in New York, and funded by the Department of Defense, the room is designed to reduce infections, falls, errors -- and ultimately costs. Here#39;s a look at how it would do so. 全美各地以及美国国外都有医院管理人员前往纽约参观本文所示的这间样板病房。这间病房由纽约非营利组织NXT Health设计、美国国防部资助,其出发点是减少感染、摔倒和差错――最终就是减少要付出的代价。让我们大概了解一下它是怎样实现这些目标的。1. Patient Ribbon 1#8226;“病人环带”The canopy above the bed, the patient ribbon, extends from the head wall to the footwall. It contains electrical, technological and gas components normally found in any hospital room. It also includes a sound system that can create a cocoon above the patient#39;s head to block out unwanted noise and minimize the transmission of noise to other areas of the room. 病床上方的顶盖“病人环带”(Patient Ribbon)从床头墙一直延伸到床尾墙,包含普通病房里面一般都有的电子、技术及气体设备。它还有一个声音系统,可以在病人头部上方形成一个“茧”,一方面屏蔽掉恼人的噪音,另一方面也最大化地降低传到病房其他区域的噪音。2. Halo Lightbox 2. 晕轮灯箱The halo lightbox in the patient ribbon above the bed can be programmed for mood or light therapy, and can simulate cloud movements, blue skies and other lighting conditions. 镶嵌在病床上方病人环带里的晕轮灯箱可以通过编程打造特定氛围或用于灯光理疗,也可以模拟浮云、蓝天和其他一些光线环境。3. Head Wall 3. 床头墙The head wall contains the equipment needed to check vital signs (heartbeat, breathing rate, temperature and blood pressure), as well as oxygen and other supplies, all stowed neatly out of sight but easily accessible through pull-down panels in the wall. 床头墙包含一台用于检查关键指标(心跳、呼吸频率、体温和血压)的设备,以及氧气和其他物资供给设备。这一切都整齐地收纳起来不会被看到,但可以通过床头墙内的下拉式面板轻松调用。4. Footwall 4. 床尾墙The footwall contains a large screen that can be used for entertainment, consultations with doctors, and access to hospital information, educational content and social-media sites. It#39;s controlled from the bed by a tablet computer that allows the patient to adjust lighting, sound, and temperature. 床尾墙包含一个大屏幕,可以用于、通过视频咨询医生,也可以用来访问医院信息、教育内容和社交网站。病人在病床上通过一台平板电脑来对其进行控制。这台电脑还允许病人调节光线、声音和温度。5. Rubber Floors 5. 橡胶地板The floors are made of low-porosity rubber, which doesn#39;t contain or need chemical sealers or waxes that often trap bacteria and other substances that can cause infections and allergic reaction. Rubber is quieter, softer and less slippery than other traditional floor materials. In case of a fall, it reduces impact. 地面由细孔橡胶铺成,不包含也不需要化学密封材料或蜡油,因为这些东西常常会藏纳细菌等物质,可能引起感染和过敏反应。橡胶比其他传统地面材料要安静、柔软、防滑。在发生摔倒的情况下,还可以减轻冲击。6. Room Surfaces 6. 室内表面All surfaces in the room other than the floor are made of Corian or similar solid-surface materials commonly found in homes as kitchen countertops. The material is nonporous and seamless, making it easy to clean and minimizing the chances for mold, mildew or bacteria to grow. That all reduces the risk of infection. 室内除了地面以外的其他表面都采用可丽耐人造石(Corian)和其他常用作住宅厨房台面的硬表面材料。这些材料无孔无缝,容易清洁,并将发霉、生长细菌的概率最小化。这些都会降低感染风险。7. Entry Workstation 7. 入口工作站The workstation is located at the entrance to the patient room. As a staff member or other person enters, the sink lights up in red to indicate that hands should be washed. When hands are disinfected, a green light blinks. A dashboard in the wall stores a computer, where information on the patient can be found and entered. 这个工作站位于病房入口。当医院人员或其他人员进入的时候,洗手台就会亮起红灯,表示需要洗手。双手消完毒之后,就会有绿灯闪烁。墙面上的一个仪表板放了一台电脑,可以查阅、录入病人的资料。8. Bedside Caregiver Hub 8. 床边护理中心At the bedside caregiver hub, a wall panel holds another computer. Other technology is embedded in the wall, and when the panel is closed, ultraviolet light kills bacteria that might have formed on surfaces. The computer keyboard, like all others in the room, is a flat, nonporous typing surface that#39;s easy and quick to clean, unlike conventional keyboards, which can harbor bacteria. 床边护理中心的一个墙面面板容纳了另外一台电脑。墙面还植入了其他一些技术,当面板关闭的时候,就会有紫外线杀灭各处表面上可能已经形成的细菌。电脑键盘和病房内的其他所有键盘一样,都是一个平坦无孔的输入表面,清洁起来方便快捷,不像常规键盘那样可能会藏纳细菌。9. Patient Companion 9. 病人伴侣The mobile patient companion contains both an eating surface and a flat computer when flipped over. Operated by touch, the computer controls the screen on the footwall and the light and sound in the patient area. The surface has colored rings to indicate when power is low and icons to touch to call for help. 移动式病人伴侣包含一个就餐平面,翻过来就是一台平板电脑。电脑为触控式,控制着床尾墙面上的屏幕和病人区域的光线、声音。就餐平面上有表示何时电量不足的色圆圈,以及通过触摸寻求帮助的图标。 /201312/268306郑州市做黑脸娃娃多少钱

郑州那过医院激光比较好些 Sex changes the brain ; and it is different for men and women.研究发现:初夜会改变男人大脑结构Losing your virginity really could be life-changing. Having sex apparently alters the structure of the brain ; in men, at least.失去处子之身确实会改变你的人生。初尝禁果会显著地改变人的大脑结构;;至少对男人是如此。A Japanese study of tiny spines that occur between brain cells revealed virgin male rats to have far more of them than more sexually experienced counterparts.日本的一项对于脑细胞间微小脊髓组织的研究揭示,;处男;老鼠相比那些有过性经验的老鼠有更多这种脊髓组织。This implies the spines drive sex for the first time and then they shrink or disappear. It may one day be possible to create a pill for humans that increases the growth of spines. This could help boost libido, New Scientist reports.这意味着这种脊髓组织促使老鼠发生了初次性行为,并在初夜过后变少或消失。《新科学家》报告称,将来有一天可能会发明出一种能令这种脊髓组织增加的药丸,为人类务。这种药丸将有助于提升性欲。Stuart Tobet, a neuroscientist in the US, said the studies provide a ;glimpse into how changes in the structure of spines contribute to the ability to display sexual behaviours in rats and perhaps by extrapolation, to other mammals, including humans.;美国神经学家斯图亚特bull;托比特说,这些研究让人们能够;一睹大脑脊髓结构的改变对于老鼠性能力的影响,这种影响也许可以推及包括人类在内的其他哺乳动物。;Once their mission is achieved, the spines are no longer needed and so shrink or disappear.一旦这种脊髓组织的使命完成了,它们就不再被需要,因而也就减少或消失了。What is more, the microscopic spines may also affect men#39;s early sexual encounters, this week#39;s New Scientist reports.而且,据《新科学家》本周的报道,这种微小的脊髓组织还会影响男人的早期性行为。It was aly known that several brain regions linked to sexual behaviour differ in size between the sexes in humans and other animals.现在已经获知人类和其他动物的几个和性行为相关的大脑区域在两性之间存在着大小之差。To find out whether an area known to be bigger in males was altered by having sex, the Saitama University researchers compared the brains of male rats who had never had sex before with their more experienced cage-mates.为了查明性行为是否会改变男性较大的这块大脑区域,埼玉大学的研究人员将从未有过性生活的雄性老鼠和有过性经验的雄性老鼠的大脑做了比较。They found that the number of brain spines was significantly lower in the non-virgins.他们发现,;非处;老鼠的这种大脑脊髓组织的数量明显比;处男;老鼠要低。Researcher Shinji Tsukahara says the decrease in spines may have been caused by a number of factors, including hormonal changes triggered by the presence of a female.研究人员冢原慎司说,脊髓组织的减少可能是由多种因素引起的,包括雌性出现引发的荷尔蒙的改变。He said that the spines may serve as a ;one-way road to learn how to mate; and once used they are no longer needed.他说,脊髓组织也许是;学习如何性交的单行道;,一旦被使用过,它们就不再被需要。 /201112/164022信阳市中心医院祛疤手术多少钱郑州华山整形打玻尿酸多少钱




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