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时间:2020年01月24日 21:17:18

But it was hard for wolves.但对狼而言却是难事。Wolves that have been raised by people should have had the same success at finding the sealed container, but they didnt.被人类所抚养的狼应该和一样找到密封容器,但它们却未能成功。Even chimpanzees, which are very smart animals indeed, werent as fast at finding the food as dogs.甚至是黑猩猩这种非常聪明的动物也无法像那样能够迅速发现其中诀窍。What does this mean?这代表着什么呢? One interpretation is that dogs do, in fact, have a natural ability to understand forms of human communication.一种解释是们事实上有一种天然理解人类交流形式的能力。Even nine-week old puppies found the food, suggesting the skill is there before training.即使出生刚满9周的小也可以找到食物,这表明未经过训练就已经拥有天生技能。Wolves dont have the skill, suggesting that it has developed in dogs since the time they branched off from their evolutionary predecessors.而狼并不具备这种能力,这表明自从从先祖中分离时狼已经从类中得以进化。There is debate about this idea.关于这个想法存在着争论。But Tomasello thinks that in the past fifteen thousand years, as human beings and dogs have evolved together, the basis for fidos ability to understand what you mean may have become encoded in his genes.但是托马塞洛认为在过去的15000年里,随着人类和一同进化,理解人类意图的能力可能已经融入到自身基因当中。201502/358581

So theres a new study that came out that said that,the America is the busiest country in the world.有一项新的调查认为 美国是世界上最忙的国家Well I think I didnt the whole thing because I was busy.好吧 我认为 那个调查我没看完 因为我当时很忙But I want to help all of you.I recently discovered a skill,that I think can save everyone lot of time.但是我想帮助你们 我最近开发了一项技能 我觉得那可以帮助大家节省很多时间I can answer any question in exactly six words.我能用六个词回答别人的问题Like yesterday I was talking about ;The Bachelor;.就像昨天我说起;光棍;And I said Cause I was trying to describe it, I said,然后我说 因为我当时在想办法描述它 我就说if tequila builds a theme park,thats what ;The Bachelor; is.酒是生活主题 这就是;光棍;So its simply, its only six words.And I got the point of course.就这么简洁 只有六个词 我抓住精髓了So we started collecting questions from my audience.所以我们就开始收集观众提出的问题And weve been collecting for quite a while now.我们已经收集一阵子了I have not seen them but I gonna try to answer them.我没有看过这些问题 但我会尽量回答Them in a segment were calling.Six-word answers.我们做了一个剪辑 六字箴言 /201511/411279

听力参考文本(文本与听力不全一致,敬请谅解):How do you express your feelings when a team of experts sits you down to tell you your child is developmentally disabled?When Janice Fialka? of Huntington Woods came home reeling from such a case conference about her five-year-old son Micah, she sat down and tried to put her feelings into words.The result was a poem she calls Advice to Professionals who must ;conference cases.;;I want my son back,; she writes. ;I want him back now. Then Ill get on with my life.;And that she did. Fialka and her family - husband Rich, daughter Emma and son Micah - launched themselves on a mission to prove that labels and IQ tests are not true measures of someones ability to be valuable to the world, to contribute, to learn.Her book is titled What Matters: Reflections on Disability, Community and Love.Fialka joined us today to share Micahs story and what shes learned through raising and supporting her son.Fialka will be on campus at the University of Michigan this coming Friday for a Qamp;A and book signing as part of an event called Disability Inclusion.201609/465307

Health care in Vietnam越南卫生保健Limping along一路跛行Ordinary folk are sick and tired of their public hospitals老百姓厌烦了公立医院Full to overflowing完全超载WAS the tumour malignant? Nguyen Thi Hoats doctors could not tell because their public hospital lacks brain-scanners. Ms Hoats only option was to travel 130km (80 miles), on the back of her sisters motorbike, from her village to a crowded public hospital in the capital. Yet her state insurance policy covers just 30% of any medical expenses incurred outside her home province. The 0 that Ms Hoat, a rice farmer, put towards blood tests and a brain scan is equal, for her, to a months earnings.该肿瘤是恶性的吗?阮霍特的医生们无法确认,他们所属的公立医院缺乏相应的脑部扫描仪。霍特毫无选择,只能坐在的托后座上从她所在的村庄驱车130km前往首都人满为患的公立医院治疗。然而如果不在她的家乡治疗,国家保险政策就只能报销所有医疗消费的30%。霍特是一个米农,用在验血和脑部检查上的150美元等同于她一个月的收入。It is the job of the authorities to look after health care. The Communist Party of Vietnam first pledged health-sector reform as early as the 1920s, well before it declared the country independent in 1945. It developed a publicly financed healthcare system even as it was fighting wars against France and then America. The provision of health care is supposed to be one of the pillars on which the partys legitimacy is based.提供医疗保险是政府的分内事。早在1945年宣布国家独立之前,在二十世纪二十年代,越南共产党就承诺了卫生部门改革。甚至在先后与法国和美国交战时,越南开发出了公共财政持的医保体系。关于医保的规定应为共产党正统性的基石之一。Yet the health-care system, like the state-dominated economy, is limping. The 3% of GDP the state spends on the system (nearly half of total health spending) is not enough to improve health infrastructure. Hospitals have outdated facilities and maddeningly opaque bureaucracies. A law on health insurance passed in 2008, created to assist the poor and ethnic minorities, is far from comprehensive. But the government knows that providing proper health care is key to preventing the kind of social unrest that undermines its authority.但是医保体系如同越南的国家主导经济一样举步维艰。国家将GDP的3% 用在医保体系上,但不足以改善健康困境。医院的设备过时,其官僚作风也令人发指。2008年旨在扶持穷人和少数民族所通过的医保法案就太过复杂。然而政府明白,保障社保是预防威胁其统治的社会不安定因素的关键。Some reform is under way. The government has given some hospitals more autonomy. And in June the national assembly passed a new version of the insurance law designed to make participation compulsory. The idea is to lure into the fold poorer and black-market workers who have long avoided paying insurance.一些改革正在进行中。政府给了一些医院更多的自主权。并且在6月是,国家共同通过了保险法的新版本,强制民众参加医保法案。旨在诱导长期不付保金的贫困户和黑市工人参保。Yet distrust of the system runs deep. Some public hospitals have built flashy new wings which cater to well-heeled patients but do little to meet general demand. Bed-sharing is common, especially in urban wards flooded by patients from the countryside.然而人们对该体系积怨已深。一些公立医院为迎合富有的病人设立了崭新的设备,这些设备却很少能去满足多数人的需求。尤其是在涌满乡村而来的病人的城市病房内,共用一张病床十分普遍。Though this is an authoritarian state, ordinary Vietnamese are remarkably outspoken about social issues. In health, they complain of the prevalence of “out of pocket” payments, which happen in around half of health-care transactions. Many of the payments are really bribes paid on top of formal hospital fees. They mean that affordability is often a larger factor than need, for all but the richest patients. In a typical case, a university lecturer in Hanoi says she slipped doctors and nurses about 0 to ensure attentive treatment when she gave birth at a public maternity hospital. The rate, she says, was per injection, for a bath and to sidestep a queue.尽管越南是专制国家,越南人仍对社会话题直言不讳。在健康方面,他们抱怨在当今风气下,医疗交易上半数的费用都用于“塞红包”。许多费用事实上用在了正规医药费之外。对他们而言,除了那些最有钱的病人,普通病人的付能力比病人的需求更为重要,。举一典例,河内大学的讲师表示,当她在公立妇女医院生产时曾为能得到悉心照料,塞给了医生护士们约250美元。她说,按比例细算,注射1美元,洗澡2美元,免排队5美元。The health minister, Nguyen Thi Kim Tien, has faced blistering criticism this year after a parade of health scandals, including a measles outbreak that killed more than 100 children. Online, thousands have called for her resignation. A popular television satire advises sick patients to avoid corrupt doctors by curing themselves. The fault is not all the ministers—or the doctors; they have long earned as little as 0 a month, for instance.今年,卫生部长阮氏金因一系列健康方面的丑闻而受到强烈谴责,其中包括一场致死100个孩子的麻疹爆发。数千人在网上要求其辞职。一档知名的电视节目讽刺地建议人们可以通过自救以远离受贿的医生们。责任也并非全在官员们和医生们身上;通常来说,他们每月也只能拿到仅仅100美元。In order to get by, doctors moonlight at private hospitals and clinics that are popping up in cities, led by Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, to serve foreigners and affluent Vietnamese, people who would otherwise opt for treatment in Singapore or Hong Kong. One such institution is Vinmec International Hospital, a 600-bed facility financed by Vingroup, a property developer. Its director, Nguyen Thanh Liem, says private hospitals help to minimise overcrowding elsewhere. And they showcase an international standard of care that may one day sp to the public sector.为了谋生,潜伏在私立医院和诊所中的医生来到了各个城市中给外国人和富裕的本国人治病,首选是河内和胡志明市,病人们若不在此,则会选择在新加坡或在香港就诊。越南国际医院就是这样一个机构,房地产开发商潘日旺赞助了600个床位。医院主管表示私立医院缓解了其他医院的拥挤。他们展现了国际保健的水准,并可能在某一天推广到公共医疗部门。That is cold comfort for Nguyen Thi Hoat, the rice farmer with a brain tumour. She says if her tumour proves cancerous, she will need to borrow from her brother and sister for surgery in Hanoi. Her family is worried. Yet poorer neighbours, she says, have fewer options. She considers herself lucky.这并不能慰藉阮霍特,这个长了脑瘤的米农。她说如果他的肿瘤是癌的话,就得从住在河内的哥哥那儿借钱治病了。她的家庭陷入了焦虑。她还说,更贫穷的邻居们选择更少。她觉得自己算是幸运的。 /201409/332533

The ed Nations reported that as many as 50 civilians were killed in airstrikes on seven schools and hospitals Monday in the Syrian provinces of Aleppo and Idlib. 联合国报告称,周一叙利亚阿勒颇和伊德利卜省七所学校和医院遭空袭,造成多达50名平民遇难。A spokesman for U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, told reporters at a briefing Monday afternoon in New York, ;Such attacks are a blatant violation of international laws.; 周一下午在纽约一发布会上,联合国秘书长潘基文发言人对记者表示,“这样的袭击是公然违反国际法的。”The spokesperson added that children were among the dead in the missile strikes on at least five medical facilities and two schools in Aleppo and in Idlib. 发言人还表示,在阿勒颇和伊德利卜至少五所医院和两所学校遭导弹袭击,孩子也在遇难者中。The U.S. State Department blamed the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad and his Russian backers for the attacks.美国国务院指责叙利亚总统巴沙尔·阿萨德政权及其俄罗斯持者。译文属。201602/426450

A recent legal case in Cass County is raising questions about HIV disclosure laws in Michigan.Trevor Hoppe is a sociologist who specializes in sexuality, HIV and the law. His research studies are titled Punishing Disease and he is co-editor of The War on Sex, a forthcoming collection of essays that examines the criminal regulation of sex.Hoppe wrote a piece in the Huffington Post about an HIV-positive man in Cassopolis, MI, named Corey Rangel.It all started when police pulled Rangel over for a having a loud muffler. Rangel, on probation for drug-related charges, was cited for not wearing corrective lenses and driving without proof of insurance.;He had to report that to his probation officer,; Hoppe says, ;which he did, and his probation officer originally said basically, Not a big deal, youve been great in the drug court program, youre a model sort of participant, we dont want this to interrupt your progress.;But several hours later, Rangel got a call that would change that. He was told he needed to report to jail immediately and to bring his phone with him.When he handed over his phone, Hoppe tells us police demanded Rangel give them the password to unlock the device. He was also expelled from the drug court program upon being taken into custody.;(Rangel) didnt understand exactly what was going on, but he did not feel that he had anything to hide from the police,; Hoppe says. So he gave them the password.Later, he found out that the police had gone through his contacts list, ;making calls to people in his contacts and asking them if they had had intimate contact with Corey and whether they were aware of his HIV status.;Hoppe tells us its unclear how the police even knew about Rangels HIV status in the first place.;The court has so far been unwilling or unable to turn over the records that would explain why he was expelled from the drug court program and why now hes at risk of going to prison.;The full extend of Rangels sentence was deferred when he entered the drug court program, but Hoppe tell us he could now face the full original sentence.;The judge could effectively sentence him to many years in prison, and it seems like the only thing guiding their investigation here is Coreys HIV status,; he says.Michigan passed a law in 1989 that made it a felony for HIV-positive people to engage in sexual penetration without disclosing their status to their partner. But according to Hoppe, the police have stated that they found no evidence that Rangel has committed any criminal wrongdoing and no charges have been filed against him.;Whats at stake in Coreys case is just the notion that they investigated him for criminal wrongdoing when the only impetus for doing so was his HIV-positive status. So theyre treating him differently than they would have an HIV-negative person on probation.;Hoppe tells us that Rangel will now be entitled to an ;open and fair; hearing, in which the rationale for expelling Rangel will have to be made clear.The HIV disclosure law in Michigan was designed to protect people from contracting HIV, but Hoppes research suggests it has had a different effect.;These laws, unfortunately, reinforce the idea that we can protect people from disease using the criminal law,; he says.;But moreover they target HIV singularly. We dont have these laws for other communicable diseases, and I think that exposes the fact that really whats underlying here is that we have a disease thats especially stigmatized because of the populations it affects.;He explains that if the intent of such a law were truly to protect people from communicable disease, HIV would not be singled out in this way. But even if the law was concerned with communicable diseases more broadly, Hoppe says it would still be ;inappropriate, merely because punishment is not the best approach to controlling disease. Thats why we have public health and medical institutions. Those are the institutions we have in our society to respond to and manage epidemics and communicable diseases.;Hoppe has looked at cases like Rangels across the country. He says if you wanted to argue that these laws were protecting people, ;you would expect to find many cases that resemble the kind of boogeyman many people talk about,; referring to a person who seeks to intentionally infect other people.;You just dont see that to be true,; he says. ;The case law instead is full of people who either use protection and protected their partner from infection, or had an undetectable viral load and could not actually transmit the disease to their partner, or were in a relationship and … were scared, they didnt know how to disclose their status to their partners. Thats the typical defendant in these cases, not the kind of malicious infector that people have in mind.;Hoppe emphasizes that if were going to go after that ;boogeyman,; the laws specifically requiring the disclosure of ones HIV status are not the way to go about it. He argues that there are other laws, ;assault laws, for example,; that could adequately handle a case of malicious infection.Hoppe tells us that Michigans HIV disclosure law is fairly typical in that it does not require proof that there was a risk of transmission or that transmission even occurred. He says that actual transmission is an exceedingly rare outcome, occurring in fewer than 5% of cases in Michigan.For a standout example of how to do things differently, Hoppe looks to California, where the law requires proof of a risk of transmission.;It doesnt make sense to punish people who have put no one in harms way, and I think Californias law tried to accomplish that by also requiring to show that there was intent to harm someone,; Hoppe says. ;To my knowledge, you could count on one hand the number of felony cases in California brought under that statute, which I think reflects the real rarity of cases that are truly deserving of punishment.;For Rangel, Hoppe tells us the ultimate goal is to get him back in the drug court.;Thats where he should be,; Hoppe says. ;He should not be facing years in prison just because hes HIV-positive.;201604/435680


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