原标题: 大理妇产科医院排名39时讯

Back at SCVNGR, we like to joke that with seven game dynamics,在SCVNGR的时候,我们总开玩笑说,如果有7个玩游戏的动机的话,you can get anyone to do anything.我们就能让任何人做任何事情。And so today, Im going to show you four,今天我给大家介绍四种,because I hope to have a competitive advantage at the end of this, still.因为我想保留一些,以保我的相对优势。So the first one, its a very simple game dynamic.第一个,很简单的玩游戏的动机。Its called the appointment dynamic.它叫做约定动机appointment dynamic。And this is a dynamic in which to succeed,要想使这种动机发挥作用,players have to do something at a predefined time, generally at a predefined place.参与游戏者需要在约定的时间做某种事情,通常也约定好了地点。And these dynamics are a little scary sometimes, because you think, you know,有时这种动机有些吓人,因为,你可以设想,other people can be using forces that will manipulate how I interact: what I do, where I do it, when I do it.其他人可能用这种力量来控制人们该如何交流,做什么,在什么地方做以及什么时候去做。This sort of loss of free will that occurs in games can be frightening,在游戏过程中,这种自由的丧失确实存在,有些恐怖,so with each dynamic, Im going to give three examples:每种动机我都会举三个例子——one that shows how this is aly being used in the real world,一个是已经在真实世界中应用的例子,so you can sort of rationalize it a little bit;所以你们可以更好地体会它,one that shows it in what we consider a conventional game --另一个是指出它在传统游戏中表现——I think everything is a game,我认为所有的事情都是游戏,but this is sort of more of a what you would think is a game played on a board or on a computer screen,这与棋盘游戏或者电脑游戏很相似,and then one how this can be used for good,最后一个例子是如何向着好的方向利用这种动机,so we can see that these forces can really be very powerful.由此我们可以看到这些力量是如何的强大。So the first one -- the most famous appointment dynamic in the world--is something called happy hour.第一个例子——也就是世界上有关约定动机的最有名的例子--被称作快乐时刻的例子。So I just recently dropped out of Princeton因为我刚刚从普林斯顿辍学,and actually ended up for the first time in a bar,第一次在酒吧中结束学业生涯,and I saw these happy hour things all over the place, right.我发现在很多地方都有这种优惠时段。And this is simply an appointment dynamic.这是一种简单的约定动机。Come here at a certain time, get your drinks half off.在特定的时间到这里聚会,喝一杯半价饮料。To win, all you have to do is show up at the right place at the right time.为了好处,你会在特定时间出现在特定地方。This game dynamic is so powerful这种游戏动力如此强大,that it doesnt just influence our behavior, its influenced our entire culture.以至于它不仅影响到我们的行为,还影响了整个文化。Thats a really scary thought, that one game dynamic can change things so powerfully.这确实让人害怕,一种玩游戏的动机居然使事情发生如此大的改变。It also exists in more conventional game forms.这种动机也存在于很多传统游戏中。Im sure youve all heard of Farmville by now.我敢肯定你们都听说过了美国农场游戏Farmville。If you havent, I recommend playing it.如果你没听过,我推荐你玩一下。You wont do anything else with the rest of your day.有了它,一天的其他时间里你都不会再去做别的事了。Farmville has more active users than Twitter.美国农场游戏Farmville的用户比Twitter的用户还活跃。Its incredibly powerful, and it has this dynamic它的力量是如此的强大,能让你where you have to return at a certain time to water your crops -- fake crops -- or they wilt.在特定的时刻赶回来玩游戏,为你的庄稼浇水--虚拟的庄稼--否则它们就枯萎了。And this is so powerful that, when they tweak their stats,它的力量如此强大,当信息显示,when they say your crops wilt after eight hours, or after six hours, or after 24 hours,你的庄稼会在8个小时、6个小时或者24个小时之后枯萎,it changes the lifecycle of 70 million-some people during the day.它就能改变这一天7千万人的生物钟。They will return like clockwork at different times.他们会像闹钟一样准时地在不同时间回来给庄稼浇水。So if they wanted the world to end, if they wanted productivity to stop,如果制定游戏的人想要农场倒闭,生产力停滞,they could make this a 30-minute cycle, and no one could do anything else, right?他们可以把浇水的周期改为30分钟,所有人就无法做其他事情了。Thats a little scary.这有些恐怖。But this could also be used for good.但是也可以用这种动机做好事。This is a local company called Vitality,有一个本地的企业叫做Vitality,and theyve created a product to help people take their medicine on time.他们生产一种产品来帮助人们按时吃药。Thats an appointment.这是一种约定。Its something that people dont do very well.在这个方面,有时人们表现的并不好。And they have these GlowCaps, which, you know, flash and email you所以他们就制造了GlowCaps,能够闪烁,还能够给你发邮件and do all sorts of cool things to remind you to take your medicine.还会做一些其他有趣的事情来提醒你吃药。This is one that isnt a game yet, but really should be.这不太像是一种游戏,但实际上它是。You should get points for doing this on time.当你按时吃药的话,你就能够得分。You should lose points for not doing this on time.没有做到就要被扣分。They should consciously recognize that theyve built an appointment dynamic and leverage the games.他们应该意识到,他们已经拥有了约定动机,提升了游戏的水平。And then you can really achieve good in some interesting ways.你确实可以巧妙地利用这一动机做些好事。201601/422966

If you test men and women,如果你测试男性和女性,and you ask them questions on totally objective criteria like GPAs,你问他们问题,按完全客观的标准平均成绩来算,men get it wrong slightly high,男性会错误的高估一些,and women get it wrong slightly low.女性则会错误地低估一些。Women do not negotiate for themselves in the workforce.女性在职场不会为自身利益去谈判。A study in the last two years在过去两年,of people entering the workforce out of college关于人们从学校进入职场的一个调查showed that 57 percent of boys entering,表明57%的男生or men, I guess,或男性进入职场,我猜are negotiating their first salary,会协商他们的第一份薪水,and only seven percent of women.只有7%的女性会去协商。And most importantly,更重要的是,men attribute their success to themselves,男性把他们的成功归功于他们自身,and women attribute it to other external factors.而女性则归功于其他外部因素。If you ask men why they did a good job,如果你问男性为什么他们能把工作做好,theyll say, ;Im awesome.他们会说,“我棒极了。Obviously. Why are you even asking?;这是显而易见的。这还用问吗?”If you ask women why they did a good job,如果你问女性是什么使她们在工作中出色,what theyll say is someone helped them,她们会说有人帮助她们,they got lucky, they worked really hard.她们很幸运,她们工作异常努力。Why does this matter?这个问题很重要吗?Boy, it matters a lot大家,这关系很大because no one gets to the corner office因为没人得到角落办公室的职位by sitting on the side, not at the table,要是只坐在旁边,而不是桌边。and no one gets the promotion没人得到提升if they dont think they deserve their success,如果他们认为他们不应享有这成功,or they dont even understand their own success.或者他们甚至不明白他们自己的成功。I wish the answer were easy.我但愿这是容易的。I wish I could just go tell all the young women I work for,我希望我尽可能告诉我所共事过的所有年轻女性,all these fabulous women,所有这些非常棒的女性,;Believe in yourself and negotiate for yourself.“相信你们自己,为自身利益要讨价还价。Own your own success.;把握住你的成功。”I wish I could tell that to my daughter.我希望我也能告诉我的女儿。But its not that simple.但这不是很简单。Because what the data shows, above all else, is one thing,因为首先是数据表明的是一件事which is that success and likeability它表明成功和人缘亲切性are positively correlated for men对于男性来说是积极影响的and negatively correlated for women.而对于女性来说是负面影响的。And everyones nodding,每个人都点头,because we all know this to be true.因为我们大家都知道这是真的。Theres a really good study that shows this really well.一个非常棒的研究也很好地表明了这一观点。Theres a famous Harvard Business School study哈佛商学院的一个著名研究on a woman named Heidi Roizen.是有关于一位叫海蒂·罗森的女性。And shes an operator in a company她是硅谷一家公司的in Silicon Valley,负责人,and she uses her contacts她使用她的关系to become a very successful venture capitalist.成为一名非常成功的风险资本家。In 2002 -- not so long ago --在2002年,不久前a professor who was then at Columbia University当时在哥伦比亚大学的一位教授took that case and made it Howard Roizen.做这个例子和把它改成霍华德·罗森。And he gave the case out, both of them,他把这个案例,他们两人to two groups of students.向两组学生展示。He changed exactly one word:他只改变了一个词:;Heidi; to ;Howard.;海蒂到霍华德。But that one word made a really big difference.但这个词就造成了非常大的差异。He then surveyed the students,然后他调查学生。and the good news was the students, both men and women,好消息是学生们,男生和女生thought Heidi and Howard were equally competent,认为海蒂和霍华德都是能力相当的,and thats good.这很好。The bad news was that everyone liked Howard.但坏消息是每个人都喜欢霍华德。Hes a great guy. You want to work for him.他是个了不起的人,大家都想和他共事,You want to spend the day fishing with him.大家都想和他去钓鱼。But Heidi? Not so sure.但海蒂呢?不好说。Shes a little out for herself. Shes a little political.她有点只为自己着想,对政治有点热衷。Youre not sure youd want to work for her.大家不太想和她共事。This is the complication.这是复杂的。We have to tell our daughters and our colleagues,我们得告诉我们的女儿和我们的同事,we have to tell ourselves to believe we got the A,我们得告诉我们自己相信我们能获得A,to reach for the promotion,得到提升,to sit at the table,坐在桌边。and we have to do it in a world我们在这世上得做到这点where, for them, there are sacrifices they will make for that,在世上,女性要争取这些就得做出牺牲,even though for their brothers, there are not.尽管她们的兄弟不用为此而付出牺牲。The saddest thing about all of this is that its really hard to remember this.所有关于这的最可悲的事是很难记住这个。And Im about to tell a story which is truly embarrassing for me,我将讲个对我来说是个真正尴尬的故事,but I think important.但我认为它很重要。201509/397496

To give me an idea of how many of you here为了让我知道这里有多少人may find what Im about to tell you待会儿会觉得我告诉你的事情of practical value,有实用价值,let me ask you please to raise your hands:请符合条件的人把手举起来:Who here is either over 65 years old这里有谁已经超过65岁or hopes to live past age 65或者想要活到65岁以后or has parents or grandparents who did live或者有父母、祖父母的岁数or have lived past 65,达到或超过65岁,raise your hands please.请举手。Okay. You are the people to whom my talk好。你们就是会发现我的演讲will be of practical value.有用的人。The rest of you其他人,wont find my talk personally relevant,不会觉得我的演讲和你有切身的关系,but I think that you will still find the subject但我觉得你仍会发现这个主题fascinating.非常有趣。Im going to talk about growing older我要谈一谈在传统的社会里in traditional societies.慢慢变老是什么样子。This subject constitutes just one chapter这一主题是我新书的of my latest book, which compares一章,这本书在比较traditional, small, tribal societies传统上基于部落的小社会,with our large, modern societies,与我们现在的庞大社会之间,with respect to many topics在许多事情上都有很大不同,such as bringing up children,例如后代的培养,growing older, health, dealing with danger,老年问题,健康问题、危机处理,settling disputes, religion领土和宗教争端等,and speaking more than one language.现在社会很多人都能说一种以上语言。Those tribal societies, which constituted这中小部落社会组织形式all human societies for most of human history,是人类漫长历史上最主要的社会形式,are far more diverse than are our modern,远比我们现代的,近代的大社会recent, big societies.更多样化。All big societies that have governments,所有具有政府的,and where most people are strangers to each other,且大多数人互不认识的大社会,are inevitably similar to each other都不可避免地相互类似and different from tribal societies.并且与部落社会不同。Tribes constitute thousands of natural experiments部落的形成是大自然实验的结果in how to run a human society.成千上万次的实验形成了部落的多样性。They constitute experiments from which we ourselves在大自然的实验中,部落形成的过程中may be able to learn.我们可以学到很多。Tribal societies shouldnt be scorned不应该认为部落社会as primitive and miserable,原始而悲惨的,并因此看不起它们but also they shouldnt be romanticized但也不应该觉得它们是as happy and peaceful.幸福与和平的,从而把其浪漫化。When we learn of tribal practices,当我们去了解部落的做法时,some of them will horrify us,有些做法会吓坏我们,but there are other tribal practices which,但也有其他部落的做法,when we hear about them,当我们听说时,we may admire and envy我们可能会觉得佩和羡慕and wonder whether we could adopt those practices并思考,是否我们自己,ourselves.也可以采取这些做法。Most old people in the U.S. end up living生活在美国的大多数老人,最终separately from their children都与子女分开生活and from most of their friends他们年轻时就认识的朋友们of their earlier years,也会相互分开,and often they live in separate retirements homes for the elderly,他们很可能生活在单独为老人设立的养老院里,whereas in traditional societies,而在传统社会中,older people instead live out their lives年纪大的人和他们的子女,among their children, their other relatives,他们的其他亲戚,and their lifelong friends.以及他们认识了一辈子的朋友生活在一起。Nevertheless, the treatment of the elderly虽然,老年人的待遇varies enormously among traditional societies,在不同的传统社会间差别极大,from much worse to much better有比我们的现代社会糟糕很多的,than in our modern societies.也有比我们的现代社会好很多的。At the worst extreme, many traditional societies在最坏的极端,许多传统社会get rid of their elderly通过以下四种一种比一种残忍的方式in one of four increasingly direct ways:来处理部落中的老年人:by neglecting their elderly第一种做法是忽略他们and not feeding or cleaning them until they die,不给他们吃的,不打理他们,任其自生自灭,or by abandoning them when the group moves,第二种做法是在整个群体迁移时,抛弃他们,or by encouraging older people to commit suicide,第三种做法是迫使老人自杀,or by killing older people.最后,最残忍的,杀死老人。In which tribal societies do children到底是什么样的部落社会,abandon or kill their parents?子女会抛弃或杀死他们的父母?It happens mainly under two conditions.主要在以下两个环境下会发生。One is in nomadic, hunter-gather societies一个情况是游牧部落,打猎和采摘为食的社会that often shift camp这些部落常常需要迁移,and that are physically incapable他们没有能力of transporting old people who cant walk带着无法自己迁移的老人,when the able-bodied younger people aly四肢健全的年轻人have to carry their young children要携带年幼的子女and all their physical possessions.和其所有的物质财产。The other condition is in societies另一种是生活在极端恶劣living in marginal or fluctuating environments,或极端不稳定环境中的部落,such as the Arctic or deserts,比如北极或沙漠,where there are periodic food shortages,这些地方有周期性的粮食短缺,and occasionally there just isnt enough food并且时不时的会有饥荒,to keep everyone alive.粮食无法满足所有人。Whatever food is available has to be reserved这种情况下,食物必须for able-bodied adults and for children.为健全的成年人和儿童保留。To us Americans, it sounds horrible对我们美国人来说,这听起来非常可怕,to think of abandoning or killing想想抛弃或杀死your own sick wife or husband你自己生病的妻子或丈夫or elderly mother or father,或年迈的母亲或父亲,but what could those traditional societies但是,那些传统社会还可能do differently?怎么样呢?They face a cruel situation of no choice.他们面对别无选择的残酷态势。Their old people had to do it to their own parents,他们的老人都不得不对自己的父母做这样的事情,and the old people know并且老人们知道what now is going to happen to them.现在什么会发生在他们身上。201506/382294Requiring scholars and commencement speakers, for that matter因此 要求学者和毕业典礼发言者to conform to certain political standards遵循特定政治标准undermines the whole purpose of a university会侵蚀整个大学的存在意义This spring今年春it has been disturbing to see a number of college commencement speakers withdraw很让人不安的是 很多大学毕业典礼演讲者都被撤销了or have their invitations rescinded甚至连邀请函都被撤回了after protests from students and to me, shockingly仅仅因为学生 甚至资深教职团队和管理者的反对from senior faculty and administrators who should know better我很吃惊 学生姑且不论 其他人显然应当更明事理一些It happened at Brandeis, Haverford, Rutgers, and Smith这发生在布兰代斯 哈弗福德 罗格斯 史密斯等院校Last year, it happened at Swarthmore and Johns Hopkins, Im sorry to say去年还发生在斯沃斯莫尔和约翰霍普金斯 我很遗憾In each of these cases这些例子中liberals silenced a voice and they denied an honorary degree自由派都希望让不喜欢的声音无法发出to individuals they deemed politically objectionable政治上不被其认同的人会被拒绝授予荣誉学位This is an outrage and we must not let it continue这太让人愤怒了 我们不应当让它继续发生If a university如果一所大学thinks twice before inviting a commencement speaker在邀请一位毕业典礼演讲嘉宾时because of his or her politics还要因为政治立场再三斟酌censorship and conformity the mortal enemies of freedom win out审查和一致这些自由的死敌就会胜出And sadly, it is not just commencement season when speakers are censored很悲哀的是 并不只有毕业季的演讲嘉宾会被审查Last fall, when I was still in City Hall去年秋 我还在担任市长的时候our Police Commissioner was invited市警察局长受邀to deliver a lecture at another Ivy League institution到另一所常春藤盟校进行演讲but he was unable to do so because students shouted him down结果他的演讲却因学生大声抗议而无法进行Isnt the purpose of a university to stir discussion, not silence it?比起让讨论沉默 大学的意义不应当是激起讨论吗What were the students afraid of hearing?学生到底害怕听到什么Why did administrators not step in to prevent the mob from silencing speech?为什么管理者不采取措施 避免暴民干扰演讲And did anyone consider that it is morally and pedagogically wrong难道其他想听演讲的学生to deprive other students the chance to hear the speech?机会就应当被这样剥夺吗201410/337540Hi! How are you all doing? Are you sure?Well, let me just tell you, it is beyond a pleasure and an honor to be here with all of you today.I want to start by thanking President Krislov for that very kind introduction, as well as all of the trustees, the faculty, the staff here at Oberlin. I also want to tell you how proud and how moved I am to receive this honorary degree from this particular school – the first college in America to officially embrace the admission of black students, and the first co-ed school to grant bachelors degrees to women. (Applause.)I should be here today. Oberlin is likely the only college in America that I could have attended nearly two centuries ago, and I am honored to be part of the extraordinary legacy of this great institution. (Applause.)I also want to take a moment on this Memorial Day to pay tribute to all of the brave men and women who have sacrificed their lives so that we could sit here today, at peace, with rights and freedoms that others around the world can only dream of. I am so proud to honor these American heroes today – and every day – for their extraordinary service to our nation. (Applause.) And Im also a little giddy to be joined on stage by another one of my heroes, Marian Wright Edelman. (Applause.) Her moral leadership on behalf of children in this country has inspired me throughout my career, as well as my husband, the President of the ed States. (Applause.) And, graduates, I think we should give another shout-out to your families, of course, all the families. (Applause.) These are the folks who pushed you and supported you. They answered your late-night phone calls even when you were just calling for money. (Laughter.) So on behalf of your students, I just want to show you all some love today, as well. Thank you for creating these fabulous individuals. Well done. (Applause.)And finally, most of all, I want to congratulate the Oberlin Class of 2015! (Applause.) Look at you! You made it! Youre here! Youre looking good! (Applause.) And I know you worked hard to make it to this moment, didnt you? (Laughter.) Staying up late writing those papers, studying for exams. Spent hours practicing and performing. You went to countless happy hours, and happy-happy hours at the Feve I hear – (laughter) – Im going to try one of those burgers for lunch today; thats all Im going to have – (laughter) – where of course, parents, thats where they studied some more.And on top of all of that, you spent thousands of hours giving back to this community – tutoring kids, playing music for seniors, serving food to folks in need, and of course, mentoring the local young people back there – I see you all – through the Ninde Scholars Program. So proud of you all back there.And thats, as the President said, why Im here today. (Applause.) As he mentioned, my office did this wonderful competition to highlight colleges that are helping underserved young people graduate from high school and then go on to higher education. So by providing tutoring and ACT prep classes, financial aid workshops, and so much more, your Ninde Scholars Program stood out as a shining example of how schools like Oberlin can lift first-generation students into college.So Im here today because Im proud of you all. I really am. Im inspired by your commitment to service and social justice. And Im impressed by the community that you all have created here – a warm, supportive, inclusive community that embodies the values that define this school. And even amidst the joy and excitement of graduation, I know that you may be feeling some real sadness about leaving this community behind. You may also be feeling some real anxiety about venturing out into the world beyond these walls. And Im not going to lie to you – for many of you, this is going to be a pretty big transition. In fact, I think Dr. Martin Luther King described it well in his commencement address in 65 when he declared, “Today you bid farewell to the safe security of the academic environment. You prepare to continue your journey on the clamorous highways of life.”And the truth is, graduates, after four years of thoughtful, respectful discussion and debate here at Oberlin – those seminars where you explored new ideas together, those late-night conversations where you challenged each other and learned from each other – after all of that, you might find yourself a little dismayed by the clamor outside these walls – the name-calling, the negative ads, the folks yelling at each other on TV. After being surrounded by people who are so dedicated to serving others and making the world a better place, you might feel a little discouraged by the polarization and gridlock that too often characterize our politics and civic life. 201507/388168

It also turns out that thinking about mental illness in other animals isnt actually that much of a stretch.同时更没有费心思索过其他动物的精神疾病。。Most mental disorders in the ed States are fear and anxiety disorders,and when you think about it, fear and anxiety are actually really extremely helpful animal emotions.大多数美国人的精神障碍是恐惧和焦躁性障碍,但仔细想一想这两者实际上是极其有益的动物情绪。Usually we feel fear and anxiety in situations that are dangerous,and once we feel them,we then are motivated to move away from whatever is dangerous.通常在危险的情况下 我们才会感到恐惧和焦躁,一旦感受到它们,我们就会受到刺激而远离危险。The problem is when we begin to feel fear and anxiety in situations that dont call for it.问题是,我们在不必要的时候 也会感受到恐惧和焦虑。Mood disorders, too, may actually just be the unfortunate downside of being a feeling animal,and obsessive compulsive disorders also are often manifestations of a really healthy animal thing which is keeping yourself clean and groomed.情绪障碍实际上仅仅是作为有感知动物的一种消极面。强制性障碍也是一种健康动物行为的表现。它让你保持干净整洁。This tips into the territory of mental illness when you do things like compulsively over-wash your hands or paws,这就进入了精神疾病领域当动物强迫地过度洗手或洗爪子,or you develop a ritual thats so extreme that you cant sit down to a bowl of food unless you engage in that ritual.或发展出极端的仪式行为以至于心满意足之前都不能坐下好好吃饭。So for humans, we have the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which is basically an atlas of the currently agreed-upon mental disorders.所以 对于人类我们有一本 《诊断与统计手册》。这本册子主要收录了目前认可的精神障碍。In other animals, we have YouTube.而其它动物,我们有Youtube。This is just one search I did for OCD dog but I encourage all of you to look at OCD cat.这只是搜索强迫症的结果。但我鼓励你们所有人去搜一搜强迫症猫。You will be shocked by what you see.你会被结果惊到的。Im going to show you just a couple examples.在这我就分享一些例子。This is an example of shadow-chasing.这是一直追影子的。I know, and its funny and in some ways its cute.我知道,这很好笑 在某个程度上还很可爱。The issue, though, is that dogs can develop compulsions like this that they then engage in all day.问题是,有了这种强迫行为就会一整天地重复下去。So they wont go for a walk,they wont hang out with their friends,they wont eat.它们不去散步,不跟朋友玩,也不吃饭。Theyll develop fixations like chasing their tails compulsively.然后产生心理固着,比如强迫地追自己尾巴。Heres an example of a cat named Gizmo.这里有只猫叫 吉斯莫。He looks like hes on a stakeout but he does this for many, many, many hours a day.他看起来正在监视什么,但这一举动每天会持续若干小时。He just sits there and he will paw and paw and paw at the screen.他就坐在那,用前爪一直,一直,一直摆弄百叶窗。This is another example of whats considered a stereotypic behavior.这是另外一个重复行为。This is a sun bear at the Oakland Zoo named Ting Ting.这是一只在奥克兰动物园的马来熊名为听听,And if you just sort of happened upon this scene, you might think that Ting Ting is just playing with a stick.然而如果你刚好看到这个画面,你可能会觉得听听。只是在玩树枝。But Ting Ting does this all day.但听听一整天就这样。and if you pay close attention and if I showed you guys the full half-hour of this clip,youd see that he does the exact same thing in the exact same order, and he spins the stick in the exact same way every time.如果你们仔细看。再等这半个小时的视频放完,会注意到它每次都做着同一动作,以同一顺序和同一方式转那个树枝。Other super common behaviors that you may see,particularly in captive animals,are pacing stereotypies or swaying stereotypies, and actually, humans do this too.其他非常常见的行为,尤其是笼子里的动物有固定的踱步行为或摇摆行为。事实上我们人类也一样。and in us, well sway, well move from side to side.我们会摆动,从这边挪到那边。Many of us do this, and sometimes its an effort to soothe ourselves,and I think in other animals that is often the case too.我们很多人这么做其实是一种放松方式而且我相信其他动物也是如此。But its not just stereotypic behaviors that other animals engage in.但他们不止重复行为。This is Gigi. Shes a gorilla that lives at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston.她是吉吉住在波士顿富兰克林动物园的母猩猩。201412/348908And, if that wasnt bad enough, of course,如果这还不算太糟糕的话,当然all of this is rapidly progressing towards the fact that我们很快可以看到另一个数据many of you, in fact, about one in 10 of you at this point,很多人,事实上,大约10个人当中就有1个will die in intensive care.会死在ICU中。In the U.S., its one in five.而在美国,这个数字是每5个人当中有1个。In Miami, its three out of five people die in intensive care.在迈阿密,这个数字是每5个人当中有3个。So this is the sort of momentum这就是我们目前所看到的that weve got at the moment.发展势头。The reason why this is all happening is due to this,事情会变成这个样子主要是因为这个。and I do have to take you through what this is about.而我要带领大家去一起探讨一下其原因。These are the four ways to go. 21世纪主要有四种死亡形式。So one of these will happen to all of us.我们所有人都会以其中的一种形式死去。The ones you may know most about are the ones人们最熟知的死亡方式that are becoming increasingly of historical interest:也是越来越引起我们关注的一种死亡方式sudden death.猝死。Its quite likely in an audience this size在我们这样的观众群中,this wont happen to anybody here.可能不会有这种死亡。Sudden death has become very rare.猝死现在已经很少见了。The death of Little Nell and Cordelia and all that sort of stuff像Little Nell或Condelia那样猝死的案例just doesnt happen anymore.现在已经很少了。The dying process of those with terminal illness现在因为患绝症而死亡的病人that weve just seen正如我们刚才看到的一样,occurs to younger people.在年轻人中的发病率越来越高了。By the time youve reached 80, this is unlikely to happen to you.到你80岁,这也不可能发生在你身上。Only one in 10 people who are over 80 will die of cancer.现在80岁年龄层中只有10%的人死于癌症。The big growth industry are these.而造成死亡最多的因素主要在以下几个方面。What you die of is increasing organ failure,越来越多的人死于器官功能衰竭with your respiratory, cardiac, renal,如呼吸和心、肾功能衰竭等等。whatever organs packing up. Each of these不管以上那个器官出了问题would be an admission to an acute care hospital,病人都要紧急送院治疗,at the end of which, or at some point during which,到最后,或者在治疗过程中的某一时间上somebody says, enough is enough, and we stop.直到有人对我们说不用治了,我们才放弃。And this ones the biggest growth industry of all,这是我们见得最多的案例,and at least six out of 10 of the people in this room每10个在这里听演讲的人中就会有6个will die in this form, which is将会以这种方式结束我们的一生,the dwindling of capacity这是因为功能的缺失with increasing frailty,造成的生命的脆弱,and frailtys an inevitable part of aging,而脆弱是老龄化不可避免的进程,and increasing frailty is in fact the main thing而脆弱事实上就是that people die of now,现代人死亡的主要原因,and the last few years, or the last year of your life你生命的最后一年或几年时间is spent with a great deal of disability, unfortunately.你都会在能力缺失中度过,这太不幸了。Enjoying it so far?你们还承受得住么?Sorry, I just feel such a, I feel such a Cassandra here.对不起,我怎么成了一个卡珊德拉式的预言家了呢。What can I say thats positive? Whats positive is但积极的一面是that this is happening at very great age, now.这只发生在老年人当中。We are all, most of us, living to reach this point.我们大家也都会经历这一时期的。You know, historically, we didnt do that.要知道,以住要活到这么长的人不多的。This is what happens to you这种死亡方式when you live to be a great age,只会发生在那些高龄人身上,and unfortunately, increasing longevity does mean不幸的是,寿命的延长more old age, not more youth.延长的不是青春,而是老年的时光。Im sorry to say that.很遗憾这样说。What we did, anyway, look, what we did,不管怎么说,我们所做的we didnt just take this lying down我们并不仅仅指那些at John Hunter Hospital and elsewhere.在John Hunter医院逝去的人或在其它地方死去的人。Weve started a whole series of projects我们已经开始一系列的项目to try and look about whether we could, in fact, involve尝试去了解我们能否让更多的人people much more in the way that things happen to them.参与到那些可能发生到他们身上去的事。But we realized, of course, that we are dealing然而,我们当然意识到with cultural issues,我们要应对一些文化层面的问题,and this is, I love this Klimt painting,我喜欢这张克里姆特的画,because the more you look at it, the more you kind of get这是因为,你越看它,the whole issue thats going on here,你越能了解发生在这里的一切,which is clearly the separation of death from the living,而这明显是一种死与生,and the fear.Like, if you actually look,和恐惧的分隔。比如说,如果你仔细看的话,theres one woman there你会发现有个女人who has her eyes open.她的眼睛是睁着的。Shes the one hes looking at,他在看着她,and shes the one hes coming for. Can you see that?他就是冲着她来的。你们看到了吗?She looks terrified.她看起来很惊恐。Its an amazing picture.这是一幅很不错的画。Anyway, we had a major cultural issue.另外,我们还有一个主要的文化层面的问题。201507/388184Recently, as you probably maybe have , Rosa Parks, a former seamstress married to a barber, married to a hairdresser, died, and she lay in honor in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capital in Washington. People from around America came to say farewell to her and to thank her for changing our history and for changing our society. Now, what did this 92 year-old black woman do that deserved such great honor? What did she do? Well, in 1955, the days of racial segregation, she had refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man. She had refused. Her simple refusal to move to the back of the bus put into motion events that led to my countrys great civil rights movement. The small protest of a woman that maybe weighed less than 100 pounds, brought down a racist system. As you can see, the individual can make a difference.最近罗莎·帕克斯去世了,你们可能已经看到了相关报道。她曾是一名裁缝,嫁给了一个理发师,但现在她却长眠于美国首都华盛顿国会大厦的圆形建筑里,受世人敬仰。来自美国各个州的人们都来向她告别,感谢她改变了我们的历史、改变了我们的社会。这位92岁的黑人妇女到底做了什么竟能获得如此殊荣?她做过什么?1955年,美国那时还处于种族隔离时期,罗莎·帕克斯在公交车上拒绝把座位让给一个白人。没错,她拒绝让座给白人。她拒绝到公交车车尾这一简单的举动推动了美国伟大的民权运动的进展。一位体重不足100磅的女人的一个小小的抗议竟瓦解了种族主义制度。由此你们可以看到,个人可以产生深远的影响。Let me tell you about another individual, Ken Behring, a millionaire California businessman who found his passion in giving wheelchairs to poor and physically disabled people all around the globe, including China. He says that he has met people who have spent years in rooms with no window, just lying there and staring up at the ceiling, never seeing the outside world unless someone was willing to pick up that person and take them outside to show them the world. He says that its no wonder so many of those physically disabled people dream about being a bird.让我再给你们讲述一个人,这个人就是加利福尼亚州的百万富翁肯·贝林,他是一位商人,他对援助轮椅情有独钟,曾向包括中国在内的全世界各个国家的贫困残疾人捐助轮椅。他说他曾见过一些残疾人连续数年待在没有窗户的屋子里,只是躺在那儿盯着天花板看,看不到外面的世界,除非有人愿意扶起他们,带他们去看外面的世界。他说难怪那么多残疾人都梦想着自己能成为一只小鸟呢。201404/283599

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