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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月09日 18:16:15
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  Liberals, to paraphrase Leo Tolstoy, are all alike; but conservatives are all conservative in their own way. While liberals insist on universal human rights and the pursuit of a globalised world, conservatives value national uniqueness, sovereignty and identity, defending their exceptionalism from a single, encroaching world order.套用列夫#8226;托尔斯泰(Leo Tolstoy)的话说,自由派总是相似的,保守派却各有各的保守之处。自由派坚持倡导普世人权,追求一个全球化的世界;而保守派重视国家的独特性、主权和认同,面对咄咄逼人的单一世界秩序,努力捍卫本国优越主义。During his third term as president, Vladimir Putin is starting to distinguish himself as a Russian conservative. Understanding this will have considerable benefit for those seeking clues to the country’s future.在自己的第三个总统任期内,弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)开始表现出俄罗斯保守派的特质。理解这一点,大大有助于判断俄罗斯未来的走向。The swing towards conservative ideas is partly a response to what is happening in the world. As Francis Fukuyama has shown, it is the statist right, rather than the radical left, that has won the battle of ideas in the wake of the global financial crisis. But it is also in large part the result of their inherent popularity at home, and the unique relationship of the Russian masses to their leaders.向保守主义思想的转变,一定程度上是对当今世界形势的反应。正如弗朗西斯#8226;福山(Francis Fukuyama)所明的,本次全球金融危机之后在意识形态斗争中胜出的并非激进的左翼,而是奉行中央集权的右翼。但在很大程度上,这一转变也是因为保守主义思想在俄罗斯国内一向受到欢迎、以及俄罗斯民众与领导人之间的独特关系。Russian conservatism can be traced to the time of the monarchy and is known by a simple formula: “Good tsar, bad elites.” It has always depended on giving the leader control in exchange for reining in the petty nobility. This was true of Ivan the Terrible and Joseph Stalin. It was true, too, of radical reformers such as Peter the Great and Vladimir Lenin, equally authoritarian but widely approved of because their target was the elite.俄罗斯的保守主义可追溯至君主制时代,用一句简单的话来概括就是:“好沙皇,坏精英。”其一直以来的存在基础是将控制权交予领导人,以换取对小贵族的钳制。伊凡雷帝(Ivan the Terrible)和约瑟夫#8226;斯大林(Joseph Stalin)是如此,彼得大帝(Peter the Great)和弗拉基米尔#8226;列宁(Vladimir Lenin)等激进改革者也不例外——后两人的专制程度不比前两人逊色,却因为打击精英而备受认可。One sees echoes in Mr Putin’s policies. In his first term, he cut the oligarchs down to size. Now he is chastising his own ruling group over petty corruption, symbolised by the firing of defence minister Anatoly Serdyukov after his ministry was embroiled in a corruption scandal.普京的政策也是如此。首个任期内,他削弱了寡头阶层。如今,他正在围绕轻度腐败问题严厉整治自己的统治集团,其中标志性的事件是在国防部卷入腐败丑闻后将部长阿纳托利#8226;谢尔久科夫(Anatoly Serdyukov)免职。Modern Russian conservatism is both anti-communist and anti-liberal. It is not the same as the US version, which values a small state. Here, conservatives value undivided political power, with economic power rooted in and subordinate to it. They value the traditions of established religion, sovereign foreign policy and the guarding of great power status.现代的俄罗斯保守主义既反共产主义,也反自由主义,这与强调小政府的美国版保守主义不同。在俄罗斯,保守派看重的是独揽政治权力,而经济权力植根并从属于政治权力。他们重视国教传统、独立自主的外交政策和捍卫大国地位。For his first 12 years in power, Mr Putin’s conservatism was tempered by the need to appeal to an influential liberal elite. But with the desertion of this class to the ranks of anti-government protesters since 2011, he is finally making his true views known. This should not be seen as winding back the clock, however. Russia is in transition from the pure totalitarianism of the Soviet era; this conservative moment represents a rethinking of what comes at the end of the transition.在执政的最初12年里,由于需要吸引富有影响力的自由派精英,普京的保守主义思想受到抑制。但随着2011年以来这一阶层背离普京、加入反政府抗议者之列,普京终于开始展露出自己的真实想法。不过,这不应被视为倒退。俄罗斯正处于走出苏联时代纯极权主义的转型期;这一保守主义时刻代表着对转型结束时俄罗斯命运的反思。Russia cannot return to the Soviet model other than on a symbolic level – such as reviving the Soviet anthem or socialist rhetoric. Likewise, we will not see the rebirth of the Tsarist empire with the Orthodox Christian tradition as the official ideology. Today, we are a multi-ethnic society with a growing Islamic population.除了一些象征层面的调整——比如恢复使用苏联国歌或社会主义言论——俄罗斯不可能再回到苏联模式。类似地,我们也不会看到以东正教传统为官方意识形态的沙皇帝国重生。当今,俄罗斯是穆斯林人口不断增加的多民族社会。It is also worth noting that, while liberals are a numerical minority, they are influential. The government is controlled by moderates, with Dmitry Medvedev as their head. The oligarchs, who by and large espouse liberal ideas, retain much power.同样值得注意的是,尽管自由派在人数上占劣势,但他们仍具有不小的影响力。政府是由以德米特里#8226;梅德韦杰夫(Dmitry Medvedev)为首的温和派控制的。大体上拥护自由主义思想的寡头们也仍握有很大的权力。If we put these facts together, Mr Putin’s presidency is pragmatic – conservative mainly in the sense that it does not share globalists’ optimism. It is not trying to guard an exhausted status quo. His ideas, by and large, do not transgress the limits of moderate western-type nation-building.将这些事实汇聚在一起可以看出,普京的这一总统任期是奉行实用主义的——其保守之处主要在于它不认同全球主义者的乐观看法。它并不试图维持穷途末路的现状。普京的思想总体上并没有逾越温和的西方式国家建设的界限。Mr Putin’s conservatism has been moulded by foreign pressure, symbolised by the passage in the US of the Magnitsky law, which creates a travel blacklist for certain Russian officials. It has been moulded from inside by the desertion of the middle class from the ranks of his supporters and the growth of a liberal protest movement.普京的保守主义受到国外压力的影响,其中具有代表性的是美国通过的《马格尼茨基法案》(Magnitsky Act),该法案设立了针对某些俄罗斯官员的旅行黑名单。在国内,影响则来自于中产阶级脱离普京持者行列以及自由派抗议运动的发展壮大。In the face of these challenges, Mr Putin will move in the direction of being a conservative moderniser at home and a realist abroad. He will insist on state sovereignty, distrust globalisation, limit liberalisation and keep democracy strictly within a sovereign, national framework.面对这些挑战,普京的行动方向将是对内成为倡导现代化的保守主义者,对外成为现实主义者。他将坚持国家主权、怀疑全球化、限制自由化、将民主严格限制在独立自主的国家框架下。The term “balance of power” is the key to understanding Mr Putin’s version of conservatism, which will define politics in his third and presumably fourth terms. He will pursue the national interest, regional and global power, protectionism and mercantilism. Having lost the cold war, Russia will try to revise the status quo using all available opportunities.“力量平衡”一词是理解普京式保守主义的关键,这一思想将是他第三和(很可能出现的)第四个任期内的政治基调。他将追求国家利益、地区和全球影响力、保护主义和重商主义。在输掉冷战后,俄罗斯将努力利用一切可能的机会改写现状。The writer is chairman of the department of the sociology of international relations at Moscow State University本文作者为莫斯科国立大学(Moscow State University)国际关系社会学系主任 /201303/232707。

  THE government in Thailand will not be looking forward to June, when America’s State Department releases its annual report on the trafficking of humans. As in recent years, Thailand’s section will make for nasty ing. It will, yet again, prove to be an embarrassment for America’s oldest ally in the region.美国国务院将于6月发布的《年度人口贩运报告》对泰国政府没有寄予太多期待,近几年的报告中泰国形象不佳,作为美国在这一地区最长久的盟友,今年的报告将再次使其难堪。The country likes to think of itself as a civilised and sophisticated society. But according to the State Department, when it comes to problems of illegal immigration and forced labour, Thailand is on a par with Afghanistan, Chad, Iraq and Niger. Thailand sits on the “Tier 2 Watch List”, a notch above the worst of the worst. If it slips down this year, as it might, it will join a rogue’s gallery including Eritrea, Sudan, Syria and Zimbabwe. If America’s usual procedures were followed, relegation would trigger sanctions against Thailand, including the blocking of relations with the IMF and the World Bank. That almost certainly will not happen—Thailand’s goodwill is too important to America. But that the possibility even exists is extraordinary enough.泰国自诩为文明先进的国度,而在非法移民和强迫劳动问题上,美国国务院认为它和阿富汗、乍得、尼日尔等国可以相提并论。泰国被列入仅略好于最差者的“第二类观察名单”,若今年其排名再次下滑(这有可能),它将被视为同厄里特里亚、苏丹、叙利亚和津巴布韦一样的流氓国家。一般情况下,美国将对降级国家采取制裁措施,包括切断其与国际货币基金组织和世界的关系。不过对于泰国来说这几乎不会发生,因为泰国的声誉对美国至关重要。但存在这种可能性就足以引起重视。The Thai government has long overlooked abuses. About 2m legal immigrants and perhaps as many illegal ones keep several labour-intensive parts of the Thai economy afloat. Most of the immigrants are from neighbouring Myanmar; others are from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, the Philippines and further afield. Undocumented workers are particularly vulnerable to exploitation. Smuggled into the country by unscrupulous brokers, they are sold into factory and other low-end jobs in ways that can amount to debt bondage.泰国政府长期以来对虐待工人现象熟视无睹。约200万合法移民及数量相等的非法移民撑起泰国经济的劳动密集型产业。他们大多来自邻国缅甸,还有的来自孟加拉国、柬埔寨、老挝、菲律宾和其他更远的国家。无工人极易受到剥削,他们被无良蛇头贩进国内,然后被卖到工厂从事低级劳动,沦为债奴。The shrimp industry has come under particular scrutiny. It is worth about billion a year to the Thai economy. In the cavernous shrimp-peeling sheds in Samut Sakhon province south of Bangkok, observers have documented instances of workers suffering physical abuse, remaining unpaid and having their papers confiscated. In last year’s report on human trafficking, the State Department asserted that in Samut Sakhon, nearly three-fifths of workers “experience conditions of forced labour”.每年为泰国经济贡献约10亿美元的养虾业已受到特别调查。在曼谷南部龙仔厝府空荡的剥虾大棚中,调查员记录下一宗宗案例:工人们遭受肢体虐待,被拖欠工资,件被扣。在去年的人口贩运报告中美国国务院称龙仔厝府近五分之三的工人有“被强迫劳动的经历”。At sea, in the shrimping fleets, it is even worse. Sompong Srakaew of the Labour Rights Promotion Network Foundation, an NGO, says that young Burmese often need to work for six months in order to pay off a bond to the broker who smuggled them in. Some are forced to stay at sea for several years. When the ships put into port, brokers patrol the quays to ensure that crews stay on the boats, out of sight of the authorities. A UN survey found that of 49 migrant fishermen interviewed, 29 said that they had witnessed skippers murdering crewmen when they were too weak or sick to work.海上捕虾船的情况更糟。非政府组织“劳工权利保护网络基金会”的颂蓬沙卡说,年轻的缅甸人往往需要工作6个月来付偷渡费给蛇头,一些人被迫留在海上呆好几年。渔船进港时,蛇头在码头上严密巡逻,确保船员们都留在船上以避开警察的视线。在联合国对49名外来渔民所做的一项调查中,29人说他们亲眼目睹了船长杀害体弱或生病而丧失劳动能力的船员。Unsurprisingly, such reports prick the conscience of American consumers. A backlash in the ed States has grown against Thai seafood products. In September one large seafood importer and distributor, Mazzetta, suspended its dealings with a supplier, Thai Royal, after a film exposed working conditions at one of its factories. Consumer boycotts in America, however, appear not to be hurting the shrimp industry much. Action taken by the American government would hurt much more.毫无疑问,这样的报告激起了美国消费者的义愤,针对泰国海鲜产品的制裁行动已经展开。9月一部电影揭露了供应商“泰国皇家渔业公司”一处工厂的工作状况,之后美国一家大型海鲜进口和分销商“玛兹塔”暂停了和它的贸易。不过美国消费者的抵制对泰国养虾业的冲击似乎有限,美国政府的行动才会对其产生重大影响。Thai officialdom is complicit in labour abuses. At the top, Thai ministers pay too little attention to the problem. Further down, policemen, immigration officials and others collude with brokers and factory owners. It creates what the State Department calls an “enabling environment” for human trafficking.泰国的官僚体系是虐工共犯。在上层,泰国的部长们对此关注极少,下面的警察、移民局官员等人与蛇头和工厂老板沆瀣一气。美国国务院称这些现象为人口贩运创造了“有利环境”。A Thai law against human trafficking, passed in 2008, is clear enough. But it is too often ignored by those who are meant to enforce it. The discrepancy between the volume of trafficking that is believed to be going on and the rates of arrest by the Thai police is startling. In 2011, for instance, the marine police did not report a single case of forced labour in all its inspections of fishing vessels heading out to sea. Neither did they find any cases to report during more than 1,000 inspections of fishing boats beyond coastal waters. The vessel owners, like some factory owners, are presumably being tipped off.2008年泰国通过的一项打击贩运人口的法律极为详尽,但执法者却经常对它置若罔闻。实际贩卖情况和警方逮捕人数之间的差距令人吃惊。例如,2011年海警在对出港渔船的检查中没有报告一例强迫劳动的情况,对沿海水域作业的渔船的1000余次检查中也没有发现并报告任何情况。据推测,船主和那些工厂老板一样事先便已得到消息。At the end of last year the government introduced a new attempt to crack down on trafficking. It insisted that every illegal immigrant should now get temporary papers and be properly registered, or face deportation. In theory, giving workers more legal protection from dodgy employers is a good idea. In practice, it has merely created new opportunities for graft. A passport and its attendant visa, work permit and other papers is expensive enough, costing the equivalent of over 0. But Maung Toe of the Migrant Justice Programme, which helps Burmese seafood workers in Mahachai, the town with the largest Burmese population in Thailand, reports that some are being hoodwinked into parting with five times that amount.去年年底政府采取了新的措施打击人口贩卖。政府要求每一个非法移民必须获得临时件并按规定进行注册,否则将被驱逐出境。从理论上讲,在黑心的雇主手下做工的工人得到更多的法律保护是个不错的主意,可事实上这仅仅是为贪污腐败制造了新的机会。办理护照和随后的签、工作许可等其他件非常昂贵,花费超过100美元。但“移民公正项目处”的貌都说,一些人被骗付了5倍的价钱。“移民公正项目处”旨在为泰国境内最大的缅甸社区玛哈猜的缅甸工人提供帮助。At that price, some workers will choose to remain in the shadows. Nonetheless, so bad is the exploitation of illegal workers that most of them now seem to be registering for the new papers. One incentive for them to do so is that they are more likely to get paid a new national minimum wage, of a day. The government says 1.2m people have registered, and it has extended the deadline to March 16th. Maung Toe reckons that conditions will improve for the newly legal migrants, “but not by much”. Maybe, though, just enough to save the government’s blushes?这样的价格使一些工人选择继续保持沉默。不过目前看来对非法工人的严酷剥削还是使大多数人开始注册新的件,原因之一是这样他们会更容易获得每天10美元的新的全国最低工资标准。政府称已有120万人注册,并将截止日期延后至3月16日。貌都估计新的合法移民的状况将会有所改善,“但毕竟有限”。不过,如果说目的仅仅是为政府遮羞,是不是已经足够了呢? /201303/229703

  

  A few summers ago, I stuffed my car full of the last flattened cardboard boxes from a cross-country move and headed to the recycling depot of my suburban New Jersey town. I pulled up behind a queue of slender women at the wheels of shiny SUVs. Their eyes concealed by giant sunglasses, they hopped from their seats to their open trunks and, one by one, reached for the bags that are the totems of upper-middle-class life: silver ones from Nordstrom, plain ones from Whole Foods. Out poured wine bottles, clanking into the rusted recycling truck. 几年前的一个夏天,我把长途搬家后剩下的最后一批压平的硬纸板箱塞满我的车,然后前往我所在的新泽西州郊区小镇上的回收站。我停在一队耀眼的SUV车后方,开车的是一群身材苗条的女士。她们的眼睛隐藏在硕大的太阳镜下,她们从座位上下来,打开后车厢,一个接一个去拿象征中产阶级上层生活图腾的那些袋子:Nordstrom的银色袋子,全食超市(Whole Foods)的普通袋子。葡萄酒瓶从这些袋子里倾泻而出,叮叮当当地落进锈迹斑斑的回收车里。 In Portland, Ore., where I lived for six years, I would watch most Sunday nights as a neighbor deposited two giant Merlot bottles in my recycling bin. Her house was a block away, and she had her own bin─but apparently mine seemed like a more discreet place to stash her empties. In New York#39;s Westchester County, where I had lived previously, women would pass around a flask at dreary school functions. Alcohol and motherhood were intertwined, so much so that after I had my third daughter in the anxious autumn after 9/11, I received bottle after bottle of wine as baby gifts. 在我住过六年的俄勒冈州波特兰(Portland),几乎每个周日晚上我都会看见一个邻居在我的垃圾箱里扔上两个大的梅乐(Merlot)酒瓶。她家离我家一个街区远,她也有自己的垃圾箱,但显然把空酒瓶藏在我这里似乎更谨慎。在我之前住过的纽约州韦斯特切斯特郡(Westchester County),女人们会在沉闷的学校活动期间拿出一瓶酒轮着喝。酒精和母亲的身份交织在一起,二者结合得如此紧密,以至于我在911后那个焦虑的秋天生下第三个女儿后,人们送我一瓶又一瓶葡萄酒作为婴儿礼物。 The growing female predilection for wine seems at first glance like a harmless indulgence for harried mothers who deserve a break. There are T-shirts with a spilled wineglass that say, #39;Not so loud, I had book club last night.#39; Nearly 650,000 women follow #39;Moms Who Need Wine#39; on Facebook, and another 131,000 women are fans of the group called #39;OMG, I So Need a Glass of Wine or I#39;m Gonna Sell My Kids.#39; The drinking mom has become a cultural trope, from highbrow to pop: Jonathan Franzen#39;s Patty Berglund wanders through the first half of #39;Freedom#39; with a ruddy complexion he calls the #39;Chardonnay Splotch.#39; Wine is so linked to the women of #39;Real Housewives#39; that several cast members have introduced their own brands. That#39;s no accident: According to the Wine Institute, an industry trade group, women buy the lion#39;s share of the nearly 800 million gallons of wine sold in the U.S. annually─and they are its primary drinkers. 越来越多的女性开始偏爱葡萄酒,乍看之下这对过着紧绷生活的妈妈们来说是无伤大雅的放纵,她们放松一下是应该的。有T恤上印着一个洒出酒的葡萄酒杯,上面写着“别那么大声,我昨晚参加了书会。”有近65万名女性在Facebook上关注了“需要酒的妈妈们(Moms Who Need Wine)”账号,还有13.1万女性是名为“噢天啊,我需要一杯酒,否则我会卖掉我孩子 (OMG, I So Need a Glass of Wine or I#39;m Gonna Sell My Kids)”(的组织的粉丝。从知识界到普罗大众,“喝酒的妈妈”已经成为一种文化隐喻:在乔纳森#8226;弗兰岑(Jonathan Franzen)的小说《自由》(Freedom)的上半部分中,帕蒂#8226;伯格兰(Patty Berglund)一直带着一种被作者称为“霞多丽斑点”(Chardonnay Splotch)的红润面色。另外,酒和“家庭主妇真人秀”(Real Housewives)如此密不可分,以至于几位剧组人员都推出了自己的红酒品牌。无独有偶:据行业贸易组织美国葡萄酒协会(Wine Institute)统计,在美国每年售出的近8亿加仑(约30亿升)葡萄酒中,女性购买的比例更大,而且她们是饮酒的主力军。 Indeed, more women are drinking now than at any time in recent history, according to health surveys. In the nine years between 1998 and 2007, the number of women arrested for drunken driving rose 30%, while male arrests dropped more than 7%. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of young women who showed up in emergency rooms for being dangerously intoxicated rose by 52%. The rate for young men, though higher, rose just 9%. 的确,据健康调查显示,现今饮酒的女性比近代历史上任何时候都多。在1998至2007年这九年间,因醉酒驾驶被捕的女性人数上涨了30%,而男性人数却下降了7%以上。1999年至2008年间,因严重醉酒被送往急诊室的年轻女性人数上涨了52%,而年轻男性的人数虽然更多,但只上涨了9%。 These numbers are not driven solely by young women living it up on spring break. A recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study of binge drinking─that is, having four or more drinks for women or five or more for men within two hours─revealed a surprising statistic. While the greatest number, 24%, of binge-drinking women are college-age, 10% of women between 45 and 64 said they binge drink─and so did 3% of women older than 65. The college-age binge drinkers and the senior binge drinkers overdid it with a similar frequency, about three times a month. 这些数字的上涨并不只是因为春假狂欢的年轻女性。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)最近一项针对酗酒(指女性两小时内摄入四杯或以上,男性摄入五杯或以上)的研究得出了出人意料的数据。24%的酗酒女性是大学生,这个人群比重最大;而年龄在45至64岁的女性中有10%酗酒,65岁以上女性中有3%也表示自己酗酒。大学生和老年人群会反复酗酒,频率相似,大概每个月三次。 Gallup pollsters have repeatedly found that the more educated and well off a woman is, the more likely she is to imbibe. White women are more likely to drink than women of other racial backgrounds, but in the past few decades the percentage of women who classify themselves as regular drinkers has risen across the board. An analysis of the drinking habits of 85,000 Americans in 2002 found that 47% of white women reported being regular drinkers, up from 37% in 1992. The percentage of black women who said they drank regularly rose from 21% to 30%, and the percentage of Hispanic women who said the same grew from 24% to 32%. (American Indian and Asian-American women were not included in the study.) 盖洛普(Gallup)民意测验多次发现,女性受教育程度越高、处境越优越,就越容易饮酒。白人女性比其他族裔女性更易饮酒,但过去数十年里,认为自己经常喝酒的女性比例整体有所上升。2002年一项针对8.5万名美国人饮酒习惯所做的分析发现,47%的白人女性表示自己经常喝酒,较1992年的37%有所上升。表示经常饮酒的黑人女性比例从21%升至30%,西班牙裔女性的比例从24%升至32%。(该研究未纳入美国印第安人及亚裔女性。) In one sense, the rising rates of alcohol consumption by women are a sign of parity. But this is one arena in which equal treatment yields unequal outcomes. Women are more vulnerable than men to alcohol#39;s toxic effects. Their bodies have more fat, which retains alcohol, and less water, which dilutes it, so women drinking the same amount as men their size and weight become intoxicated more quickly. Males also have more of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol before it enters the bloodstream. This may be one reason why alcohol-related liver and brain damage appear more quickly in heavy-drinking women than men. 从某种意义来说,女性饮酒比例的升高是男女平等迹象的一种。但这是一个平等对待却会产生不平等结果的领域。对于酒精的毒性反应,女性比男性更易受影响。女性体内脂肪更多,会留存酒精,而起稀释作用的水却比较少,因此同样身高和体重的女性和男性摄入相同量的酒时,女性醉得更快。男性体内的乙醇脱氢 也更多,这种物质可以在酒精进入血液前分解酒精。这或许也是为什么酒精导致的肝脏和大脑损伤在嗜酒女性身上比男性更快出现的一个原因。 Still, modern women haven#39;t caught up to the drinking habits of America#39;s early settlers, whose only safe beverage was alcohol. Historians estimate that colonial men and women drank about a gallon of low-alcohol beer or hard cider a day. In a collection of 500 recipes that Martha Washington left to her granddaughter, 50 were for boozy drinks, plus a couple of hangover cures. 尽管如此,现代女性还是赶不上美国早期殖民者的饮酒习惯,当时他们唯一的安全饮料就是酒。历史学家估计,殖民时期的男性和女性每天喝大约一加仑(约3.8升)的低度啤酒或苹果酒。在玛莎#8226;华盛顿(Martha Washington)留给孙女包括500份食谱的集子里,有50份是酒的配方,还有好几种解酒方子。 The growing sales of wine to women can be traced to some clever marketing decisions in the 1960s by California#39;s vintners. Wineries had all but perished during Prohibition, and the beverage was considered the drink of poor immigrants and Skid Row drunks. Americans, accustomed to more straightforward spirits and beer, were slow to warm to wine#39;s complexities. 葡萄酒针对女性销售量的增加可追溯至20世纪60年代加州葡萄酒商精明的营销决策。酿酒厂在禁酒时期(Prohibition)纷纷没落,葡萄酒被认为是贫穷移民及贫民窟酒鬼才喝的东西。习惯于喝更直接的烈酒或啤酒的美国人花了很长时间才开始喜欢葡萄酒复杂的味道。 Wine also felt off-limits to women. It was consumed mostly in restaurants, where waiters offered men the wine list, the first taste and the cork. Strategists saw a growth opportunity in the vast numbers of postwar housewives. #39;We used to joke that if we could just get a bottle of sherry into the kitchen, we#39;d be off and running,#39; says Harvey Posert, one of the industry#39;s early promoters. 葡萄酒对女性来说也是禁区。葡萄酒大都是在餐厅消费,务员会把葡萄酒单、试饮杯和软木塞递给男性客人。有战略眼光者看到了葡萄酒在战后大量家庭主妇人群中的增长机遇。行业早期推动者之一哈维#8226;波泽特(Harvey Posert)说:“我们以前开玩笑说,如果能把一瓶雪利酒弄到厨房去,我们就飞黄腾达了。” Vineyards got an unexpected boost from Jacqueline Kennedy, who in 1962 led 56 million viewers on a televised tour of the White House. In the dining room, the camera panned to the elegantly laid table, lingering for a few seconds on the crystal glasses next to each place setting. Few could afford the first lady#39;s designer clothes, but the crystal, manufactured in West Virginia, was a small piece of Camelot glamour that women could own for themselves. It took the Morgantown Glass Co. factory years to fill all the orders. 葡萄园因为杰奎琳#8226;肯尼迪(Jackie Kennedy)而意外得到了提振。1962年,她引导5,600万电视观众参观了白宫(White House)。在餐厅,镜头摇到精心摆放好餐具的餐桌前,在每份餐具旁的水晶杯上停留几秒钟。很少有人能买得起第一夫人的名牌衣,但产于西弗吉尼亚的水晶杯却是女人们能拥有的可感受到卡米洛特(Camelot)宫殿般豪华的小物件。Morgantown Glass Co.玻璃工厂花了好几年时间才完成了所有订单。 Getting female buyers for the wine, though, was another challenge. In California, where laws allowed wine to be sold in supermarkets, Robert Mondavi#39;s marketers hired middle-age housewives to stand at in-store tasting booths. The saleswomen offered shoppers sips from bottles that would pair perfectly with what they had planned for dinner. The friendly older women helped turn the younger women into confident consumers. 不过让女性买葡萄酒又是一个挑战。在加州,法律允许超市销售葡萄酒,于是罗伯特#8226;蒙达维(Robert Mondavi)酒庄的市场推广人员雇佣中年家庭主妇站在店里的试喝摊位旁边。女销售员为购物者挑选能与她们所计划的晚餐完美搭配的葡萄酒,并让她们品尝。那位友善的老妇人帮助年轻女性们成为有信心的消费者。 Women#39;s magazines offered tips on how to order, serve and drink the stuff; McCall#39;s magazine, in 1977, featured wine as essential to an #39;Anti-Stress Diet.#39; Meanwhile, women in California were beginning to make wine, too, experimenting with tastes and textures that appealed to them. 女性杂志提供点酒、倒酒和喝酒的技巧;1977年,McCall#39;s杂志将葡萄酒标榜为“抗压食谱”的必需品。与此同时,加州的女性也开始酿酒,探索自己喜欢的口感和质地。 Today, wine is certainly in American kitchens. It#39;s there for enjoyment, of course, but also as a respectable antidote to modern stress─especially for women. 如今,美国厨房里必定会有葡萄酒。当然是为了享受,但同时也是应对现代生活压力的一剂体面的良药,尤其是对于女性。 Some social scientists link the rise in female alcohol consumption to the changing role of women in society. Rick Grucza, an epidemiologist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis who studies alcohol-use disorders, correlates women#39;s drinking to the rise in female college attendance. Others suggest that many women continue unhealthy postcollege drinking patterns in male-dominated industries such as finance and technology. Still others find a link among women who step away from their careers to be at home. #39;The baby#39;s crying, they#39;re not getting paid, they#39;re bored and anxious─and feel guilty that they#39;re bored and anxious,#39; says Mary Ellen Barnes, a psychologist in Rolling Hills Estates, Calif., who treats many female heavy drinkers. Drinking several tall glasses of wine can make those feelings recede─at least for a few hours. 有社会学家将女性饮酒量增加与女性在社会中角色的变化联系起来。路易斯华盛顿大学医学院(Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis)专门研究酒精使用障碍的流行病学家里克#8226;格鲁恰(Rick Grucza)认为女性饮酒与女性上大学比例的上升成正比。还有人表示,许多女性大学毕业后会在金融和科技等男性主导行业继续不健康的饮酒习惯。还有人则发现与离职回家的女性人群有关。加州Rolling Hills Estates治疗过许多女性嗜酒者的心理学家玛丽#8226;艾伦#8226;巴恩斯(Mary Ellen Barnes)说:“孩子在哭,又没人付她们薪水,无聊又焦虑,而且她们为自己无聊和焦虑的状态感到内疚。”喝几杯葡萄酒可以使这些情绪消退──至少能维持几个小时。 Does that amount to a drinking problem? Doctors around the world differ. The National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the Department of Health and Human Services say that for American women, anything more than a drink a day is risky. In countries such as France, Italy and Spain, where life expectancy for women is longer, authorities set the safe threshold at double that─and sometimes higher. 这是不是酗酒问题呢?世界各地的医生们看法迥异。美国国家酗酒与酒精中毒研究所(National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)以及美国卫生及公共务部(Department of Health and Human Services)表示,每天喝一杯酒以上都是有风险的。在女性预期寿命比较长的法国、意大利和西班牙,政府将安全标准定在两杯,有时更高。 Many of the women whom I interviewed said that the strict limits set by American law helped to drive their drinking underground. A few glasses slide into a whole bottle, which becomes an embarrassing habit that needs to be concealed. 在我采访过的女性中,很多人说美国法律规定的严格标准让她们的喝酒变成了地下行为。从瓶子里倒出几杯酒成了需要隐藏的见不得人的习惯。 /201308/251048I’m Jessi, and this is my suitcase. But before I show you what I’ve got inside, I’m going to make a very public confession, and that is, I’m outfit obsessed. I love finding, wearing, and more recently, photographing and blogging a different colorful, crazy outfit for every single occasion. But I don’t buy anything new. I get all my clothes secondhand from 1)flea markets and 2)thrift stores.我叫杰西,这是我的旅行箱。不过在让你们看我这里面装的东西之前,我要公开坦白。那就是,我对衣极度迷恋。我超爱寻找衣,并把它们穿在身上。最近,我还爱上了给自己在每一次活动中穿的色斑斓的独特装拍照片,并为此写客。但我不买新衣。我的衣都是二手货,是从跳蚤市场和旧货店淘来的。Secondhand shopping allows me to reduce the impact my wardrobe has on the environment and on my wallet. I get to meet all kinds of great people; my dollars usually go to a good cause; I look pretty unique; and it makes shopping like my own personal treasure hunt. I mean, what am I gonna find today? Is it gonna be my size? Will I like the color? Will it be under ? If all the answers are yes, I feel as though I’ve won.买二手衣物可让我减少衣对环境的影响,还有对我腰包的影响。我这样做能结识各种有趣的人;我的钱还能为慈善事业作点贡献;我的打扮也自成一派。同时,买衣成了我自己的寻宝游戏。我会想,我今天会找到什么呢?会不会正好是我的尺寸?会是我喜欢的颜色吗?会在二十美元以下吗?如果都是肯定的话,我就觉得自己赢了。I wanna get back to my suitcase and tell you what I packed for this exciting week. I brought seven pairs of underpants and that’s it. I was betting that I’d be able to find everything else I could possibly want to wear once I got here to Palm Springs. And I’d really love to show you my week’s worth of outfits right now. Does that sound good? So as I do this, I’m also gonna tell you a few of the life lessons that, believe it or not, I have picked up in these adventures wearing nothing new.再继续说我的旅行箱,告诉你们为了这激动人心的一周,我都带了些什么。我带了七条内裤,就这些了。我当时就断定我在棕榈泉会找到我需要的所有衣,而且现在我真的很乐意给你们看看我这一周收获的衣。听起来很不错吧?同时,我还会和你们聊一聊人生经验,无论你们是否相信,这些都是我在“旧衣新穿”的经历中提炼出来的。So let’s start with Sunday: You do not have to spend a lot of money to look great. This whole outfit, including the jacket, cost me 55, and it was the most expensive thing that I wore the entire week.那么我们从星期日开始吧。你并不需要花很多钱才能让自己看起来漂漂亮亮的。这整套衣,包括外套花了我五十五美元,而这是我这一整周内穿的最贵的衣了。Monday: Color is powerful. It is almost 3)physiologically impossible to be in a bad mood when you’re wearing bright red pants. If you are happy, you are going to attract other happy people to you.星期一:色的威力是强大的。从生理学的角度看,一个人几乎不可能在穿上鲜艳的红色裤子时仍然心情郁闷。如果你快乐,你会吸引其他快乐的人到你身边。Tuesday: Fitting-in is way overrated. Just be who you are. If you are surrounding yourself with the right people, they will not only get it, they will appreciate it.星期二:融入环境的重要性被远远高估了。就做你自己。如果你身边有同道中人,他们不仅会懂,他们还会欣赏。Wednesday: Embrace your inner child. Sometimes people tell me that I look like I’m playing dress-up, or that I remind them of their seven-year-old. I like to smile and say, “Thank you.”星期三:接受自己的童心。有时候有人会告诉我,说我像在玩打扮游戏,或者我让他们想起了他们七岁的孩子。我会对他们微笑,并且说声“谢谢”。Thursday: Confidence is key. If you believe you’re a beautiful person inside and out, there is no look that you can’t pull off. So there is no excuse for any of us here in this audience. We should be able to rock anything we wanna rock.星期四:自信心是关键。如果你相信你是个既有外在美,又有内在美的人,那什么衣穿在你身上都好看。所以在座的各位都不应该有借口,因为我们可以想穿什么就穿什么。Friday: A universal truth—five words for you: Gold 4)sequins go with everything.星期五:一个普遍的真理——送你们一句五字箴言:金亮片百搭。And finally, Saturday: Developing your own unique personal style is a really great way to tell the world something about you without having to say a word. It’s been proven to me time and time again as people have walked up to me simply because of what I’m wearing. And we’ve had great conversations.最后,星期六:形成独特的个人风格帮助你一言不发就能让世人知道你是个什么样的人,这样做的确是个很好的方式。仅仅是因为我的穿着,人们一次又一次地走到我面前就明了这一点。而且我们的谈话很愉快。So obviously this is not all gonna fit back in my tiny suitcase. So before I go home, I’m going to donate everything back. Because the lesson I’m trying to learn myself is that it’s OK to let go. I don’t need to get emotionally attached to these things, because around the corner, there is always gonna be another crazy, colorful, shiny outfit just waiting for me, if I put a little love in my heart and look.当然,我的小旅行箱放不下这些衣。所以在我回家前,我会把一切都捐出去。因为我在教自己学会放手,放手是好事。我不需要眷恋这些物品,因为只要我带着爱用心去寻找,很快又会有一套不同寻常、色鲜艳、闪闪发光的衣在等着我。 /201210/204762

  6 Smart Uses for Clothespins晾衣夹的六种妙用Keep fingers safe.点火不伤手Pinch a match with a spring-type clothespin to light fireplaces and tricky candle votives.用弹簧式晾衣夹夹着火柴去点壁炉的篝火或是蜡烛更加安全。Light-proof your hotel room.遮光效果好Clip hotel drapes together to keep out glaring rays (and eyes).用晾衣夹夹住宾馆房间的窗帘,既可有效防止光线侵入,也可防止外人偷窥。Separate these cords.区分线头归属Label clothespins with permanent marker (TV, DVR, DVD, Stereo, Phone, etc.), and use them to identify the cords that belong to each appliance.在晾衣夹上做上永久性标记,用以区分(电视机、录像机、DVD机、立体声音响设备、电话机等)电线插头的归属。Align your garden.让花园整齐美观Wedge a clothespin into the fork (or the spot where a branch and the trunk meet) to keep saplings growing straight and strong.将晾衣夹楔入树的分叉处(或者说树枝与树干的交叉处),以便幼苗茁壮成长。Mark your spot.当书签用Clamp a pin onto a page in a book to save your place. If you’re part of a book club, clip together your favorite chapter for an easy way to flip and find.用晾衣夹夹住书页,可以保存当前阅读进度。如果你是某个读书俱乐部的成员,那可以用夹子夹住你感兴趣的章节,方便自己快速找到。Organize the closet.衣柜巧整理Drape up to four ties or scarves across the bottom of a wire hanger and fix each in place with a pin.将领带或围巾(最多四条)挂在衣架底部,并用晾衣夹予以固定。 /201302/224252

  

  

  

  

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