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青岛下眼袋大怎么办120卫生青岛仿真绣眉

2020年02月25日 08:33:24
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Sauroposeidon towers over Deinonychus. In fact, its mammoth size is its primary defense. But this giant begins life very small. 波塞东龙比恐爪龙高出很多。事实上,他们高达的体型就是他们最主要的防御武器。但是这种大型恐龙刚出生的体型很小。For Deinonychus, Sauroposeiden would be a great meal, at least the juveniles, because there would’ve been lots of them and because they would’ve been effectively defenseless. 对于恐爪龙来说,波塞东龙可能是一顿大餐,至少年幼的波塞东龙绝对是一顿大餐,因为年幼的波塞东龙数量很多,而且他们基本上没有什么防御力。When Sauroposeidon reaches full size at around 25 years old, nothing can compete. But this Goliath starts out about the size of a house cat. When these eggs hatch, the young grow fast, but not fast enough. They won’t even reach a ton in weight for at least three years, giving the raptor Dinosaurs plenty of time to attack. 当波塞东龙在出生的25后,生长到最大体型时,没有任何恐龙的防御力能和它们媲美。但是这种“巨人”最开始的体型就和家猫差不多大。当它们的蛋孵化后,幼崽的生长速度很快,但是还不够快到能逃避被捕食的命运。至少3年内,它们的体重都不会超过1吨,这给了迅猛龙扑杀它们的机会。There’s good evidence that Deinonychus killed animals that weighed 10 times as much as it. 一些发现可以很充分明,恐爪龙可以捕杀比他们体型大10倍的恐龙。And 10 times Deinonychus’ weight in raw meat is a very big meal. 而10倍于恐爪龙体型的恐龙绝对可以称得上是大餐了。They could probably feast for a while on, say, a three-year-old Sauroposeidon, an animal the size of a hippo.他们可能会尽情享受一只三岁大的波塞东龙作为食物,而三岁大的波塞东龙体型相当于一头河马。Bringing down an animal 10 times your size takes more than just brains. It requires highly advanced senses. 放倒一只体型大于你10倍的动物,需要的不仅仅是大脑。还需要高度发达的感觉系统。We can tell that it had a good sense of vision, good hearing, and a pretty good sense of smell.我们可以判断,恐爪龙的视觉,听觉以及嗅觉都十分灵敏。In fact, like few carnivores of its day, Deinonychus has a sense of smell so acute, it can track prey in the dead of night. 事实上,和当今的大多数肉食动物不同,恐爪龙的嗅觉极度灵敏,它可以在夜间捕捉到猎物的气味。Inside the snout are two nasal passages. Like an air filter, sheets of sensory tissue are folded to maximize surface area. This tissue contains millions of chemoreceptors, nerves that capture odor molecules. So Deinonychus can sniff out prey from miles away. 它们的鼻子里面有两条鼻腔。就像是空气过滤器,多层的感官组织折叠在一起以便最大面积接收信息。这个器官包含数百万个化学感受器,以及可以捕获气味分子运动的神经。因此,恐爪龙可以闻到几英里外的猎物的气味。The sense of smell in Deinonychus could alert…恐爪龙的嗅觉系统可以警戒...英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201403/279816胶州市妇幼保健医院图片蓬莱口腔医院多少钱If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then you know that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion. Every season several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion, amnesia, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling of the brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by the head spinning suddenly. Take, for example, a common incident during a football game. The quarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps moving and hits the skull. Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twists violently. The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brush the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain. All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area fire simultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning and memory. The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells to get the nutrients they need to recover.结果是脑部化学失衡。所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good idea to take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 /201306/243370在青岛市第三人民医院激光祛痣多少钱

淄博市妇幼保健院皮肤科青岛妇女医院医生咨询Food食物The sauciers apprentices烹饪学徒Humanitys relationship with cookery is unique—and shouldnt be lost By Michael Pollan.生活与烹饪的独特关系—不应被舍弃Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation.烹饪,转变的自然史BEFORE Michael Pollan came along, eating as a form of politics was a fringe activity. Dubbed the “liberal foodie intellectual” by the New York Times, the American activist and author has spent the last two decades writing bestselling books, such as “In Defence of Food”and “The Omnivores Dilemma”, in an effort to popularise cooking and highlight the defects of the food industry and the rich worlds bad eating habits.在Michael Pollan的书火了之前,设饭局已不流行。这位被《纽约时代》称为饕餮知识分子的美国作家兼活动家,花了20年写就了多本畅销书,像是《为食物辩护》和《杂食动物的困境》,他大力推广烹饪,针砭时弊食品工业和发达国家糟糕的饮食习惯。Mr Pollans latest book, “Cooked”, is divided into four sections: fire, water, air and earth. Although something of an authorly conceit, these divisions allow him to explore a range of culinary topics from the joy of making soufflés that rise to why bacteria are needed in fermentation. He also returns to a conundrum he has previously described as the “cooking paradox”: why it is that people now spend less time preparing food from scratch and more time ing about cooking or watching cookery programmes on television.他的新书《烹饪》分为四个部分:火,水,空气和土。虽然这样分,显得有些自负,不过在每个部分,作者都有关于烹饪的心得,比如从制作起酥的乐趣到为什么发酵中需要细菌。书中同样也探讨了他之前谈到的“烹饪的悖论”—为什么人们花更少的时间下厨,花更多的时间读烹饪书籍或是看电视烹饪节目?Mr Pollan explores the same way a naturalist might, by studying the animals, plants and microbes involved in cooking, and delving into history, culture and chemistry. With help from experts he masters the “whole hog” barbecue, a loaf of b and the cooking pot. He describes the remarkable transformations that take place in the humble saucepan, where fibres are broken down, seeds softened and rendered edible, plants detoxified, and flavours brought together from far-flung taxonomic kingdoms.作者研究烹饪中的动物,植物和微生物,钻研历史,文化和化学,就像个物学者一样。在行家的帮助下,他掌握了如何制作烤猪,长条面包,使用锅子。他描述了发生在炖锅中的奇妙转变,锅中食物的纤维被破坏,种子被煮软,变得可以食用,植物食材的去毒以及多种不同时才一起烹饪带来的奇妙味道。Side by side with Mr Pollan the naturalist is the author as activist. Although the fruit and vegetable areas of supermarkets have grown ever bigger over the past two decades, cooking has expanded to take in heating up a tin of soup, microwaving y-meals and frozen pizzas or breaking open a bag of mixed lettuce leaves. Mr Pollan places great emphasis on the work of Harry Balzer, an expert on food, diet and eating patterns in America. Collecting data from thousands of food diaries, Mr Balzer concludes that, since the 1980s, fewer and fewer people have been cooking their evening meal.Michael Pollan是物学家,也是作家和活动家。虽然超市水果和蔬菜的区域在过去的20年不断扩大,可是烹饪却越来越不被当回事,连加热罐头汤,微波即时食品或冷冻披萨,打开袋装莴苣叶都算烹饪。Harry Balzer 是研究美国人的食物,膳食和饮食习惯的专家,Pollen非常重视Harry的研究。Harry从几千份饮食日记中获得信息并得出结论,他认为,自从20世纪80年代以来,越来越少的人在家做晚餐。Mr Pollan is keen for this trend to be reversed and his book is a hymn to why people should be enticed back into the kitchen. Cooking, he believes, creates bonds between humans and the web of living creatures that sustain and nourish them. Turning away from this means that foods that are tasty and healthy (as b once was) are being taken off the with far-reaching consequences. Industrially produced food almost always trades in quality ingredients for higher amounts of sugar, salt and fat—with a corresponding rise in levels of obesity.Pollen致力于扭转这样的趋势,他的书写的就是为什么人们应该自己烹饪。他坚信,烹饪联系了人类和其他被食用的生物。不赞成这一观点就意味着不认为健康美味的食物从菜单上取消会带来深远的影响。通常,工业生产的食物会选用高糖高盐高脂肪而非高品质的食材,这就导致肥胖人数增加。Before refrigeration, bad food often killed people. Bacteria, such as E. coli, occasionally still do. In recent decades a great deal of research has been done on the array of good microbes humans carry within them and which they need in order to stay healthy. “Cooked” is particularly informative about the rapidly moving scientific frontier of microbial ecology and how, in a post-Pasteurian world, the live-culture foods which used to make up a large part of the human diet are good for people and for the microbes that live inside the gut.在冷藏技术出现之前,败坏的食物通常是致命的。细菌,比如大肠杆菌,偶尔也会置人于死地。近几十年内有许多关于人体自身携带的益生菌和哪些益生菌能使人健康的研究。《烹饪》中介绍了许多关于微生物生态学的最前沿研究,以及在巴氏消毒法出现之前,那些人类饮食中大部分被食用的含有微生物的食物对人体和体内益生菌有什么益处。The book dwells on fermented foods, for example. These have largely vanished from supermarkets but many cultures have developed such specialities, including Malaysian tempoyak, (fermented durian fruit), Russian kefir and Mexican pozole. Even b, cheese and chocolate all depend on harnessing the power of microbes. These invisible forces travel alongside humans, Mr Pollan says, in a “dance of biocultural symbiosis”, cleverly transforming, sterilising or even adding nutrients.《烹饪》详细介绍了发酵食物。超市已经很少售卖这类食物,但是在一些国家,发酵食物已成为特色菜,比如马拉西亚的榴莲糕,俄罗斯的一种类似酸奶的可佛酒,莫斯哥的pozole。就连面包,芝士和巧克力的制作都需要微生物的力量。Pollen称,这种隐形的力量就存在于人体内,是种奇妙的生物共生,转变,灭菌或是制造营养物质。Mr Pollan recognises that cooking today is very different from what it was in his grandmothers time, and that decades from now even a limited desire to cook may be seen as quaint. This would be a shame. Real cooking allows people to create, to put their own values into food, to escape the industrialised eating that has created health crises all over the world. Cooking is part of being human. The alternative is to evolve into passive consumers of standardised commodities that promise more than they deliver. Best of all, argues Mr Pollan, cooking makes people happy.Pollen认为,今天的烹饪和他外婆时代的烹饪是不同的。几十年后,随便煮煮饭都被认为是件新奇有趣的事。现在的趋势真让人惋惜。真正的烹饪(而非简单的加热)是创造的过程,是加入自己的想法,是摆脱带来世界健康危机的工业生产的食物。烹饪是生活的一部分。最重要的是,烹饪使人快乐。不烹饪就是选择成为标准化生产食物的被动消费者,这些食物通常没有广告中说的那么好。 /201404/292304高密市祛除胎记要多少钱Science and technology科学技术Social status and health社会地位与健康Misery index贫困指数Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s.可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite.因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives.实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。Cardiac arrest—and, indeed, early death from any cause—is the prerogative of underlings.心跳骤停—而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死—那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not.但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings.实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system.社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed.反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard if it were done to human beings.若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难。You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies不健康的身体,不快乐的心情Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques and split them into groups of four or five.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验,并把他们分为四到五组。The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group.根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号。The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot.研究结果有很多。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes.每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因,寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one.在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones.某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too.这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system.很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation.这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因。Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。In keeping with previous work, they found that high-and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress.与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself.同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups.表现遗传学—目前分子生物学最热的话题之一—是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals.士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life.至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed.地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use.但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around.该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201403/278292青岛市痘痕痘坑青春痘痘痘痤疮哪家便宜价格

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