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2019年10月18日 17:20:36 | 作者:新华知识 | 来源:新华社
Rene Descartes勒内·笛卡儿Rene Descartes was a French philosopher and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the “Father of Modem Philosophy”,and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes’ influence in mathematics is equally apparent. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution.勒内·笛卡儿是一名法国哲学家,成年后大部分时间却住在荷兰他被认为是现代西方哲学的奠基人,在他之后的西方哲学相当一部分是对他的作品和思想的回应他的著作在今天仍受到广大学者的仔细研究尤其是他的《第一哲学沉思集一直是众多大学哲学系的标准教材笛卡儿在数学上的影响也同样显著,他还被称为“几何之父”笛卡儿也是科学革命中的主要人物Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes), Indre-et-Loire, France. When he was one year old, his mother died. His father was a member in the provincial parliament. At the age of eight, he entered the Jesuit College Royal Henry-Le-Grand at La Fleche. After graduation, he studied at the University of Poitiers, earning a Baccalaureat and Licence in law in ,in accordance with his father’s wishes that he should become a lawyer.笛卡儿生于法国安德尔-卢瓦尔省的图赖讷(现笛卡尔,因笛卡儿得名)他一岁多时母亲就去世了他父亲是省议会的议员8岁时笛卡儿就进入拉夫赖士(La Fle che)的耶稣会学校接受教育,毕业后到普瓦捷大学学习法律,年,如父亲所愿,获得中学毕业书及法律执业资格He spent most of his youth traveling, visiting courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences. Despite frequent moves he wrote all his major work during his plus years in the Netherlands, where he managed to revolutionize mathematics and philosophy. In 33, Galileo was condemned by the Roman Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years. Nevertheless, in 37 he published part of this work in three essays: Les Meteores (The Meteors), La Dioptrique (Dioptrics) and La Geometrie (Geometry), preceded by an introduction, his famous Discours de la Metode (Discourse on the Method).笛卡儿年轻时花费了大量时间游历各方,参观王宫和军队,与各种性格和阶层的人们交往,积攒不同的经历尽管经常迁移,他的主要作品仍然是在他多岁时在荷兰完成的,他试图掀起一场数学和哲学的革命33年,迦利略被罗马天主教会控告有罪,使笛卡儿放弃了出版《世界,这是他前四年的心血的结晶然而,在37年,他将这本书中的部分内容发表在三篇小散文中:《折光学、《气象学和《几何学,书的序言就是他著名的《方法论Descartes continued to publish works concerning both mathematics and philosophy the rest of his life. He died on February 50 in Stockholm, Sweden, where he had been invited as a tutor Queen Christina of Sweden. The cause of death was said to be pneumonia — he may have suffered a detrimental effect on his health due to Christina’s demands early morning study. The lack of sleep could have severely compromised his immune system.笛卡儿余生里继续出版关于数学和哲学的著作他于50年月日在瑞典斯德哥尔逝世,之前他受瑞典女王邀请来到瑞典,为克里斯蒂娜皇后当老师据说他感染了肺炎,可能是因为克里斯蒂娜要求早起学习,长期的缺乏睡眠严重影响了他的免疫系统,给他的健康带来了慢性损害 600Famous Songs-“I Left My Heart in San Francisco”; Niagara Falls; assessment versus evaluation versus appraisal; sympathy versus empathy; to take (one’s) time and to take a load off Words:homesick to pitch bay steep cable fog waterfallfactory to generate hydroelectric barrel fine assessmentevaluation appraisal sympathy empathy to take (one) timeto take a load off 39696Solar clothes Argentine designer looks to the future by creating solar-powered clothing. It looks like a regular jacket, but this one has serious voltage--a solar panel on the back charges ipods, phones, xboxes and laptops all along the go.Design mobile-type to don't want to waste time searching an outlet, a cable inside the jaceket runs the panel to a battery inside the pocket. There are 8 different plug-in the comedy electronic devices that can be charged up wherever there is sunshine.Designer ,"The idea is precisely that today's technology is more and more mobile. It has freedom of wirleless connection. But when batteries run out, you have to pluck into the grace. So this is the way to have mobile energy, and of course it's claim."clothing line based in Argentina includes pants and jackets with built-in controls to skip the sound or pop up the vo*. Wirelessly connecting with ipod at the bottom of backpack. Clothes that dude double duty, keeping you warm and listening to that favourite song. Well, at least as long as it doesn't rain. 13300Meeting the landlordBeth: Hello, Mr. Gao. We appreciate your letting us have the apartment.LL: My pleasure. Youre a sweet couple. Do you have any questions?Beth: The ad said rent was thirty thousand. That includes utilities and phone, I assume.LL: No, it doesnt. And there a maintenance fee each month. It ty NT per ping.Beth: That another one thousand six hundred?LL: Yes, but that doesnt include cable. It cleaning and trash removal. You just leave your trash outside your door.参考译文:和房东见面贝丝:哈啰,高先生我们很感激你让我们承租这间公寓房东:荣幸之至你们这对夫妇人很好有任何问题吗?贝丝:广告上说房租是三万元我猜那包括水电瓦斯跟电话费吧房东:不,没有包括而且每个月还有管理费一坪四十元贝丝:那就是还要外加一千六百元?房东:对,不过那不包括有线电视那是清洁跟收垃圾的费用你只要把垃圾放在门外就好了重点词汇:rent (v.,n.)房租;出租A: We also want to move because it too expensive.我们也想搬家,因为太贵了B: Yes, the rent must be really high here.是啊,这里房租一定很贵utility (n.)瓦斯、电力、自来水等设施A: Does your rent include utilities?你的房租包括水电瓦斯费吗?B: It includes water, but you have to pay gas and electricity.包括水费,不过要付瓦斯跟电费assume (v.)假定,假设I assumed you had a boyfriend.我猜妳有男朋友了maintenance fee维修保养费这里是指大楼管理费Maintenance fees are just another way landlords to rip us off.管理费只是房东剥削我们的另一种方法removal (n.)搬运,移动A: What is the government doing about that toxic waste?政府如何处理那些有毒废物?B: The new laws call its removal by .新立法要求在二○一○年之前移除 6

Saturday Night Live; Howard Stern and shock jocks; using “to” in who, what, where, when, why questions; state of the art; ways to say “good job!”Words:livecastcelebritysketchnews anchorcurrent eventsbig breakcontroversialshock jockoffendfineon the airstate of the art 6

three. World News: Economic developments.Part 1. Warming up.A. Keywords. outlook, eign investment, income tax cut, job cuts, animal produce.Vocabulary. slow down, impose, live stock, Central Bank, UN Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD, ed States House of Representatives.Youre going to hear five brief news items, focus your attention on who, what, when, where, why and how in each news item, and then answer the questions.1. Central Bank governors from more than a dozen countries have been meeting in Hongkong today.One subject they likely discussed is the outlook the global economy because of the US slowdown and Japan struggling recovery.Another topic, how to strengthen financial markets in emerging economies in Asia and elsewhere.. A ed Nation report says the worldwide total of eign investments grew by 0% last year, to more than 600 billion dollars.The report by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) says most of it took place between developed countries, as big companies took one another over.3. The ed States House of Representatives has approved a cut in income tax rates, the first part of a package of tax cutting measures put ward by President Bush.The income tax reductions will amount to nearly 1 trillion dollars over ten years.. The world largest maker of computer chips Intel has announced job cuts after a fall in demand his products.Intel said it expected its revenue in the first quarter of this year, to fall by a quarter on the same period last year.The Calinia based company plans to reduce its 85,000 strong work ce by 5,000.5. The European Union has imposed further restrictions on the movement of livestock after a case of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed in France.The ed States and Canada have issued temporary bans on the import of all animal produce from EU countries. 997

Comprehension Decide whether these statements are TRUE or FALSE 1 If Magda does well in her degree she will get a permanent job Johnny is moving to Shanghai 3 Fadi doesn’t like his cousin Harry has been offered a permanent job 5 Magda suggests that she and Sarah share a flat 6 The café is going to close down 8557

Ask an American-International work visas; to demonstrate versus to indicate versus to denote; hoot and to not give a hoot; Nice to meet youWords:skill setworkcecompetitiveto stretchinnovativeto sponsorcurrentupchances areoptimismprospectsmobilemarketplaceto demonstrateto indicateto denotehootto not give a hootNice to meet you 7

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