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Cool Ways Advertising Executives You Into Buying Things: Top 10 Advertising Tricks and Techniques十大广告技巧:广告有妙招,引你把钱烧。Advertisers are sneaky tricksters who get you to think, see, and buy things without you ever even knowing you#39;ve been deftly manipulated into making a purchase. For more than a century, the art of product placement, graphic design, and subliminal messages have convinced us to buy more than we ever intended and to spend more than we ever wanted. The popular television show “Mad Men” presented a romanticized view of the advertising world, but the steps advertisers take are often grounded in scientific research.Those advertisers aren#39;t just guessing and making things up when they#39;re convincing you to buy. They#39;re using tried-and-true and proven methods to trick you. They use everything they can from manipulating the visual design of their products to creating special retail environments designed to convince you to buy something when you never even intended to take your wallet out of your pocket. Here are some of the coolest ways advertisers work their magic on you.广告商都极擅花言巧语。他们让受众脑子里惦着、眼睛里看着,直到钱包空了,才反应过来——“哦,被购物了”。一个多世纪以来,广告商在产品要如何摆放、平面要如何设计、潜意识信息要如何传递等方面都费尽心思。如此考究,无非是让顾客掏更多的钱,把更多的东西搬回家。《广告狂人》(Mad Men)是一部备受欢迎的电视剧,它为剧迷们呈现了一个美图秀秀后的广告圈,但片中广告人所采用的那些手段还是有科学依据的。那些广告商绝不仅是依靠猜测或编造故事来说顾客购物的。他们还采用实践明法,试错法等方法来“等君入瓮”。从提升产品视觉效果到营造个性的销售氛围,他们竭尽所能,让顾客心甘情愿掏钱包,将那些原本压根没打算采购的物件搬回家。以下介绍几种超有范儿的广告魔术。10.Advertisers Confuse and Bewilder You Into Buying10.混淆视听:购买之功If you look at the layout of a grocery store with a critical eye, you might think that a team of monkeys decided where to place products. However, it#39;s no accident that you can never find anything in a grocery store. Companies know that if you#39;re focused while you shop, you#39;ll be less likely to make impulse buys or make purchases you didn#39;t intend to make while wandering the aisles of the store. Imagine that you#39;re trying to find a can of beans, and you walk into the canned vegetable aisle to find them.Grocery stores can place certain foods in aisles where you#39;d never expect them, and your search for that special item often comes with an additional purchase you never intended to make. Maybe you noticed the tortillas were on sale while trying to find the canned corn and decided to buy a bag. To further confuse you into buying more than you intended, stores will also create interruptions designed to make you forget about finding a great deal on something.你在商店的陈列柜前驻足,用挑剔的眼光审视着每一件展品,心里默想:这摆放怎能如此杂乱无章。其实,在店里买不到自己心仪的物品很正常。商业公司认识到,若顾客太过于专注购物本身,则会减少因漫步商店走道而产生的“冲动消费”,抑或是“计划外消费”。试想,你正走在罐头蔬菜区,打算采购一罐豆子。商家就会在走道两侧摆放一些食品,这让你吃惊不已,因为你从未想过走道两侧也能用于商品展示,而你在搜寻特定目标的时候,可能不知不觉就往手推车里放了其他东西。在采购玉米罐头时,你一眼瞄到了墨西哥玉米饼,便顺手带了一包。商家为了达到“迷人眼”的效果,还会使出浑身解数来分散你的注意力,“哄”得你不仅将“只买对的,不买贵的”的初衷抛之脑后,还变身“购物狂”,大肆采购。A study conducted at Stanford University found that people who were interrupted when engaged in a task were more likely to engage in “risk-taking” than an individual who was allowed to conduct their business in peace. As far as buying is concerned, this risk-taking comes in the form of buying the product you were considering before you were interrupted even if it was more than you wanted to pay. Rather than remembering to get that calculator out, you forget that you didn#39;t actually check to see whether the large can of corn was a better deal that the small can.斯坦福大学的一项研究显示,工作中受到干扰的人,相较于那些不受干扰的人,更敢于承担风险。就购物而言,“承担风险”体现在,消费者在购物中断前即已买到钟意物品,即便物件价格远超你预想。你正顾着采购,且不亦乐乎,把用计算器核算那点儿事早忘得一干二净;此时的你已经忘了,自己其实并没有比对出,大小两种玉米罐头究竟哪一种更为合算。9.Salespeople Mimic You to Make You Spend More9.投君所好:意在钱包Did you grow up with a younger sibling who used to mimic your every movement just to annoy you? Or, were you the sibling who liked to annoy your brother or sister by mimicking their movements, speech, and tone of voice? Well, apparently those simple gestures and mimicry could get you a job as a salesperson because of how mimicked behavior influences a person#39;s decision to buy something. A study published in the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services found that forming personal bonds between shoppers and salespeople was an effective way of increasing sales.你是否有小弟或,模仿着你的一举一动,让你不胜其烦?又或是,你从行为、言论甚至是声调都在模仿着你的哥哥?模仿行为将影响顾客是否决定购买产品;通过一些简单的手势以及适度模仿,你就能成为一名销售员。《零售及消费者务》(Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services)杂志发表的一份研究称,在顾客与雇员之间形成人际互动,不失为提高销售量行之有效的方法。The experiment featured four salespeople in a retail store who were told to mimic customers to see if that behavior could influence a person#39;s decision to buy something. Not only did mimicking customers ensure a higher overall sales rate, but the experiment also showed that people became more susceptible to a salesperson#39;s suggestions. Further, the customers were even likely to give the store and its salespeople high marks when evaluating their buying experience. This study built upon previous research that suggested people were more comfortable buying from salespeople who were very like themselves.该实验在一家零售店挑选了四位销售员,让她们模仿顾客的言行,从而了解销售员的行为举止,是否会对顾客的消费决定产生影响。实验的结果显示:模仿顾客的确能提高整体销售率,且销售员所给建议更易为顾客所接受。更有甚者,顾客在对消费体验进行评价时,会给这家店及雇员打出更高的分数。此前一项调查显示,若雇员与自己有着极高的相似度,则顾客购物舒适度将会更高。上述实验就是以该调查为基础而展开的。So, for example, a store selling clothing meant for a female demographic around ages 40 to 60 might hire saleswomen in that age range to improve the likelihood of a personal bond developing between the customer and the employee. Other research has even showed value in physical touch during the sales process, but only from female sales associates. A tap on the shoulder or a gentle nudge on someone#39;s back could lead to higher sales or more money spent. Like mimicry, tactile touch also improved a customer#39;s opinion of the store after making a purchase.因此,我们打个比方,若一家装店的目标群体为40至60岁的女性顾客,那么该店就会雇佣相应年龄的销售员,以提高顾客与雇员之间的人际互动。另一份研究显示,女性销售员在推销过程中与顾客所产生的肢体接触会产生不错的效果。如拍拍肩膀、轻推背部,都会让顾客花更多的钱,买更多的东西。同模仿一样,肢体接触也会提升顾客购物后,对商家的好感。8.Advertisers Prey on Your Feelings with Round Numbers8.偏爱整数:广告商机There#39;s a good chance you know someone who always has to have everything organized and neat, and they probably hate messes and leaving things out of place. Maybe this describes how you feel, and you hate it when things look messy. Overall, it would appear that many of us have these same feelings when it comes to rounded numbers and shopping. It#39;s very common for consumers to look for the lowest price on a product, but the results of a study aspublished by Science Daily revealed that people actually have feelings regarding prices with rounded numbers.你身边一定有这样的人,他们讨厌东西杂乱无章、乱丢一气,总是把每样东西安排得井井有条、整整齐齐。也许这恰恰说得就是你。谈到整数和购物的时候,很多人似乎都深有同感。一般来说,消费者购物时总希望物美价廉,但是《科学日报》(Science Daily)发表的一项研究表明,人们其实更喜欢整数的标价。Originally published in the Journal of Consumer Research, the study showed that consumers were actually drawn to rounded numbers on prices when a purchase was “feeling” based rather than one based on research. For example, buying a birthday present for someone and seeing a price of 0 rather than .78 would make someone more likely to make a purchase. On the other hand, a price with odd numbers in it would encourage a buyer to think about the price more and make a more informed decision as to whether it was a good buy or whether they could find a better deal somewhere else.这项研究最初发表于《消费者研究》杂志(Journal of Consumer Research)。研究显示,如果是凭感觉消费而不是经过一番调查比对的话,消费者实际上更容易被整数价格所吸引。例如,给人买生日礼物的时候,比起96.78美元,人更愿意购买标价为100美元的礼物。相反,如果价格是奇数的话,消费者可能就会考虑价格是否划算、在别处买会不会更便宜,然后做出更明智的决定。This study isn#39;t the only one to find that even the smallest changes in price can have a big impact on the likelihood that someone would make a purchase. In fact, studies have shown that increasing the price on a product can make people think it#39;s worth more even though no actual change was made to the product. From all accounts, humans notice even the smallest changes in price, but it#39;s not always a price in the downward direction that makes someone decide a product is an appropriate purchase.除此之外,还有很多研究发现,即使很细微的价格变动也能对消费者产生很大的影响。事实上,研究表明,尽管产品本身并没有发生实质性改变,但提高价格会让人们觉得产品内在价值有所提升。总的来说,哪怕很小的价格变化,消费者都能注意到,但并不是只有降价产品才会让人觉得值得购买。审校:假微信 校对:落花生 Freya然 /201507/384944With a state-owned power plant in nearby Shanxi Province temporarily shut down to reduce air pollution, one of its engineers, Liu Cixin, is using the free time to work on his hobby: reigning as China’s best-selling science-fiction author.北京——工程师刘慈欣在山西附近的一座发电站工作(为减少空气污染,该站已经暂时关闭),他用业余时间经营自己的爱好,当上了中国最畅销的科幻小说作家。Along with working on a new novel and advising on screenplay adaptations of his earlier fiction, Mr. Liu, 51, has been promoting the English translation of “The Three-Body Problem,” the first book in his best-selling apocalyptic space opera trilogy. Translated by Ken Liu, an award-winning science-fiction writer in his own right who is based in the ed States (the men are not related), it is one of the few Chinese science-fiction novels to be translated into English. It will be released in the ed States on Tuesday by Tor Books.51岁的刘慈欣目前在创作一部新小说,也在给自己之前小说的电影改编剧本提建议。此外他还在宣传自己的小说《三体》的英译本,这是他的畅销天启太空歌剧三部曲中的第一部。该书由刘宇昆翻译,他同样是一位获奖科幻小说作家,现居美国(两人没有亲属关系)。目前被译为英文的中文科幻小说非常少见,本书将于周二由托尔图书出版社(Tor Books)在美国发行。The success of the “Three-Body” series, as it is called in China, has gained a following beyond the small but flourishing science-fiction world here. Since the third book was published in 2010, each entry in the series has sold about 500,000 copies in the original Chinese, making Mr. Liu the best-selling Chinese science-fiction author in decades.《三体》系列的成功令它的影响力超越了小而繁荣的科幻界。自第三部于2010年出版后,该系列每一部的中文版都卖出了约50万册,令刘慈欣成为几十年来最畅销的中国科幻小说作家。In addition to the usual high school and college-age fans of science fiction, China’s aerospace and Internet industries have embraced the books. Many interpret the battle of civilizations depicted in the series as an allegory for the ruthless competition in the nation’s Internet industry.除了科幻小说界常见的中学生与大学生拥趸,中国的航空航天和互联网业界人士也热爱这套书。很多人把书中不同文明之间的战争为中国互联网业内的无情竞争。The series has also breathed new life into a genre that, here as elsewhere, the literary establishment often marginalizes.这部系列也为科幻小说这一类型赋予了新活力,和在世界其他地方一样,在中国,科幻小说的文学价值经常被边缘化。For decades, science fiction was subject to the whims of Communist Party rule. The genre went from being a vehicle for popularizing science for socialist purposes to drawing criticism in 1983 from party newspapers for “sping pseudoscience and promoting decadent capitalist elements.” When the prestigious People’s Literature literary magazine published four of Mr. Liu’s short stories in 2012, it was a sign that the genre was back in official good graces.在中国,几十年来,科幻小说受到共产党反复无常的配。这一类型曾经被当做社会主义科普的工具,也在1983年遭到党报批评,称其为“传播伪科学,宣扬腐朽的资本主义”。2012年,声望很高的文学杂志《人民文学》刊登了四篇刘慈欣的小说,这标志着这一类型重新获得当局垂青。At its core, science fiction capitalizes on uncertainty about the future to push the boundaries of the er’s imagination. In fast-changing China, stories that lay out what coming years may hold in store have therefore found deeper resonance among ers.本质上,科幻小说利用未来的不确定性,推动读者想象的边界。因此,在快速变革的中国,关于未来可能发生的事情便能在读者当中找到更深的共鸣。“China is on the path of rapid modernization and progress, kind of like the U.S. during the golden age of science fiction in the ’30s to the ’60s,” Mr. Liu said. “The future in the people’s eyes is full of attractions, temptations and hope. But at the same time, it is also full of threats and challenges. That makes for very fertile soil.”“中国正处在高速现代化与发展的过程中,有点像20世纪30年代到60年代的美国,那也是科幻小说发展的黄金时期,”刘慈欣说。“人们眼中的未来充满魅力、诱惑与希望。同时也充满威胁和挑战。这为科幻小说提供了肥沃的土壤。”Chinese science fiction serves another purpose in the eyes of Xia Jia, a science-fiction writer and professor at Xian Jiaotong University. “Chinese science fiction, in a way, has borne the weight of the ‘Chinese dream’ since the genre first appeared in China in the late Qing dynasty,” she said, referring to the turn of the 20th century.在科幻小说作家与西安交通大学讲师夏笳看来,中国科幻小说还有另一个目的。“科幻小说是从晚清开始在中国出现,自那以后,中国科幻小说便在某种程度上承载着‘中国梦’,”她指的是19世纪与20世纪之交的那段时期。“The dream is about wanting to overtake the Western countries and become a very powerful modern China while still preserving these old elements,” she added. “This is what we who write science fiction in China have to grapple with.”“这个梦是关于追上西方国家,成为强大的现代中国,同时又保存古老的元素,”她补充,“这是我们中国的科幻小说作者必须应对的问题。”The “Three-Body” tomes chronicle a march of the human race into the universe set against the recent past, the tumultuous years of the Cultural Revolution. It is a classic science-fiction story in the style of the British master Arthur C. Clarke, whose work Mr. Liu says he grew up ing. “Everything that I write is a clumsy imitation of Arthur C. Clarke,” he said.《三体》三部曲按年代顺序记载了人类进军宇宙的征程,故事从不久的过去开始,即“文化大革命”动荡的岁月。这是经典的科幻小说故事,有着英国科幻小说大师阿瑟·C·克拉克(Arthur C. Clarke)的风格,刘慈欣说,自己从小就看克拉克的小说。“我写作的一切都是对阿瑟·C·克拉克的笨拙模仿,”他说。The first book in the series explores the world of the Trisolarans, an alien civilization on the brink of destruction. When a secret military project in China attempts to make contact with aliens, the Trisolarans capture the signals and decide to invade Earth. Back in China, people split into two camps: those who welcome the aliens and those who want to fight them.该系列的第一本探索了三体人的世界,这个外星文明正处于崩溃边缘。中国的一个秘密军事行动试图和外星人取得联系,三体人收到信号,决定入侵地球。在中国,人们分裂成两大阵营,一派欢迎外星人,另一派希望同他们开战。The series is likely to be a change of pace for science-fiction fans in the ed States, where many leading contemporary writers in the genre are rejecting classic alien-invasion plots in favor of those that take on real-world issues like climate change or shifting gender roles.这个系列有可能改变美国科幻小说迷的口味,目前美国的很多顶尖科幻小说作家摒弃传统的外星人入侵情节,更青睐反映现实世界的题材,诸如气候变化和性别转变之类。“I don’t think the demand for this kind of classical golden age science fiction has necessarily gone away,” Liz Gorinsky, an editor at Tor Books, said of the decision to introduce the series to American ers. “The ‘Three-Body’ series sort of scratches the same itch that harkens back to the kinds of books people when they were kids.”“我不认为对这类黄金时代经典科幻小说的需求已经消失,”托尔出版社的编辑莉兹·格林斯基(Liz Gorinsky)在谈起为何将该系列引入美国时说。“《三体》系列正是人们小时候读过的那种书。”Some experts link the popularity of the “Three-Body” series to a growing confidence among Chinese about their country’s growing role on the world stage.有些专家把《三体》系列的流行同中国人对国家在世界舞台上扮演的角色感到日益自信联系起来。“There have always been science-fiction stories that contemplated China as a leader in the world,” said Wu Yan, a science-fiction scholar and professor at Beijing Normal University. “People may have liked them, but, in their hearts, they didn’t truly believe them, or they thought it was really far off in the future. Now, with the ‘Three-Body’ series, people think, ‘Wow, it really could be possible that China might be given a say in the fate of humankind.’ ”“总有一些科幻小说把中国描绘为世界的领袖,”科幻小说作家、北京师范大学教授吴岩说。“人们或许喜欢它们,但在内心深处,他们并不相信,或者觉得这是遥远未来的事。现在,看了《三体》,人们觉得,‘啊,中国真有可能在关于人类命运的问题上发言了。’”In the book, scientists attempt to solve the traditional three-body problem in physics, in which the otherwise stable gravitational interaction between two objects in space becomes random and unpredictable when a third object is introduced.在这本书里,科学家试图揭开物理学中传统的三体问题:在宇宙空间中,如果引入第三个物体,两个物体之间稳定的引力作用会变为随机而不可预测。Mr. Liu’s revered status in the genre was evident this month at a book signing at the fifth annual Chinese Nebula Awards, one of the largest gatherings of science-fiction writers and fans in China. More than 2,000 people attended the events, held in an empty museum space on the western outskirts of Beijing.一年一度的华语星云奖是中国科幻作家和读者最大的盛会之一,这个月的第五届星云奖充分显示了刘慈欣在科幻界的崇高地位。2000多人出席了活动,北京西郊一家空荡荡的物馆顿时水泄不通。Mr. Liu stepped out of the elevator and made his way through the throngs to the table. Gasps and excited whispers were audible among the hundreds of fans who had lined up around the building. Two hours later, more than 100 fans, mostly college-age, were still waiting for a chance to meet him. One, Wu Liang, 27, trembled with excitement after her encounter with Mr. Liu.刘慈欣走出电梯,穿过人流,来到桌前。室内有几百个粉丝,兴奋的吸气声和耳语清晰可闻。两小时后,一百多个粉丝(其中大部分是大学生的年纪),仍在等着与他见面的机会。27岁的吴莲(音译)见到刘慈欣后,不禁激动得发抖。“You just bury your head in the ‘Three-Body’ books, and all of a sudden you feel so energized,” said Ms. Wu, who works at an Internet company in Beijing and attended the event in full Jedi attire. “It’s really a milestone in Chinese science fiction.”“你埋头读着《三体》,突然就觉得那么兴奋,”吴说,她在北京一家互联网公司工作,穿着绝地武士装来参加这次活动。“它的确是中国科幻小说的里程碑。” /201411/342578We take more photos of ourselves than ever - but it seems selfies are doing little for our self-confidence.我们给自己拍的照片比以往任何时候都多,不过看起来自拍并没有把我们的自信心提高多少。Women typically take and delete five pictures before settling on a selfie they feel comfortable posting online, a survey found.一项调查发现,女性每每需要拍摄并删除五张自拍照,才能最终拍出一张自己觉得舒的照片发在网上。And men are happy only on their fourth try.而男性则喜欢自己的第四张。Two in three women (64 per cent) feel anxious just having their photo taken, while looking at snaps on social media made 41 per cent feel bad about themselves, according to a survey of 5,000 people by market researchers OnePoll.OnePoll调查公司在对5000人进行调查后发现,2/3的女性(64%)一拍照就紧张,而观看社交媒体上的自拍照会让41%的人自我感觉糟糕。Of the children who were also questioned, which included 58 per cent who took selfies, 79 per cent said they were happy with the way they looked, 67 per cent thought they needed to look good.接受调查的儿童中有58%会自拍,79%的儿童对自己的长相很满意,67%认为自己需要看起来不错才行。ITV#39;s Good Morning Britain show, which commissioned the research, is encouraging viewers to share the first selfie they take on social media under the hashtag #SelfieEsteem.这项调查的委托方是英国独立电台(ITV)的“早安英国”节目,该节目鼓励观众在社交媒体上分享自己的第一张自拍照,并打上标签“#自拍尊严(SelfieEsteem)”。Jamelia, Nicky Byrne, Beth Tweddle, Richard Madeley, Piers Morgan, Nancy Dell’Olio, Rebecca Ferguson are among the celebrities backing the campaign.杰米利亚(Jamelia),尼基伯恩(Nicky Byrne),贝斯·特瓦迪尔(Beth Tweddle),理查德·马德里(Richard Madeley),皮尔斯·根(Piers Morgan),南希·德尔奥莉奥(Nancy Dell’Olio),丽贝卡·弗格森(Rebecca Ferguson)等名人都参加了这次网络运动。The survey also found a third of women were worried they were passing on body confidence issues to their children and 41 per cent of children did not think their mother was happy with the way she looked.这项调查也发现,1/3的女性担心她们对身体的不自信会传染给孩子,41%的儿童觉得妈妈对她自己的长相并不满意。It also found 15 per cent of women and 19 per cent of men had cropped, filtered, or retouched pictures of their children.调查还发现,15%的女性和19%的男性曾经对自己孩子的相片进行剪裁、加滤镜和后期润色。 /201504/371615

To give someone the moon door means to break up with somebody. Alternatively, it means to fire somebody from a job。把某人推出月亮门指与某人分手,也可以指,把某人炒鱿鱼。Basically, the word describes any situation in which someone#39;s position or status is completely stripped away from them in one fell swoop。这个表达的基本意思就是,一下子就把某人的身份或地位完全剥夺。This phrase derives from the book and TV series, Game of Thrones, in which there is a castle on a high mountain with a hatch built into the floor. This hatch is called the ;Moon Door.; When opened, the Moon Door releases people into mid air, so that they fall directly to the floor of the Vale far below。这个表达来源于热门小说及改编电视剧《权力的游戏》,里面有个城堡建在高山上,而城堡的地面上有个可以打开的出口,这个出口就叫“月亮门”。这个月亮门一旦被打开,站在上面的人就会跌落到下面的深谷中。 /201506/382585

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