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来源:健健康    发布时间:2019年11月14日 16:46:45    编辑:admin         

Disney Star Wars, Disney and myth-making迪士尼 星球大战,迪士尼和神话创造How one company came to master the business of storytelling一个公司如何成为兜售故事的商业传奇FROM a galaxy far, far away to a cinema just down the road: “The Force Awakens”, the newest instalment of the Star Wars saga, is inescapable this Christmas. The first Star Wars title since Lucasfilm, the owner of the franchise, was acquired by Disney in 2012 for .1 billion, it represents more than just the revival of a beloved science-fiction series. It is the latest example of the way Disney has prospered over the past decade from a series of shrewd acquisitions (see article). Having bought Pixar, Marvel and Lucasfilm, Disney has skilfully capitalised on their intellectual property—and in so doing, cemented its position as the market leader in the industrialisation of mythology. Its success rests on its mastery of the three elements of modern myth-making: tropes, technology and toys.从遥远的星际抵达你周边的电影院—《星球大战7:原力觉醒》这部星战系列的最新影片就在圣诞期间上映,不容错过。早期星战系列电影出自卢卡斯影业名下,该公司在2012年被迪士尼以41亿美元收购。不仅又让拥趸颇多的科幻系列重回影迷视野,还成为迪士尼公司另一个成功收购案例—在过去十年,迪士尼走了一条通过成功收购而实现蒸蒸日上的发展路径(另见文)。它先后收购了皮克斯,漫威和卢卡斯影业,并巧妙的利用自己的知识产权获益。在这一过程中,迪士尼也巩固了奇幻题材故事产业的领导者地位.。它的成功依赖于掌握了现代奇幻电影制作的三大要素:类型化,高科技和相关玩具产品。From Homer to Han Solo从荷马到韩·索罗Start with the tropes. Disney properties, which include everything from “Thor” to “Toy Story”, draw on well-worn devices of mythic structure to give their stories cultural resonance. Walt Disney himself had an intuitive grasp of the power of fables. George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, is an avid student of the work of Joseph Campbell, an American comparative mythologist who outlined the “monomyth” structure in which a hero answers a call, is assisted by a mentor figure, voyages to another world, survives various trials and emerges triumphant. Both film-makers merrily plundered ancient mythology and folklore. The Marvel universe goes even further, directly appropriating chunks of Greco-Roman and Norse mythology. (This makes Disneys enthusiasm for fierce enforcement of intellectual-property laws, and the seemingly perpetual extension of copyright, somewhat ironic.)先从类型化说起。迪士尼旗下的众多作品,包括《雷神》、《玩具总动员》等等,都采用了老调重弹的神话故事架构来让观众产生文化共鸣。沃特·迪士尼自身非常清楚寓言故事的魅力。星战系列导演乔治·卢卡斯热衷于借鉴约瑟夫·坎贝尔的作品。坎贝尔是一名比较神话学者,他提出了“神话故事原型论”(Monomyth)。即在一个英雄的旅程当中,英雄主角需要完成一个使命,他通常在某个导师的指引下去到另一个世界,历经千难万险最终成功。两大电影制作公司也钟情借用古代神话和民间传说。漫威超级英雄更夸张,直接取材于许多古希腊罗马和中世纪斯堪的纳维亚的神话。(这让一向严格实施版权保护,并不停延长其版权期限的迪士尼公司,看起来多少有些讽刺。)The internal mechanics of myths may not have changed much over the ages, but the technology used to impart them certainly has. That highlights Disneys second area of expertise. In Homers day, legends were passed on in the form of dactylic hexameters; modern myth-makers prefer computer graphics, special effects, 3D projection, surround sound and internet distribution, among other things. When Disney bought Lucasfilm it did not just acquire the Star Wars franchise; it also gained Industrial Light amp; Magic, one of the best special-effects houses in the business, whose high-tech wizardry is as vital to Marvels Avengers films as it is to the Star Wars epics. And when Disney was left behind by the shift to digital animation, it cannily revitalised its own film-making brand by buying Pixar, a firm as pioneering in its field as Walt Disney had been in hand-drawn animation. Moreover, modern myths come in multiple media formats. The Marvel and Star Wars fantasy universes are chronicled in interlocking films, television series, books, graphic novels and games. Marvels plans are mapped out until the mid-2020s.神话故事架构可能未随时间流转变样,但是让其流传开来的技术手段却日新月异。这也是迪士尼公司科技特长的精所在。在荷马史诗的年代,英雄故事要用长短格六步格韵体写就;而在现代,计算机绘图,特效,3D,环绕立体声,在线视频转发等等媒介就能够承载这些故事。迪士尼买下卢卡斯影业不仅获得了星球大战系列的版权,还同时把光影魔幻工业(特效行业最佳公司之一)收入囊中,这家公司对星战系列的重要性不亚于它对成就复仇者联盟做出的贡献。动画制作在数字化转型,老牌迪士尼曾一度跟不上脚步,但收购皮克斯使其动画制作重焕生机。毕竟皮克斯在数字动画制作领域的地位堪比当时手绘动画时代的沃特·迪士尼。而且,现代奇幻作品通常采用多平台推广,漫威和星战就陆续出品系列电影、电视剧,图书,漫画和电游。漫威影业要推出的作品续集已经排到了2020年。But these days myths are also expected to take physical form as toys, merchandise and theme-park rides. This is the third myth-making ingredient. Again, Walt Disney led the way, licensing Mickey Mouse and other characters starting in the 1930s, and opening the original Disneyland park in 1955. Mr Lucas took cinema-related merchandise into a new dimension, accepting a pay cut as director in return for all the merchandising rights to Star Wars—a deal that was to earn him billions. Those rights now belong to Disney, and it is making the most of them: sales of “The Force Awakens” merchandise, from toys to clothing, are expected to be worth up to billion alone in the coming year. In all, more than billion-worth of Star Wars merchandise has been sold since 1977, according to NPD Group, a market-research firm. Even Harry Potter and James Bond are scruffy-looking nerf-herders by comparison.但是,目前神话故事也将以实体形式呈现,如玩具、商品和主题公园等形式,这也是神话创作的第三要素。沃特·迪士尼成为了行业中的典范,从二十世纪30年代开始,他们为米老鼠以及其他的一些角色申请专利,并于1955年开放了最初的迪士尼乐园。卢卡斯将电影相关产品带上了新的维度,作为导演他接受降低薪资以换取所有有关星球大战的商品权——这个协议让他赚了数十亿。这些商品化权现在隶属于迪士尼,并得到了充分利用:从玩具到装,《原力觉醒》相关商品的预期销售额仅明年一年就能达到50亿美元。美国市场调研机构NPD集团的调研报告显示,自1977年起累计,销售星球大战附加品已带来320亿美元的收入。与之相比,甚至连哈利波特和詹姆士邦德看起来都是如此的上不了台面。Those other franchises are reminders that Disneys approach is not unique. Other studios are doing their best to imitate its approach. But Disney has some of the most valuable properties and exploits them to their fullest potential. It is particularly good at refreshing and repackaging its franchises to encourage adults to revisit their childhood favourites and, in the process, to introduce them to their own children. This was one reason why Pixar, whose films are known for their cross-generational appeal, was such a natural fit. Now the next generation is being introduced to Star Wars by their nostalgic parents. At the same time, Disney has extended its franchises by adding sub-brands that appeal to particular age groups: childrens television series spun off from Star Wars, for example, or darker, more adult tales from the Marvel universe, such as the “Daredevil” and “Jessica Jones” series on.其他系列电影表明,迪士尼的策略不是唯一的。其他一些影城也竭尽全力地效仿迪士尼的做法。但迪士尼拥有最有价值的资源,并能最大程度开发这些资源,尤其 擅长再更新和再包装其产品,以此鼓励成人回忆他们的童年最爱,在此过程中,将喜好介绍给自己的孩子。皮克斯擅长制作吸引两代人的电影,这也使得它与迪士尼的合作成为天作之合。现在,怀旧的父母们也将把星球大战传承给下一代。与此同时,迪士尼通过增加吸引特定年龄的子品牌拓宽系列经营权:例如,源于《星球大战》的少儿电视节目,始于漫威宇宙系列的更黑暗、更成人化的故事,比如网飞公司的《超胆侠》和《杰西卡琼斯》等电影。Do, or do not—there is no try要么去做,要么放手,没有尝试一说What explains the power of all this modern-day mythology? There is more to it than archetypal storytelling, clever technology and powerful marketing. In part, it may fill a void left by the decline of religion in a more secular world. But it also provides an expression for todays fears. The original “Star Wars” film, in which a band of plucky rebels defeat a technological superpower, was a none-too-subtle inversion of the Vietnam war. The Marvel universe, originally a product of the cold-war era, has adapted well on screen to a post-9/11 world of surveillance and the conspiratorial mistrust of governments, large corporations and the power of technology. In uncertain times, when governments and military might seem unable to keep people safe or stay honest, audiences take comfort in the idea of superheroes who ride to the rescue. Modern myths also have the power to unify people across generations, social groups and cultures, creating frameworks of shared references even as other forms of media consumption become ever more fragmented.当代神话故事为何有如此大的魅力?绝不仅仅是原始的讲述故事、灵活的科学技术和强大的营销能力。在某种程度上,这种神话可以弥补当下越来越世俗的世界中宗教地位下降带来的空虚。然而,这也表现出了现代人的恐惧。在最初的电影《星球大战》中,讲述了一个勇敢的反叛者对决强大的科技超能量者,这实际是越南战争的写照。漫威宇宙系列,最初是冷战时代的产物,在后911时代,监视无处不在以及人们对政府、大公司和科技力量等的不信任,漫威调整创作,将后911时代精地呈现于荧幕。在不稳定时期,当政府和军队似乎无法保民众以及自身绝对忠诚时,民众便只能寄希望于拯救世界的超级英雄。即使在媒体消费的其他形式变得越来越碎片化的时候,当代神话也可以跨越时代、阶层、文化将人们联合起来,创造出一个拥有一些共性的架构。Ultimately, however, these modern myths are so compelling because they tap primordial human urges—for refuge, redemption and harmony. In this respect they are like social-media platforms, which use technology to industrialise social interaction. Similarly, modern myth-making, reliant though it is on new tools and techniques, is really just pushing the same old buttons in stone-age brains. That is something that Walt Disney understood instinctively—and that the company he founded is now exploiting so proficiently.然而,究其根源,现代神话的魅力是因为它激发了人们对于庇护、救赎与和谐的原始诉求。在这方面,它们更像是工业化的社交平台,使用技术使得社交产业化。同样地,现代神话创作加入了新工具和新技术,也不过是旧瓶装新酒。这是沃特·迪士尼领悟到—并正在有效地运用于他所创立的公司。翻译:吴茂amp;王坤 校对:马里奥 译文属译生译世 /201602/427850。

Starbucks in the news.Starbucks have introduced a new coffee from Australia called the flak white.星巴克上新闻了 星巴克引入了一种澳大利亚的新咖啡 叫做平白The first coffee drink ever to be named after my ass.这是第一款以我屁股命名的咖啡Theres absolutely nothing back there.You can iron shirts on this thing.我后面什么都没有 在上面熨衬衫都没问题And I have.Thats not funny.Its my tragedy.我试过 这才不好笑呢 是我的悲剧啊A man in San Francisco apparently visited a plastic surgeon for botox and laser treatments,旧金山一男子去整容医生那里注射肉毒素和激光手术And then he skipped out on a 6,000 dollars bill.Hes being called the botox bandit.This is a real story.然后没付6千块医疗费就跑了 他被称为肉毒素强盗 这可是真事They havent found him yet but they have good security footage of him leaving the building.此人尚未被找到 但只是拍下了他离开大楼的清晰录像Check it out in case you see this guy.There he is.This is the security footage,there he goes.大家请看 以防你们遇上他 就在那儿呢 这是监控录像 看啊Lets get a closer look.If you see this guy,let us konw because he owes a lot of money.看看能不能拉近一点 如果大家看到了他 一定告诉我们 他可欠了一笔大债Andy,this is what I will look like in eight years.安迪 我8年之后也会是这个样子For the last couple of weeks,Andy has been working on a new comedy bit and he says he wants to try it out tonight.过去几周里 安迪一直在准备一个喜剧节目 他说他今晚想试播一下I think we owe it to andy to do it.Thank you.All right,Im y.Are you y in the Booth,Allen?You bet,y.All right andy,Go ahead with you comedy bit.我觉得我们该让安迪试试 谢谢 我准备好了 艾伦 你那边准备好了吗 当然 准备好了 好了 安迪 开始你的节目吧201609/468526。

Books and arts Book review Winston Churchills other lives书籍与艺术 书评 丘吉尔的多面人生Mr high-roller大亨No More Champagne: Churchill and His Money. By David Lough.《莫饮香槟:丘吉尔与金钱》作者:戴维·洛Winston Churchill Reporting: Adventures of a Young War Correspondent. By Simon Read. 《温斯顿·丘吉尔报告:年轻战地记者历险记》,作者:西蒙·里德HISTORIANS and many members of the public aly know that Winston Churchill often took high-stakes gambles in his political life.历史学家和许多公众早已知道,温斯顿·丘吉尔在他的政治生涯中经常冒险豪赌。Some, like the disastrous Dardanelles campaign—an audacious attempt he masterminded at the Admiralty to seize the straits of Gallipoli and knock Turkey out of the first world war—he got wrong.有些赌局,比如悲剧色的达达尼尔海峡战役,丘吉尔在海军部策划了这次大胆的军事行动,目的是占领加利波利海峡,迫使土耳其退出第一次世界大战,结果他押错了赌注。Others, notably his decision as prime minister in 1940 to hold out against Nazi Germany until America came to rescue Britain, he got spectacularly right.其他赌局,尤其是他决定在1940年担任英国首相、坚持抵抗纳粹德国到美国前来解救英国的举动,让他赢得了可观的回报。But the extent to which Churchill was a gambler in other spheres of his life has tended not to catch his biographers attention.但是,丘吉尔生活中的其他方面有多少色,却没有得到传记作家的关注。Two new books attempt to fill this gap.有两本新书打算填补这个空白。The first is “No More Champagne” by David Lough, a private-banker-turned-historian who looks at Churchills personal finances during the ups and downs of his career.第一本就是戴维·洛的《莫饮香槟》,这位私人家转行的历史学家分析了丘吉尔在跌宕起伏的职业生涯中的个人财务状况。It is the first biography to focus on this aspect of his life.这是第一本专注丘吉尔财务方面的传记。Mr Lough has trawled through Churchills personal accounts and found that he was as much a risk-taker when it came to his money as he was when he was making decisions at the Admiralty or in Downing Street.戴维·洛查阅了丘吉尔的个人账户,发现他在财务方面敢于承担风险,正如他在海军部或唐宁街做决定时一样大胆。Although Churchill was descended from the Dukes of Marlborough, his parents had “very little money on either side”—though that never stopped them living the high life.尽管丘吉尔是马尔罗公爵的后裔,他的父母却“没有多少钱”,不过这从来不妨碍他们享受上流社会的生活。Neither did it hamper the young Churchill;这对年轻的丘吉尔也没有什么约束;he spent wildly on everything from polo ponies to Havana cigars, a habit he picked up as a war correspondent in Cuba.他花起钱来挥霍无度,无论是打马球的小马,还是哈瓦那雪茄,这是他在古巴当战地记者时养成的习惯。Indeed, between 1908 and 1914 the Churchill household spent an average of 1,160 on wine alone each year—104,400 (5,000) in todays money.事实上,从1908年到1914年,丘吉尔家仅在葡萄酒一项上每年平均花费1160英镑,相当于今天的104400英镑(约合14.5万美元)。It is no wonder, then, that Churchill spent most of his life leaping from one cash flow crisis to another, being perennially behind with his suppliers bills.不过这也难怪,丘吉尔毕生的大部分时间都是刚摆脱现金危机,又陷入财务困境,常年无法偿付他供应商的账单。A nother new book, “Winston Churchill Reporting”, by Simon Read, an American journalist, looks at one of the ways Churchill eventually paid some of them: writing.另一本新书是美国记者西蒙·里德(Simon Read)写的《温斯顿·丘吉尔报告》,他找到了丘吉尔最终偿还部分债务的方法:写作。Mr Read investigates how Churchill went from a young army officer cadet to being Britains highest-earning war correspondent by the age of 25, getting the journalism bug for the rest of his life.里德的调查表明,丘吉尔如何在年仅25岁的时候,就从年轻的军官军校学生变成英国收入最高的战地记者,在他的余生里都紧握新闻这个筹码。The Churchill name certainly helped open newspaper editors doors across London.当然,丘吉尔这个名字帮助他打开整个伦敦的报社编辑室大门。But it was the extent to which the young reporter was willing to take risks on battlefields across the world that marked out his columns from those of his contemporaries.但是,这位年轻记者甘愿冒险奔赴世界各地战场的举动,让他的专栏在同行中脱颖而出。 译文属译生译世 /201603/430238。

It seems every new restaurant, bar, or national retail chain opening in Detroit generates excitement in the wake of the citys bankruptcy. Most are owned or operated by white people.But Detroit has many black-owned businesses that survived the worst of the citys struggles. One of them has even become something of a landmark in the city.Driving the length of Grand River Avenue in Detroit is an experience in itself. Its a mix of mega-churches, schools, abandoned buildings, some of the most interesting murals and graffiti youll find anywhere. And then theres a block that catches your eye and is hard to explain. Its been around 14 years and its the brainchild of Olayami Dabls.The Mbad/Dabls African Bead Museum is sp across two buildings, with a number of art installations in a grassy field that seem to defy reason. So why all this Africa-themed art here?It came down to economics.;I had a bead gallery, downtown Detroit. Moved here in 1994. Started trying to sell beads here and open and African bead museum,; Dabls explained.But it was tough economic times. Beads werent selling. Dabls decided he couldnt worry about things he couldnt change and instead started working on art installations in the open field behind the business.The art is wood, mirrors, steel, vibrant paint colors, and rock. Its intentionally primitive, a departure for a man trained in precision work.;I was a painter and pen and ink drawings. Plus, I worked as a detailed draftsman for about ten years and thats more of a precise type of art and this is on the opposite end of that totally. No kind of precise drawing. Just do what you want to do.;I noted there was a lot of chaos in his work.;Yeah. Chaos is good. You need something to get the attention of the viewer. And if its too structured, they can be bored real quick,; he responded. Dabls says he wanted to tell the story of the energy between Africans and Europeans for the last 500 years in America in a way that doesnt blame people for our history.One installation is a pile of twisted metal in the center surrounded by folding chairs, classroom-style. In each chair is a chunk of concrete with an abstract black silhouette of a head.;Yeah, the students are made out of rocks. The exhibit is Iron Teaching Rocks How to Rust. And, of course, rocks cannot rust, but you can teach people to believe pretty much anything you want them to believe. And they will.;The largest of the art projects is a two-story building. Its called the Nkisi House, with symbols from some central-African cultures. Its believed Nkisi is an object which holds spiritual powers. Dabl says he asked for three protections from the Nkisi House.;First, that the vandals would not vandalize this instillation, the graffiti artists wouldnt tag it, and the city wouldnt see it, because 14 year ago the city was not too receptive to installations like this. Now theyve grown accustomed to this kind of art work.;Even during Detroits crackdowns on mural art and graffiti art, the Mbad Museum and Dabls African Bead Gallery have survived. They just might be a symbol of African-American entrepreneurs and residents who have lived through some of Detroits worst days, and hope to share in the citys new prosperity.Support for the Detroit Journalism Cooperative on Michigan Radio comes from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Renaissance Journalisms Michigan Reporting Initiative, and the Ford Foundation.201506/378703。

But heres a mystery:但这里有个小谜团:When you press pause on the VCR, the screen doesnt go blank.当你按下录像机的暂停键,屏幕并不是一片空白。Instead, you get a frozen image.相反,你看到的是停止的画面。Remember,you need a changing magnetic signal to create even a still image.记住,你需要改变的磁信号创建静止的视频画面。 If the tape isnt moving, where is this changing signal coming from?如果录像带没有向前播放,这个改变的信号来自哪里?Were used to VCRs doing this, but its actually kind of strange.我们习惯了录像机这样的工作方式,但实际上有点奇怪。It would be like pressing pause on a cassette deck and having the sound remain in your speakers,Pavarotti holding his high C until you press play again.这就像在录音机上按下暂停,声音仍然在你的扬声器中,帕瓦罗蒂的高音C会等你再按播放才开始。VCRs do this trick by moving both the tape, AND the playback heads, which spin rapidly past the tape as it moves through the machine.录像机的这个小秘密是通过带子向前播放及整个机器中滑过带子的放音磁头实现的。Pausing a tape does indeed stop the tape, but it doesnt stop the spinning playback heads.暂停确实使带子停止,但没有停止放音磁头。These continue to swipe past the stationary tape, detecting enough of a magnetic signal for one still frame of .放音磁头继续通过静止的带子,因此侦测到的足够磁信号就产生了静止的视频画面。Modern, hi-fi VCRs automatically mute the sound when they are paused, so you dont get a sustained audio sound as well!现代高保真录像机会在暂停的时候自动将声音静音,这样就不会听到持续的声音!201501/355568。

According to CBS News Chicago, a northwestern Indiana girl reportedly found an abandoned infant in her back yard on Monday. 据CBS芝加哥新闻报道,一名印第安纳女孩周一在自家后院发现一名遗弃的婴儿。9 year-old Elysia Laub found the infant in the grass while first mistaking the baby for a piglet, because her family keeps their own pig pen. 9岁的Elysia Laub在草丛中发现了这个婴儿,开始误以为是头小猪,因为她家里放养了猪。She stated, It just freaked me out. I didnt know what it was. 她说,这吓到我了。我不知道这是什么。Elysia then called for her mom who was also in disbelief and shock. 然后Elysia呼喊她的妈妈,她妈妈同样感到怀疑和震惊。According to officials, the baby is likely to be less than a day old and still had placenta and umbilical cord attached when it was found. 据官员称,婴儿可能出生还不到一天,发现的时候还有胎盘和脐带。The newborn is currently at St. Anthonys Hospital receiving emergency medical treatment.目前这名新生儿在圣安东尼医院接受医疗急救。译文属。201607/454494。

Adolf Hitler,the leader of a country rich in culture at the heart of Europe.阿道夫·希特勒, 欧洲一个充满文化底蕴核心国家的领导人。A man incapable of normal human relationships, lacking all compassion, filled with hatred and prejudice.同样也是不善正常人际关系交流,缺乏同情,充满仇恨和偏见的男人。Here, long before the Second World War,Hitler was speaking about his political opponents with brutality, ;vernichtet;, meaning destroyed. Hitlers hatred would lead to the Holocaust.早在第二次世界大战之前,希特勒谈到他对于政治对手的残忍时用到了毁灭一词。希特勒的仇恨在那时就已经注定会带来一场大屠杀。His desire for conquest would leave much of Europe in ruins.他渴望征将使得欧洲变成废墟。Yet this man,so full of anger,was once loved by millions.然而也是这个充满了愤怒的男人曾经被数以百万计人所爱戴。Here,in the mountains of southern Germany during the 1930s,lay a place of pilgrimage.在这里, 20世纪30年代的德国南部山区有一处神圣之地。201501/354224。