上海市闵行区中医医院整形美容爱问卫生

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 上海市闵行区中医医院整形美容豆瓣对话

At first sight, manatees might look like seals or dolphins. But in fact, some of their closest relatives live on land. These toenails are the giveaway, remarkably similar to those of elephants. 乍一看,海牛可能看起来像是海报或是海豚。可事实上,他们的一些“近亲”却生活在陆地上。这些脚部化石给了我们线索,他们和大象很可能有“血缘关系”。13,000 years ago, two other members of the elephant family roamed this land. The manatees that swim in Floridas springs today are living relatives of ice age mammoths and mastodons. 13000年前,大象家族的两个分来到这片陆地。今天在佛罗利达温泉里游荡的海牛就是冰河时代猛犸象和乳齿象一个分的后裔。Some of the bones found in these springs are easy to identify, but scattering among them are some more obscure remains. What kind of animal could this belong to? These rosettes are bony scales or scutes, similar to those that cover some reptiles today. But this is only one piece of the jigsaw. Imagine what the creature would have looked like when all these pieces were fitted together. 一些在温泉中发现的动物骨骼很容易进行辨认,但是他们之中零散的一些话是却很难辨认。这些化石属于什么动物?这些莲座丛是骨鳞,和今天的一些爬行动物很相似。但是这是这些化石残留中唯一的一片。想象一下,当把这些残片拼凑到一起,将会是个什么样的生物?The scutes, around 2,000 of them, once formed the shell of a huge animal called the glyptodont. With its heavy weight exterior, the glyptodont looks like a reptile, like the alligator, which has been around for millions of years, long before the last ice age.雕齿兽这种大型动物的外壳上就曾经有着2000片左右的骨鳞。它的外表十分沉重,雕齿兽看起来像是一种爬行动物,就像存活了数百万年的短吻鳄一样,但是雕齿兽存于距冰河时代末期前很长的时间。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/249247

Forest conservation森林保护Lidartector激光雷达探测术How to tell if countries are cheating on their conservation commitments如何判断一个国家在森林保护承诺上是否有舞弊行为The wood and the trees 林地与树木In an isolated forest in the Sivalik hills of south-western Nepal, intense sun beats down through the treetops.位于尼泊尔西南部西瓦利克山脉一处偏僻的森林内,毒辣的阳光正从树冠强射而入。A sweaty trek up a steep, rocky slope leads to a spot where a team of researchers is busy measuring the trees.经过一段汗流浃背的艰难跋涉,登上一处陡峭怪石嶙峋的斜坡,到达一块区域,就可以看到一组研究人员正忙着对树木进行测量。They are working for Forest Resource Assessment Nepal, a joint venture between the Nepalese and Finnish governments.他们是尼泊尔与芬兰政府森林资源评估合资企业的工作人员。Two global-positioning-system devices guide the researchers to their target.凭借两套全球定位系统就可将研究人员带到目的地。Once there, they use tape measures, callipers and a hand-held laser to measure the heights and girths of all the trees within a 500-square-metre plot.到达目标后,在圈定好的500平方米区域内,他们用卷尺,测径规和手持激光设备对所有树木的高度和树围进行测量。These measurements, and each trees species, are recorded on a clipboard. One plot finished; 959 more to go.测量结果及每棵树的品种都会被记录下来。一块区域测量完成后,他们还要转战其余的959块区域。A classic piece of forestry, then.这是当时的一种传统林艺技术,Boots on the ground.采用人力进行实地考察,Specimens duly counted.准确测量标本。But this is a study with a twist, for its purpose is to calibrate a new approach to the subject—one that will gather information by the bucketload without the need to rely on quite so many boots.但一项新的研究将会使现状产生飞跃的转变,其目标是针对该课题开创一种新的测量方法—即无须动用众多的人力物力就可收集到大量所需信息。This new approach uses a technique called lidar.这项新方法采用的技术称之为激光雷达术。Like its cousins radar and sonar,lidar,works by broadcasting electromagnetic waves towards a target and then building up a picture from the reflection.与雷达和声纳技术相似,激光雷达的工作原理是通过向目标发射电磁波然后根据反射波构建图像。In the case of lidar, the waves are in the form of an infra-red laser beam.拿激光雷达来说,其波形采用的是红外激光束。And in the case of the forests of south-western Nepal,the target is the trees.以尼泊尔西南部的森林为例,被测目标就是树木。During a forest survey, an aircraft-borne lidar sweeps a beam that fires about 70,000 pulses a second over the canopy.在森林探测过程中,载有激光雷达的飞机将每秒产生7万个脉冲的激光束向森林树冠进行扫掠,A sensor on the aircraft records the time it takes to receive the backscattering of pulses, and that is used to compute distances to the forest canopy and to the soil beneath.同时安装在飞机上的探测设备会记录收到脉冲反向散射波的时间,然后分别用于计算到树林冠部及到土壤的距离。The result, when processed through the computers of Arbonaut, a Finnish natural-resource-management company, is a three-dimensional image of the forest that can be correlated with, and calibrated by, the efforts of the chaps with the tape measures.经过芬兰自然资源管理公司的Arbonaut计算机进行数据处理后,便可生成与采用卷尺那帮家伙的测量结果相关并可校验的树林三维图象。And that, in turn, can be used to estimate the amount of carbon stored in the plot examined, and extrapolated to calculate the carbon stored in larger areas of forest that have been scanned by lidar, but not measured with tapes.接下来,它还能用于估算所测森林区域的二氧化碳储存量,以此类推,激光雷达所探测的更大片森林区域的二氧化碳储存量也可以计算出来,但用的可不是卷尺。The point of the project, which should be completed by 2014,该项目预计到2014年完成,is to allow Nepal to participate in international carbon-trading schemes that pay poor countries with lots of trees not to cut them down.其实际意义在于能够让尼泊尔参加国际碳交易计划。该计划向拥有大量树木的贫穷国家付资金,以确保其树木不被砍伐。The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation scheme agreed at the ed Nationsclimate-change conference in Cancún last December may eventually be worth billion a year.联合国气候变化会议去年12月在墨西哥坎昆就减少砍伐森林和森林退化产生的排放计划达成协议,确定每年最终可用于森林保护的资金达300亿美元。Nepal wants a slice of that.尼泊尔也想参与其中分得一杯羹。Lidar monitoring may provide a way of making sure it is delivering on its side of the bargain.激光雷达监测可能提供了一种方法,表明尼泊尔履行森林保护协议的决心。Until a few years ago, assessing the amount of plant matter in a forest in a cheap and accurate manner seemed an insurmountable problem, according to Eric Dinerstein,环保组织世界自然基金会也参与了尼泊尔激光雷达项目的研究。chief scientist of the World Wide Fund for Nature, a conservation group that is also involved in the Nepalese lidar project.其首席科学家埃里克说,几年前,采用经济和准确的方法对植被数量进行评估似乎还是一项无法解决的难题。Although a woodlands area can be worked out from satellite photographs, that gives only a hazy idea of the mass of the plants growing there.尽管林地的面积能从卫星图片上得到,但它只能给提供我们生长在那里的大片植物的粗略情况。If Forest Resource Assessment Nepal and projects like it are successful, that will change.如果象尼泊尔森林资源评估这样的研究项目能够取得成功,情况就会大有不同。It will then be possible, with reasonable confidence,to pay REDD money out only to those countries that deliver the goods—or, rather, the trees—in sufficient, measurable quantities.我们将有充分理由相信REDD计划拨出的资金可能只会流向那些能够提供货真价实,或更确切的说,树木充足且数量可测量的国家。 /201304/235162When human females are pregnant, theyre advised to stay away from alcohol, for fear of harming the fetus.当人类女性怀时,人们就会建议她们戒酒,以免伤害胎儿。And most parents refrain from giving their infants bottles full of whiskey or beer, for obvious reasons.大多数父母都不会给婴儿接触满瓶的威士忌或者啤酒,原因是显而易见的。But if youre a fruit fly, literally dousing your offspring in alcohol is apparently one of the best ways to protect them from danger, particularly from certain types of wasps.但如果你是一只果蝇,毫不夸张的说,你把后代浸没在酒精中是保护它们远离危险的最好办法之一,特别是这样能避免黄蜂的伤害。How and why?如何以及为什么要这样做?Lets back up a bit.让我们来回顾一下。First, certain types of wasps prey on fruit flies by injecting eggs inside fruit fly larvae.首先,特定类型的黄蜂会将卵注入果蝇幼虫中,以捕食果蝇。Unless an infected larva kills the wasp egg, it hatches and the wasp larva eats its way out from inside the fruit fly larva, killing it.除非受感染的果蝇幼虫杀死黄蜂卵,否则当黄蜂卵孵化出来后,黄蜂幼虫将会由内而外吞噬果蝇幼虫,将其杀死。One way for fruit fly moms to protect against this gruesome fate is to lay their eggs in an alcohol soaked environment, such as fermenting fruit, when they see that parasitic wasps are around.果蝇妈妈为防止幼虫遭受厄运的其中一种办法是,当看到寄生蜂的出现时,将卵产在酒精浸泡的环境之中,例如发酵的水果里。Although alcohol is toxic to fruit flies, its even more toxic to wasps, which, unlike fruit flies, have not evolved a high level of alcohol tolerance.尽管酒精对果蝇有毒,但酒精对黄蜂的毒性更大。与果蝇不同,黄蜂还没有进化成对高浓度酒精的耐受性。So if the larvae eat enough alcohol rich food, it can kill the wasp egg and keep it from hatching.所以如果果蝇幼虫吃了足够富含酒精的食物后,它就可以杀死黄蜂卵并使之不能孵化。Apparently, fruit flies are not the only fly species to use alcohol to protect their young.很明显,果蝇并不是利用酒精来保护幼虫的唯一的蝇类。In fact, it seems that most flies that eat rotting fruit use the alcohol defense against wasps.实际上,大部分的苍蝇都会食用腐烂水果,利用酒精来防御黄蜂。So fruit flies are not unique in this regard, but theyre still mighty impressive.所以果蝇在这方面并不独特,但它们仍然令人印象深刻。 /201311/265286Business商业报道Comcasts future康卡斯特的未来Thinking outside the set-top box跳出机顶盒定式Americas largest cable company is becoming more like the firms it is battling against for the attention of couch potatoes美国最大的电信公司越来越像在为赢得电视迷而战WHEN Comcast, Americas largest cable operator, took a stake in NUniversal in , 30 Rock, a popular NU comedy, wove the deal into its plot.年,美国最大的有线电视公司康卡斯特收购了环球影视,后者旗下的情景喜剧《我为喜剧狂》随后便将这一交易加入剧情。The programmes characters came under the thumb of a new corporate parent, Kabletown, which introduced innovations like moving customer services to a part ofIndia with no phones in order to provide the same level of service at zero cost.其情节为片中人物所在公司被名为Kabletown的母公司收购,Kabletown发起了一个向还未进入电话通信时代的印度市场的开拓项目,目的是以零成本向印度用户提供相同水平的务。Comcast employees can take a joke. Last month, at a gathering to celebrate Comcasts 50th anniversary, they showed a clip of the show, to the amusement of the firms real employees.康卡斯特的员工们可以此自娱,在上个月公司50周年庆典上,有人播放了这一情节,藉此公司的真正员工。A sense of humour is a sign of confidence.幽默是自信的表现。Thanks to the 28 billion it spent to acquire NU, Comcast is the worlds largest media firm, with a market capitalisation of around 128 billion.出资280亿美元收购环球影视,康卡斯特也成了市值近1280亿美元的全球最大媒体公司。NU gave Comcast control of a range of new content, including broadcast and cable networks, aHollywoodstudio and a theme-park business.环球影视将旗下一系列的节目交给了康卡斯特,包括广播、有线网络、一个好莱坞摄影室及一座主题公园。Comcast is also Americas most powerful media business, because it controls what people watch and the pipes that deliver it.同时,康卡斯特也是美国最具影响力的媒体公司,因为它掌控着人们的收视导向及传播渠道。In its efforts to retain that position it is having to adapt to the new ways that people want to watch TV and consume entertainment that smaller rivals are pioneering.人们希望以全新的方式看电视、消遣,稍小的媒体公司正主导着这一趋势,为了保住优势,康卡斯特也在进行新的尝试。The cable business has changed dramatically since Ralph Roberts purchased a small cable system inMississippiin 1963.自1963年拉尔夫?罗伯特在密西西比收购一家小型有线电视系统以来,康卡斯特的有线业务便发生了翻天覆地的变化。Today his son, Brian, runs a firm operating in a vast and mature business; nearly 86% of American households subscribe to pay-TV.现如今,子承父业的布莱恩掌管着一家规模更大、业务更成熟的公司:康卡斯特占据着美国付费电视业务近86%的市场份额。This has forced Comcast and other cable firms to increase revenues by raising prices rather than by chasing new viewers.这也使得康卡斯特及其他有线电视公司通过增加收费,而非拓展新用户的方式来实现增收。But not every viewer will tolerate high prices.但是,并非所有用户都能容忍高价。The proportion of households with pay-TV has fallen slightly since 2010 as some have cut the cord.2010年以来,付费电视用户比例已出现小幅下滑现象,部分用户已经减掉线缆。Comcast now has 21.6m subscribers, 1.6% fewer than a year ago.现在,康卡斯特的有线电视用户为2160万,比去年低1.6个百分点。As well as cord-cutters Comcast and other cable providers must defend their turf from a pack of new entrants.除了减掉有线电视的用户外,康卡斯特及其他有线电视运营商还需要面临新的竞争,These include telecoms firms such as Verizon and ATamp;T, which offer pay-TV and fast broadband, and firms that stream over the internet, such as Netflix and Amazon.其中包括像威瑞森及ATamp;T这样的电信巨头提供的付费电视、高速宽带业务,还有奈飞、亚马逊公司在网络上提供的流媒体视频。These companies have not killed cable, but they have helped to shape the way people want to watch programmes: increasingly, on mobile devices and at a time of their choosing.这些公司尚未将有线电视逼上绝路。但却已经改变了人们观看节目的渠道,奈飞公司在年轻人中间很受欢迎。Netflix is popular with the young. Around 20% of households headed by people under 25 do not have a television but watch programmes on other devices, such as laptops and tablets.25岁以下年轻人组建的家庭中大约20%没有电视机,他们通过笔记本、平板电脑等其他设备收看电视节目。If Netflix were a cable channel, its subscription revenues in 2013 would put it third inAmerica behind ESPN and HBO, according to MoffettNathanson, a research firm.根据一家名为MoffettNathanson的调查公司提供的数据显示,如果奈飞是一家有线电视台,其2013年的订购收入可紧跟ESPN、HBO,位居第三。Comcast has responded by trying to resemble the firms that could unseat it, offering more interactivity, personalisation and portability.对于那些威胁到自己的竞争对手,康卡斯特的应对策略是向用户提供互动性更强、更具人性化、更加便携化的务。Television is going to change more in the next five years than it has in the last 50, says Brian Roberts.布莱恩?罗伯茨表示:电视在未来五年的变化会比过去五十年的变化还大。Comcast executives talk about apps for the television and rolling out innovations every three to six months.此外,他还谈到了电视应用及每三到六个月便会更新的问题。The firm is paying particular attention to its user interface, or what, until recently, was called a TV guide.康卡斯特非常注意用户界面的设计,或者最近被称之为电视指南的东西。Comcasts is now arranged not numerically by channel, but alphabetically by programme, by network and type of content.现在,康卡斯特并不是按照数字排列频道,而是按照字母顺序、网络和内容分类。Couch potatoes even less inclined to effort can download an app to their iPhone and shout commands at it to locate shows.电视迷可以不假思索便可将应用下载到自己的iPhone,并可通过语音找到相应节目。Comcasts new set-top box is cloud-based, adding to the potential for flexibility: films and programmes stored in the cloud can be watched on any device.康卡斯特的新机顶盒云基站为用户提供了更为灵活的选择:It tracks viewing history and recommends programmes accordingly, much like Netflix.存储在云基站的电影或节目可以在任何设备上观看,同奈飞相似的是该设备还会根据观看历史推荐相关节目。Comcast has made it easier for TV-watchers to find their way to full seasons of episodes that are available on-demand so people can binge on shows.康卡斯特让电视观众更容易找到电视上供点播的整部电视剧,这样用户便可尽情享受节目了。Other pay-TV providers are experimenting with new features, and some have approached Comcast to license its technology.其他的付费电视供应商正试用一些新特性,部分已经接近康卡斯特,获得技术许可。One popular idea is TV Everywhere, which makes it possible for pay-TV subscribers to watch live and on-demand programmes on their mobile devices wherever they like.在那些新特性中,电视无处不在的理念比较流行,该创意可让订购付费电视的用户随时随地观看直播、或者点播节目。It has started slowly but is taking off as more content-owners agree to license the digital rights to their programmes.这一设想虽然进展缓慢,但已经起步,越来越多的节目供应商同意向相关运营商颁发数字权限。Tools like this may help Comcast and its rivals justify their high prices and convince people to stick with their television package.这样的功能也让用户觉得康卡斯特及其竞争对手的高收费物有所值,也让人们有理由继续使用他们提供的电视程序。Giving customers more products to keep them around for longer is an old tactic.为了长久留住顾客,向他们提供更多产品是一个老套的策略。Cable companies have long offered bundles of broadband, television and phone line.有线电视公司很早便开始想用户提供宽带、电视、电话三线合一的务,Comcast is going much further with its home-services business, which includes alarm systems, baby monitoring and temperature control.而康卡斯特准备进一步综合家庭务,该务将涵盖报警系统、婴儿监视器及温度控制。And it is bringing in partners.康卡斯特还同其他公司展开合作,In October Comcast teamed up with Twitter to allow its subscribers to find or record programmes that are being tweeted about.10月康卡斯特同推特强强联手,他们推出了一项可以让订购其电视节目的用户查找、记录推特用户推文中的节目。Like its competitors it is also testing smaller, cheaper packages of television channels and broadband, to appeal to cost-conscious youngsters.同其竞争对手一样,康卡斯特也在测试更小、更为廉价的电视频道和宽带节目,以迎合节约的年轻群体。The greatest change for Comcast is the reorientation of its business towards broadband.康卡斯特最大的变化非宽带业务再定位莫属,By next year Comcast may well have more subscribers to its broadband services than for television.明年康卡斯特宽带务用户或许会超过其电视务用户。Those who eschew pay-TV will still need an internet package, and cable could pick up customers from satellite operators, whose internet speeds are slower.那些抛弃付费电视的用户仍旧需要使用网络,有线网络可以从卫星运营商那里抢回部分用户,毕竟后者的网速更慢。Ironically content going to the internet gives cable companies that monopoly power back to a certain extent,巴克莱的分析师康南·文卡特斯瓦尔表示:极具讽刺意味的是转入网络的节目让有线电视公司可以在一定程度上进行垄断,because you dont have competition in broadband to the extent you have it in , says Kannan Venkateshwar of Barclays, a bank. Comcast and other cable companies are experimenting more with usage-based pricing, charging more for heavy data consumption.因为他们在宽带业务方面没了竞争对手,而在视频方面却有了。康卡斯特及其他有线电视公司正越来越多的尝试基于使用的付费方式,使用数据更多的用户需要付更多费用。Mr Roberts has always had big ambitions and an appetite for deals.罗伯特总是雄心勃勃、扩张欲望强烈。In 2004, two years after he became boss of Comcast, he launched an unsuccessful 66 billion hostile bid for Disney.2004年,罗伯特接任康卡斯特两年后便发起了对迪斯尼的恶意收购,但并未能如愿。The deal with NU pushed Comcast to a new level in size and clout, at a time when most media companies were slimming down to focus on what they did best.收购环球影视时正值大部分媒体公司缩小规模、聚力做精之际,完成收购后康卡斯特的规模及影响力达到了更高的水平。Time Warner, a content firm, has spun off Time Warner Cable; next year it will do the same with Time Inc, its magazines business.其竞争对手时代华纳公司出售了时代华纳有线公司,明年还会出售做杂志业务的时代出版集团。The hunger games饥饿游戏Even Comcasts few critics acknowledge that the firm secured an excellent price and favourable terms for NU. The rationale was that adding content would provide a hedge to Comcasts core cable business.即便康卡斯特没有人批评公司收购环球影视,毕竟这笔交易价格合理、条件有利,但关键在于继续收购会为康卡斯特的核心业务,即有线电视业务产生不利影响。But few feel that there have been any significant benefits from content and distribution sharing a parent.但是,没有人注意到共享一个母公司的两家子公司在业务内容及资源分配上会产生积极的作用。I would be just as happy if they had not bought NU, says one Comcast shareholder.康卡斯特的一位股东说道:很高兴他们收购了环球影视公司。He might be happier to hear rumours that Comcast has hired a bank to advise it on a possible bid for TWC,Americas second-biggest cable operator.如果听到了康卡斯特已经聘请某,估算竞标美国第二大有线电视运营商,即时代华纳有限公司可行性的谣言,他可能会更高兴。This would give Comcast 34% of the American market. Scale can help cable firms compete with rival pay-TV services, and give more leverage in negotiations with content-providers, which continue to raise the cost of carrying their programmes.如果竞标成功,康卡斯特将会占据美国有线电视市场34%的份额,规模化效益有利于康卡斯特同其他付费电视公司竞争,并且还能增加同节目供应商谈判的筹码,后者仍在为自己的产品加价。Thats why Liberty Global, a rival cable company, has its eye on TWC too.这也是其竞争对手自有媒体公司同样有意竞标时代华纳有线公司的原因,自有媒体还投资了Charter通讯公司,后者也有意同时代华纳有线公司合并。It has taken a stake in Charter, another cable operator keen to merge with TWC. Comcast is saying nothing about a deal, and some ask whether regulators would even allow it.康卡斯特对于此次交易只字未提,有人会问监管部门是否会运行这笔收购。30 Rock has aly concluded its final season.《我为喜剧狂》已经完季,Who will mock Comcast, if Kabletown becomes Kablecountry?谁来继续借此调侃自娱呢?如果Kabletown扩张成为Kablecountry, /201312/268944

But most significant of all, the jaguar has a tell-tale trademark. Instead of going for the neck or snout like most cats do, it kills with a crushing bite through the skull into the brain. This makes the jaguar prime suspect in this case. Even the glyptodonts defences had a fatal flaw. 但最重要的是,美洲虎有一个独特的特点,与大多数猫科动物不一样的是,美洲虎捕猎时不会直接撕咬猎物的颈部或者面部,它会在猎物的头骨上直接给予猎物大脑致命一击。这使美洲虎成为了这个头骨的“首要嫌疑凶手”。尽管雕齿兽的防卫有一个致命缺点。13,000 years ago, another very different kind of hunter reached this warm corner of the continent. Floridas springs have produced an unparalleled record of these first people, examples of their craftsmanship and hunting expertise, including razor-sharp flint spear points. 13000年前,另一批不同的猎人来到了这片大陆的角落。佛罗里达的泉水中记录了第一批人类无可比拟的技艺以及狩猎技巧,例如,带着锋利石头的箭头。The area was rich in flint for making weapons and in animals to hunt. And with the milder climate, these people probably had an easier life than their contemporaries further north. Small clues to their arrival have survived undamaged over 13,000 years—spear points, fishhooks and other glimpses of their daily life showing the versatility of these first inhabitants of the Sunshine State. 这片区域有着足够多的锋利岩石来制造武器,也有着足够多的猎物。当气温回暖后,这些人类的生活可能会比他们北方的同胞们更加舒适。13000年过后,还是能够发现他们来到过这里的痕迹——箭头,鱼钩。他们在这里生活的另一些痕迹表明,这些首批来到“阳光州”的人类技能多种多样。They hunted a wide range of ice age animals and Florida possesses a unique record of one such encounter. The skull of an extinct bison restored here was discovered in one of the rivers. Planted deep in the top of the skull was a flint spear point.这些人类捕杀过大多数的冰河时代动物,对此,佛罗里达拥有一个独特的据明这一事实。在这里保存着一只灭绝的北美野牛的头骨,它被发现于一条河流之中。在头骨的深处,有一个绑着锋利石头的箭头。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/250436

Labour relations in America劳资关系在美国Boeing bullied波音受欺凌Unions have the government in their corner工会把政府拉入自己的阵营AFTER several disruptive and costly strikes in a part of the country where unions are strong, a company opens a new plant in a region where they are weak.在国内一个工会势力很强的地方,在几次极具破坏力且耗资巨大的罢工之后,某公司在工会势力较弱的地方开办了一家新厂。The union complains to a government agency, which accuses the company of illegal retaliation against the union.工会向一个政府部门投诉,该部门状告公司对工会实行非法报复。It seeks to force the company to relocate its new plant back in the heavily unionised region.他们争取让公司将新工厂搬回工会势力强盛的地区。Is this France, or Venezuela?这是在法国,或是在委内瑞拉吗?Neither; it is America.都不是;这是在美国。The firm in question is Boeing, an aircraft maker.上述公司是飞机制造厂商波音公司。The strikes occurred in Washington state, where closed-shop rules mean that if a workforce opts to unionize,罢工发生在华盛顿州,那里的统包规则意味着,如果某公司的全体职工决定成立工会,all employees must join the union as a condition of employment.则所有职工都必须加入该工会,这是就业条件之一。The new plant that Americas National Labour Relations Board saw as grounds to charge the firm with retaliation is in South Carolina,美国国家劳工关系局作为起诉公司报复罪的根据的新工厂在南卡罗来纳州,where right-to-work rules mean that no worker can be forced to join a union.那里的就业权规则意味着,没有任何工人会被迫加入工会。The case has often been cited as evidence that President Barack Obama is hostile to business.本案经常被人援引,作为巴拉克?奥巴马对企业界抱有敌意的例子。So businessfolk should have cheered when, on December 9th, the NLRB decided to drop its case against Boeing.12月9 日,NLRB决定对波音撤诉,企业界人士应该为此欢呼。But few did.但几乎无人这样做。For the NLRBs decision reflects a victory not for common sense, but for strong-arm tactics.因为NLRB的决定并非常识的胜利,它反映了强权高压的手段。It seems that the NLRB, a legacy of President Franklin Roosevelts New Deal, chose to drop the case only after it was asked to by representatives of the International Association of Machinists, the main Boeing union.作为弗兰克林·罗斯福总统新政的遗产,NLRB似乎只是在波音公司的主要工会,国际机械师协会的代表请他们这样做之后才放弃此案的。The union told the government agency that it had just struck a lucrative deal with Boeing covering its workers in Washington state.该工会告知政府机构,它已与波音公司达成了一项很合算的协议,该协议与波音公司在华盛顿州的全体工人有关。With the deal done, the union no longer needed the government to hold a helpful gun to Boeings head.协议一经达成,工会也就不再需要政府继续帮他们强力威胁波音了。Boeing declared victory, but fooled no one.波音宣布自己获胜,但这骗不过任何人。For this sets a precedent: the federal governments supposedly neutral representatives will threaten a company with serious harm if it doesnt make concessions to unions.因为此案开创了一个先例:如果某公司不对工会做出让步,本应中立的联邦政府代表就会对公司做出具有重大伤害性的威胁。That gives firms a powerful incentive never to set foot in union-friendly states in the first place.这让公司受到强大的诱惑,从开始就绝不涉足工会强势的州。Many will doubtless build their factories abroad, where the NLRBs bureaucratic bruisers cant threaten them.许多公司无疑会在国外建厂,NLRB的官僚好斗者们无法在那里威胁它们。 /201305/240267Drug firms and cancer Lucrative lifesavers医药公司和癌症 利润丰厚的救星The hopes and perils of betting on cancer treatments癌症治疗的希望和风险NEW weapons are emerging in the war on cancer.在对癌症的战争中不断有新武器出现。That is good news not just for patients but also for drug companies.这不仅对病人是好消息,对制药公司也是好消息。The biggest ones, faced with falling sales as their existing medicines go off-patent, are investing in smaller firms with promising cancer treatments under development, hoping to secure the next blockbuster.最先有药物面临着销售下滑,失去专利保护,最重要的是投资于正在开发有前途的癌症治疗方法的小公司来确保拥有下一个重磅炸弹。On August 25th Amgen, the worlds biggest biotechnology company by sales, said it would pay .4 billion for another American firm, Onyx.8月25日世界上最大的生物技术公司安进表示,它将付104亿美元收购Onyx公司。The target firms crown jewel is Kyprolis, a treatment for multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer.该公司拥有的药物Kyprolis能治疗多发性骨髓瘤,一种类型的血癌。The next day AstraZeneca, a British drugs firm, said it would snap up Amplimmune, an American firm working on ways to trigger the immune system to fight cancer.第二天,英国制药公司阿斯利康称将抢购Amplimmune公司,美国一家试图通过激活免疫系统来治疗癌症的公司。Oncology is attractive for several reasons.肿瘤学有吸引力是因为以下几个原因。First, the understanding of cancer is evolving rapidly.首先,对癌症的了解在不断加快。In the 20th century treatment relied on surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.在20世纪对癌症的治疗依赖于手术,放疗和化疗。These now seem rudimentary.现在这些都成了最基本的手段。Immunotherapy—getting the immune system to attack cancer—has gone from theory into practice.用免疫系统攻击癌细胞已经从理论进入实践。Genomics has helped scientists target specific mutations that promote cancer.基因组学帮助科学家通过特定的基因突变锁定促使癌症发生的基因。Another area of excitement for cancer researchers is epigenetics, which alters how a gene acts without meddling with the sequence of DNA.表观遗传学是癌症研究的另一个令人兴奋的领域,在不改变基因序列的前提下改变基因的表达。Second, regulators have speeded up their approval of cancer drugs.其次,监管机构已经在加快对抗癌药物的市场准入。Of the 39 medicines approved by Americas Food and Drug Administration in 2012, 11 were for cancer.在2012年由美国食品和药物批准的39种药品中,有11种用于治疗癌症。These included Kyprolis, which was granted accelerated approval, based on a smaller clinical trial than usual, for use as a last-ditch treatment for patients with multiple myeloma.其中包括Kyprolis,在只进行了小规模的临床试验的基础上加速审批通过,用于多发性骨髓瘤患者治疗的最后一道防线。Third, and most controversial, cancer drugs can fetch exorbitant prices, particularly in America.第三,也是最有争议的,治疗癌症的药物可以卖高昂的价格,特别是在美国。The idea is that theres nothing else available, so you can ask for a high price, explains Howard Liang of Leerink Swann, an investment bank.美国医疗保健投资的霍华德梁解释说:我们的想法是,因为没有别的可用,所以我们可以卖很高的价格。A typical course of treatment with Kyprolis lasting, say, five months, can cost around ,000.使用Kyprolis治疗一个疗程,也就是5个月,花费大约5万美元。Little surprise, then, that big drugmakers are keen to develop their own cancer drugs, form partnerships with smaller firms that have promising treatments in the pipeline, and buy such companies outright.有个小惊喜就是大制药公司都热衷于开发自己的抗癌药物,与在治疗过程中能提高治疗效果的小公司形成合作关系,也直接收购这种小公司。Kyprolis was first developed by a small firm called Proteolix, which was bought by Onyx, now acquired by Amgen.首先Kyprolis是由一个叫 Proteolix的小公司开发的,被Onyx收购,现在又被Amgen收购。In Bristol-Myers Squibb, an American drug giant, paid .4 billion for Medarex, which had an experimental immunotherapy drug.美国制药业巨头施贵宝,年斥资24亿美元收购了拥有免疫治疗药物的Medarex公司。That drug, for melanoma, is now sold in America for 0,000 for a full course of treatment.该药物对黑色素瘤,现在在美国一个完整的疗程需要12万美元。There are risks, however.风险还是有的。Even a drug seemingly destined for fame and fortune can fall flat.即使药物名利似乎注定落空。The FDA has approved Kyprolis only for patients who have aly tried at least two other treatments.批准Kyprolis,只适用于那些已经尝试过至少两个其他治疗方法的患者。Its annual sales could reach billion, reckons Goldman Sachs.高盛估计其年销售额能达到30亿美元。But that requires approval beyond America, and data showing that Kyprolis is worth giving to earlier-stage patients.但是这还需要美国以外的批准,并且要有数据能够明Kyprolis也可以应用于早期患者。AstraZeneca is buying Amplimmune largely for two cancer drugs still in early testing.阿斯利康购买Amplimmune主要是两种抗癌药物目前仍处于早期测试。If you are not willing to take risks, you cannot be in this area, says Bahija Jallal, an executive at AstraZeneca.如果你不愿意承担风险,你就不会出现在这个领域,阿斯利康的一个管理人员Bahija Jallal说。The biggest question in the long term is whether health insurers and governments will keep paying up.长期来看最大的问题是医疗保险公司和政府是否会继续持。Onyx and Bayer, a German firm, share the profits of Nexavar, a kidney-cancer drug.德国拜耳公司和Onyx共享肾癌药物多吉美的利润。Last year Indian regulators granted a local firm a compulsory licence to sell Nexavar copies for a fraction of Bayers price.去年印度的监管机构强制许可授予当地一家小公司销售多吉美的仿制药,价格只是拜耳的一小部分。The response elsewhere is less extreme.其他地方的响应却不那么极端。But companies face new scrutiny over their prices, particularly in Europe.但是,公司在欧洲面临新的价格审查。In April more than 100 experts in chronic myeloid leukaemia signed a paper to protest against the high cost of drugs.4月100多名在慢性髓性白血病方面的专家签署了一份抗议药物成本过高的声明。For now, however, Amgen should be able to continue charging handsomely for Kyprolis.但就目前而言,安进能够从Kyprolis获得丰厚的利润。 /201309/255527

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