2019年11月23日 09:58:53|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度资讯
Texting an emoji to a loved one or riding astride a galloping horse. Both are skills that, apparently, should come with ease to the modern gentleman.发短信时给你爱的人发个表情符号,或是策马奔腾,对现代绅士来说,这些都应该是信手拈来的事情。Or at least that is the message in the latest edition of Country Life.至少,最新版《乡村生活》杂志是这么说的。The weekly magazine has published its #39;39 steps#39; reflecting what it deems to be the ground rules for male manners in today#39;s bewildering world of social media, high-tech gadgets and constantly shifting trends.该周刊杂志发布了在今天这个社交媒体和高科技小玩意儿充斥的世界,以及不断变换的潮流之中,男性应该具有的39项基本礼仪规则。It comprises a range of topics, including male grooming, technology use and competency in the great outdoors.这一套礼仪规则包括不同的话题,包括男性美容、技术使用和户外运动能力。The inclusion of pursuits like sailing and horse-riding are listed and chime with historic gentlemanly conventions, while other suggestions firmly reflect 21st century trends.其中,划船和骑马等技能也被列出,这与传统上的绅士形象倒也一直。其余的建议则明确反映了21世纪的潮流趋势。One rule drawn up by Rupert Uloth, the magazine#39;s deputy editor, is that a gentleman should #39;know when to use an emoji#39;, the smiley faces that can be copied into text messages and emails.《乡村生活》杂志副主编鲁伯特·尤罗思提出一个规则:绅士应该“知道什么时候使用表情符号”,表情符号指可以复制到短信和电子邮件中的笑脸表情。He insists they should never be used in professional life.鲁伯特·尤罗思坚持认为,表情符号不应该用于职业生活中。#39;The point about that one is that it#39;s good to be able to communicate with one#39;s children, godchildren, nephews and nieces, and to show that you know what an emoji is,#39; said Mr Uloth.“使用表情符号好处在于能跟孩子们、教子教女、侄子侄女们交流,让他们知道你了解这件事。”尤罗思先生说道。The magazine also says a gentleman #39;never blow dries his hair#39;, never wears sandals, #39;can tie his own bow tie#39; and polishes his shoes. Lilac socks, it says, are poor taste.该杂志还列出一些,绅士“从不吹干头发”,从不穿凉鞋,“可以自己打领结”,会自己擦鞋。杂志表示,淡紫色的袜子,并不是好品味的体现。As for the opposite sex, the magazine insists that a gentleman always #39;breaks a relationship face to face#39; but while he is in that relationship he should be able to #39;undo a bra with one hand#39;.至于如何对待女性,杂志坚持认为,一名绅士总是“当面说分手”,而如果他处在恋爱中,他也应该能“单手解内衣”。The modern gentleman should also have Pride and Prejudice and #39;cooks an omelette to die for.#39;现代绅士也应该读过《傲慢与偏见》,也能“做出特别好吃的煎蛋”。And another point that perhaps comes from a woman#39;s point of view: he #39;demonstrates that making love is neither a race nor a competition.#39;另外还有一条规则或许是来自女性:他应该“表现出做爱既不是比赛也不是竞争。”Perhaps surprisingly the magazine takes a relaxed view on tattoos, though it urges men to remember #39;facial hair is temporary, but a tattoo is permanent#39;.令人惊讶的是,该杂志对于纹身的态度较为宽松,不过还是对男性提出了警告:要记得“面部毛发是暂时的,而纹身确实永久的”。Mr Uloth said: #39;We mean don#39;t be stuffy about it, but it#39;s about remembering that it#39;s pretty difficult to get rid of tattoos. We#39;re not saying that you shouldn#39;t have one.#39;尤罗思先生说:“我们的意思是,对待纹身不要太刻板了。我们只是要你明白,一旦有纹身,再想去掉就相当困难了。我们并没有说,不应该有纹身。”Mark Hedges, the magazine#39;s editor, said: #39;There is no higher accolade than to call a man a gentleman.#39;杂志主编马克·赫奇斯说:“把一个男人称为绅士是一项至高荣耀。”What constitutes gentlemanliness is a topic touched upon by great British writers throughout history.绅士素质的构成一直是英国的大作家们热衷于讨论的一个话题。Oscar Wilde said a gentleman was one #39;who never hurts anyone#39;s feelings unintentionally#39;, while George Bernard Shaw said a gentleman always #39;puts more into the world than he takes out#39;.奥斯卡·王尔德说,绅士“从不会无意之间伤害别人的感情”,而萧伯纳说,绅士总是“向世界贡献的多,索取的少。”Paula Lester, features editor of Country Life, said the most important points on the the magazine#39;s list were the ones that revolved around being kind and caring.《乡村生活》的特刊主编宝拉·莱斯特说,该杂志列出的清单中,绅士素质最重要的是友善和体贴。These include rules such as that a gentleman #39;carries house guests#39; luggage to their rooms#39;, #39;wears his learning lightly#39;, #39;never lets a door slam in someone#39;s face#39; and #39;turns his mobile phone to silent at dinner#39;.反映这两项素质的礼仪包括:绅士“会帮客人把行李拿进他们的房间”、“不随意显摆自己的学问”、“从不在别人前面摔门”以及“吃饭时把手机静音”。Ms Lester said: #39;Our magazine has been going for 120 years, so we#39;ve got a pretty good idea about what makes a gentleman.莱斯特女士说:“我们的杂志已经有120年历史,所以,我们非常明白如何造就一名绅士。”#39;It#39;s almost the ones that you don#39;t have to think about that are the most important: being kind and in control, having courtesy and charm, and being able to put people at their ease in any kind of social situation.#39;“最重要的素质是那些你想都不用想就能列出来的:待人随和,脾气温和,有礼貌、有魅力,无论在何种社交情况下都能让人们感到舒适。” /201511/408759

The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period春秋战国时期The Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought争鸣As an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China, the Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子)lasted from 770 to 222 .作为中国历史上一个文化与智慧迅速扩展的时代,诸子始于公元前770年,终于公元前222年。Known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought and the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (争鸣),the period saw the rise of many different schools of thought.这个时代被誉为中国思想的黄金时期和争鸣的时期,它见了不同思想学派的兴起。Many of the great Chinese classic texts that originated during this period have had profound influences on Chinese lifestyle and social consciousness lasting to the present day.不少起源于这个时代的中国古典著作直到今日对中国人的生活方式和社会意识还有着深远的影响。The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant intellectuals, who were usually employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy.这个时代的知识型社会以流动的智者为特征,这些智者被不同国家的君主任用为顾问,针对治国之道、治军之道和外交手段提出建议。Confucianism (儒家思想)is the body of thought that has arguably had the most enduring effect on Chinese life.儒家思想可能是对于国人生活最具有长远影响的本体思想。Also known as the School of the Scholars, its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which later became the foundation of the traditional society.它还被称为学者学派,其文学遗产存在于儒家典籍中,这些典籍为传统社会奠定了基础。The representative of this thought is Confucius (孔子),he believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: “Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject.”这种思想的代表人物是孔子,他坚信政府唯一行之有效的体制必然是个体之间明确规定的关系:“君君,臣臣”。Furthermore, he contended that a king must be virtuous in order to rule property.除此之外,他主张君主以仁治国。Mencius (孟子) was a Confucian disciple who made major contributions to the sp of humanism in Confucian thought, declaring that man, by nature, was inherently good.孟子是孔子的弟子,他为儒家思想中人道的传播做出了主要贡献,宣扬“人性本善”。He argued that a ruler could not govern without the people;s tacit consent, and that the penalty for unpopular, despotic rule was the loss of the “mandate of heaven”.他认为一位君主不可能脱离人民的默许而治理国家,而不得人心的惩罚与暴虐的管理是“天命”的缺失。Another Confucian follower was Xun Zi (荀子)who preached that man is innately selfish and evil,孔子的另一位继承者是荀子,宣扬“人性本恶”,he asserted that goodness is attainable only through education and conduct befitting one;s status.他坚称教育是唯一能够获得仁善的渠道,而后天的环境会影响人的仁善。He also argued that the best form of government is one based on authoritarian control, and that ethics is irrelevant in the context of effective rule.他还认为国家治理最好的形式应建立在专治管理之上,仁义道德与有效统治的环境没有关系。Legalism (法家思想)greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government.法家思想深刻地影响了国家管理形式的哲学基础。During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late 19th century.在汉代,儒家思想和法家思想中最实用的元素被结合起来,创造了一种政府管理的新模式,这种模式一直被完整保留到19世纪末期。As the second most significant stream of Chinese thought, the Zhou period also saw the development of Taoism (道家思想).中国同样见了国学思想中第二主要的流派——道家思想的发展。Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Lao Zi (老子)and Zhuang Zi (庄子).它由传说中的圣人老子和庄子所构建。The focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society;道家思想的核心在于自然境界中的个人而不是社会中的个人。according to Taoism, the goal of life for each individual is to seek to adjust oneself and adapt to the rhythm of the natural world, to follow the Way of the universe, to live in harmony.根据道家思想,每个人的生活目标应该是调整自我来适应自然世界的节奏,顺应宇宙的模式,和谐生活。The school of Mohism (墨家思想)was founded upon the doctrine of Mozi (墨子).墨家学派是基于墨子思想而创立的。Though the school did not survive through the Qin Dynasty, Mohism was seen as a major rival of Confucianism in the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought.尽管这个学派在秦朝没有得以发展,墨家思想仍被认为是争鸣学派中儒家思想的主要竞争对手。Its philosophy rested on the idea of universal love: Mozi believed that “all men are equal before heaven”, and that mankind should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love.它的理论在于“兼爱”的思想。墨子相信“人人平等”,认为人们应该通过兼爱来模仿天志。His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that our cognition ought to be based on our perceptions—our sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing—instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on our capacity for abstraction.他的理论可以被看作是最原始的唯物主义。他相信我们的认知应该建立在我们的感觉,也就是我们的感官体验例如视觉和听觉上,而不应该建立在想象、内在联系或是以抽象概念为基础的元素上。In a word, the scene of “contention of a hundred schools of thought” brought forth in the Spring and Autumn Period 2 500 years ago and the Warring States Period over 2 200 years ago and the emergence of various schools of thought and their exponents such as Lao Zi and Confucius about 2400 years ago all occupy a very important position in the world history of philosophy.总而言之,“争鸣”的景象出现在2500年前的春秋时期和2200年前的战国时期。2400年前,诸子的出现以及他们的倡导者老子和孔子都在世界哲学史的发展过程中占据了重要地位。 /201509/397298

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