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2019年11月21日 17:33:31 | 作者:飞度对话 | 来源:新华社

It sounded like a stampede of cattle, DonnaMelanson said —30 to 40 people fleeing, terrified, throughLos Angeles International Airport on Sunday night.听上去像狂奔的牛群一样,唐娜.梅兰森(Donna Melanson)说。周日晚上在洛杉矶国际机场,三四十人四处逃散,惊恐万分。Everyone is yelling, ‘Shooter,shooter, shooter,’and they start diving under the seats to hide.所有人都在喊,‘手、手、手,’然后开始钻到座位底下藏起来。Ms. Melanson, 53, a yoga instructor who waswaiting to fly home to Miami,现年53岁的梅兰森是瑜伽教练,正等着搭乘飞机回迈阿密的家。 grabbed her bag and joined the stampedebecause, she said, I couldn’t think of why people would be running unless there was a trueemergency.她一把抓起行李,加入狂奔的人群,因为她说,除非真的出现了紧急情况,否则我想不到大家为什么会跑。There was not.实际并未发生紧急情况。A loud noise mistaken for gunfire led torumors 一声巨响被误以为是声,进而引发传言。that sp at blazing speed in person andon social media, setting off a panic that shut down one of the nation’s busiestairports, 传言以闪电般的速度在人们口中和社交媒体上传播,造成恐慌,最终导致这座属于全美最繁忙之列的机场关闭。as passengers fled terminals and burstthrough security cordons, and as the police struggled to figure out what washappening and to restore order.乘客逃离航站楼,冲破安全警戒线,警察则努力想要弄清楚发生了什么事,并恢复秩序。Far from being an isolated episode, it wasessentially what had happened on Aug.这远不是一起孤立事件。13 at a mall in Raleigh, N.C.; on Aug. 14at Kennedy International Airport in New York; on Aug. 20 at a mall in Michigan;and on Aug. 25 at a mall in Orlando, Fla.基本上,这一幕8月13日在北卡罗来纳州罗利的一家商场、8月14日在纽约肯尼迪国际机场、8月20日在密西根州的一家商场、8月25日在佛罗里达州奥兰多的一家商场均上演过。In the wake of terrorist attacks atairports in Brussels and Istanbul — and against other targets in Paris; SanBernardino, Calif.; Orlando; Nice, France; and elsewhere — Americans areprimed, when they hear a loud bang or screams, or see a crowd break into a run,to think in terms of mass killings and active shooters.在布鲁塞尔和伊斯坦布尔的机场,以及巴黎、加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺、奥兰多、法国尼斯等地的其他一些目标遭遇恐怖袭击后,美国民众一听到巨大的响声或尖叫声,或是看到人群突然开始奔跑,就会想到大规模杀戮事件和正在开的凶手。Yet crime statistics show that over all,violence in the ed States is as low as it has ever been, and experts saythe fear far exceeds the risk.但犯罪统计数据显示,总的来说,美国的暴力事件发生几率处于历史最低水平,并且专家表示,民众的恐惧远远超出了真实的风险。I would say that we are in the grip of amoral panic, said John Horgan, a professor of global studies and psychology atGeorgia State University who specializes in the study of terrorism.我想说,我们陷入了一种道德恐慌,乔治亚州立大学(Georgia State University)专门研究恐怖主义的全球研究与心理学教授约翰.霍根(JohnHorgan)说。The constant threat perception of beingvulnerable to mass violence has seeped into our collective consciousness.始终认为自己会受到大规模暴力事件的伤害这种想法,逐渐渗进了我们的集体意识。Sam Macon, 36, a documentary filmmaker whowas at the Los Angeles airport on Sunday, said: People who were running hadabsolutely no idea why they were doing so.周日当天,36岁的纪录片工作者萨姆.梅肯(Sam Macon)也在洛杉矶机场。他说:跑的人肯定不知道自己为什么跑。I don’t think it takes asocial scientist to understand that the general tenor of American society rightnow is that we’re all wound up pretty tight.我认为不需要社会科学家就知道,美国社会现在的主基调就是我们都很紧张。The recent false-alarm panics injureddozens of people, some of them seriously.最近,假警报引发的恐慌导致数十人受伤,部分人伤势严重。Kokila Patel, 66, and her husband, Manu,74, had just finished lunch at a Panera in the Crabtree Valley Mall in Raleighon Aug.在8月13日,66岁的戈吉拉.帕特尔(Kokila Patel)刚和74岁的丈夫马努(Manu)在罗利的克雷布特里山谷购物中心(Crabtree Valley Mall)吃完午饭就听到响声。13 when she heard a noise and turned to seepanicked shoppers surging toward them.她转过身,看到惊慌失措的购物者向他们涌来。People had taken still-unexplained soundsfor gunshots, screamed, dived into stores and made a chaotic rush for theexits, paying little heed to what was in their way —includingthe Patels.大家把迄今仍原因不明的响声当成了声,尖叫着冲进店铺里,一片混乱地涌向出口,几乎不管挡在自己面前的是什么,包括帕特尔夫妇。The crowd knocked the couple down andtrampled Ms.人群将这对夫妇撞倒,并从帕特尔身上踩过,导致她右股骨碎裂。Patel, breaking her right femur and leavingher to wait in searing pain for two hours until police officers in tacticalgear arrived and helped carry her out of the mall on a plastic display table.她在剧痛中等了两个小时,携带着战术装备的警察才到达现场,帮忙把她放在一张塑料展示桌上抬出商场。Surgeons braced her shattered leg with asteel rod, plate and screws, but the pain is still intense.外科医生用钢棍、金属板和螺丝把她粉碎性骨折的那条腿固定了起来,但痛感依然剧烈。Ms. Patel, who usually travels to India forthree months each year with her husband, remains homebound.通常每年都要和丈夫去印度待三个月的帕特尔至今仍被迫待在家里。People always think, ‘A gunman, agunman,’said Ms. Patel, who with her husband was earlier interviewed by TheNews and Observer.大家总以为,‘手,手,’帕特尔早前和丈夫一起接受《新闻与观察报》(The News and Observer)的采访时说。People’s mentality arechanging. People are always being afraid.人们的心态变了,总是很害怕。Mr. Patel said he could see fear on thefaces of the people who rushed over him and his wife.帕特尔的丈夫说,他能在朝自己和妻子冲过来的人脸上看到恐惧。They thought that somebody’s there tokill them, he said.他们以为那里有人要杀他们,他说。Psychologically, we have been damaged.从心理上来说,我们有创伤。Social media feeds that kind of frenzy,said Roxane Cohen Silver, a professor of psychology and social behavior at theUniversity of California, Irvine.加州大学欧文分校(University of California, Irvine)的心理学与社会行为教授罗克珊.科恩.西尔弗(RoxaneCohen Silver)表示,社交媒体加剧了这种疯狂。There’s rapiddissemination of information on social media that’s not being filteredby anybody, she said.未经任何人过滤的信息在社交媒体上迅速传播,她说。This provides the unfortunate opportunityfor rumors to be transmitted very quickly, without any ability to evaluate theveracity.遗憾的是,这让流言有机会火速扩散,人们无法评估其真实性。Before there were television news reportsabout what was happening at the Los Angeles airport, she said, her son inChicago had called to tell her, I’m watching Twitter s of people running at LAX.她说,在介绍洛杉矶机场所发生的事情的电视新闻报道出来之前,在芝加哥的儿子打电话和她说,我正在Twitter上看洛杉矶机场人群奔跑的视频。At the Florida Mall in Orlando, poppingballoons were apparently mistaken for gunshots.在奥兰多佛罗里达购物中心(Florida Mall),人们似乎把气球爆裂的声音当成了声。At the Twelve Oaks Mall in Novi, Mich., itwas a glass door toppling to the floor, knocked over by thieves who had smasheda glass display class in a jewelry store to grab two luxury watches.在密歇根州诺维的十二棵橡树购物中心(Twelve Oaks Mall),则是一扇玻璃门被窃贼撞倒在地上的声音。在那之前,窃贼为了抢走两块名贵腕表而打破了一家珠宝店的玻璃展台。As the robbers ran, so did shoppers, andpeople posted s of the chaotic scene on social media and said —falsely —that shots hadbeen fired.随着抢劫者逃跑,购物者也跟着跑了起来。有人把一片混乱的现场视频发布在了社交媒体上,并错误地宣称有人开火。That message sp fast, and calls to theNovi police overwhelmed the 911 system, shunting overflow callers to the statepolice.这个消息迅速扩散,打给诺维警方的电话淹没了911报警系统,无法打入电话的人被迫致电州警方。It’s a wildfire you tryto control, said Detective Sgt.Scott Baetens of the Novi Police Department.你试图控制的是一场野火,诺维警察局的探员斯科特.贝滕斯警佐(Scott Baetens)说。We try to put out timely and accurateinformation.我们努力发布及时、准确的信息。But you can’t put it out fastenough to beat Twitter and Facebook.但你的速度不足以超过Twitter和Facebook。Once people start to flee, it is fairlynormal for others to join in, experts say —even people who didnot hear any suspicious sounds or rumors of terrorism.专家称,一旦有人开始逃散,其他人加入很正常,即便是没听到任何可疑的声响或恐怖活动传言的人。But people who study crowd psychology andthe fear of terrorism say the steady stream of news reports of bloodshed hasheightened anxieties out of proportion to the threat, making panic more likelyto take hold.但研究从众心理和对恐怖主义的恐惧的人士表示,源源不断的有关流血事件的新闻报道加剧了民众对威胁的过度焦虑,导致爆发恐慌的可能性增加。This overexposure can cause increased fear,anxiety and helplessness, particularly in aly psychologically vulnerablepopulations, said Daniel Antonius, an assistant professor of psychiatry at theUniversity at Buffalo.这种过度报道可能会导致恐惧、焦虑和无助情绪加剧,特别是在心理上已经颇为脆弱的群体中,纽约州立大学布法罗分校(University at Buffalo)的精神病学助理教授丹尼尔.安东尼厄斯(DanielAntonius)说。He described a national anxiety about massattacks that did not reflect the real level of danger.他认为,对大规模袭击的全民焦虑未反映出真正的危险程度。Dr. Horgan stressed that in addition tophysical violence, terrorism is fundamentally a form of psychological warfare,and it’s one of the greatest ironies that we help give it its strength inour reactions to it.霍根强调,除身体上遭受的暴力外,恐怖主义本质上是一种心理战,我们对它做出的反应助长了它的力量,而这堪称最大的讽刺之一。 /201609/464134

The annual Hurun University of Life Rich List 2017, released last Tuesday, shows that half of 2,000 Chinese entrepreneurs with assets of at least 2 billion yuan (0 million) have no degree.据上周二发布的胡润《2017社会大学英雄榜》显示,中国资产超20亿(约合3亿美元)的企业家有2000位,其中半数没有高等学历。Rupert Hoogewerf, chairman and chief researcher of the institute, said that ;these people might not succeed in accordance with current social standards; however, they made it and created great enterprises, which taught me that a hero may rise from nowhere.;胡润主席、首席研究员鲁珀特·胡润表示:“按当前的社会标准,这些人可能不会成功;但是他们却做到了,并创造了伟大的企业,这告诉我们英雄不问出处。”The report listed the top 100 heroes, with Zong Qinghou, chairman of Wahaha Group, one of China#39;s biggest beverage producers, ranking first.这份报告列出了100名英雄,其中哇哈哈集团主席宗庆后排在首位。Zong, 72, from East China#39;s Jiangsu Province, ranked No.41 in the Hurun Global Rich List 2016 and No.5 in the China Rich List 2016 with his wealth of billion.72岁的宗庆后来自中国东部的江苏省,在《2016胡润全球富豪榜》上排名第41位,在《2016胡润中国富豪榜》上排名第五,资产约为190亿美元。The report said that Zong started work after graduating from middle school and established Wahaha beverage factory in 1988.该报告指出,宗庆后在中学毕业后就开始工作,并于1988年创办了哇哈哈饮料厂。Over the past 20 years, he built up his drinks empire and is a deputy of the National People#39;s Congress.在过去20多年里,宗庆后建立起了自己的饮料帝国,并成为了一名全国人大代表。Also on the list are Chinese tech entrepreneur Jia Yueting, chairman of LeEco, who was born in 1973 in North China#39;s Shanxi Province and became an Internet worker after graduating from a vocational school, and SOHO China Chairman Pan Shiyi, a property tycoon, who was born in 1963 and graduated from a vocational school.同时上榜的还有乐视总裁贾跃亭和SOHO中国董事长潘石屹。贾跃亭是山西人,1973年出生,从职业学校毕业后成为了一名互联网工作者;潘石屹是一位房产大亨,出生于1963年,也毕业于一所职业学校。Compared with those who obtained a degree, the average wealth of the top 100 entrepreneurs without a prominent education background is 24.9 billion yuan, 9.6 billion yuan less than those who went on to further education.和那些获得大学学位的富豪相比,前100位没有突出教育背景的企业家的平均财富为249亿人民币,要比接受高等教育的富豪们少96亿。 /201702/494543

HONG KONG — The death rate from lung cancer in the heavily industrialized province surrounding Beijing has more than quadrupled in the last four decades, with researchers pointing to worsening air pollution as a likely culprit, according to a local cancer hospital and a report published Friday in an influential Chinese news outlet.香港——一家地方肿瘤医院发布的信息和周五刊登于一家有影响力的中国媒体上的报道显示,在环绕北京的一个重工业省,肺癌死亡率在过去40年增加了三倍多,而研究人员指出,日渐加重的大气污染有可能是罪魁祸首。From 1973 to 2012, lung cancer cases in the province, Hebei, soared 306 percent, well above the national average, and accounted for almost a quarter of all cancer deaths, according to figures from the Tumor Hospital of Hebei Province. By 2012, the death rate from lung cancer in the province, which has 74 million people, or almost twice the population of California, was 35.22 per 100,000 people.来自河北省肿瘤医院的数据显示,1973年至2012年间,河北的肺癌死亡率激增306%,远远超过全国平均水平,几乎占到所有因肺癌死亡人数的四分之一。Lung cancer death rates in many American states are higher, but, in contrast to Hebei and other Chinese provinces, are on the decline, according to figures from the American Cancer Society.美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)的数据显示,美国有不少州的肺癌死亡率比河北更高,但与河北和中国其他一些省份相反的是,美国的肺癌死亡率呈下降趋势。The hospital’s report said new cases of lung cancer were “rapidly surging” in Hebei, but it did not explore any possible causes of the surge. That may be because it touches on a very politically sensitive area: air pollution. A report on Friday in The Paper, a website based in Shanghai that cited the Hebei figures, approached the issue gingerly, citing an anonymous provincial environmental official as saying that since 2008, air pollution in the province had severely worsened.河北肿瘤医院的报告表示,河北的肺癌新增病例“急剧增加”,但它并没有探究可能由什么原因导致。那也许是因为这触及了一个政治上非常敏感的区域:空气污染。上周五,总部位于上海的澎湃网发表了一篇援引河北这些数据的报道,小心翼翼地触及了这个议题。文中引用当地一位不具名的省级环境部门官员的话表示,从2008年起,河北省大气质量严重恶化。Chinese officials routinely censor news about how China’s rapid economic growth has given rise to widesp environmental degradation, including some of the world’s worst air pollution. Last year, a former television reporter’s searing account of the country’s catastrophic air pollution was pulled from the Internet after it caused a sensation.中国官员经常会对有关中国经济急速增长如何导致环境普遍恶化的消息进行审查——包括一些世界上最为严重的空气污染情况。去年,一名前电视台记者对中国灾难性的空气污染进行猛烈批评的报道引发轰动,之后便被从网络上撤掉。Hebei’s air pollution is among the worst, if not the worst, in China. China is the world’s top steel producer, accounting for about half the world’s output, and Hebei is far and away China’s biggest steel maker, according to official figures. Satellite photos of northern China regularly show a miasma of smog centered on the province, home in 2013 to the six most polluted cities in the country, according to Greenpeace.河北大气污染即使算不是中国最严重的,也在最严重的地区之列。中国是世界上第一大钢铁生产国,约占全世界钢铁产量的一半,而官方统计数字显示,河北无疑是中国最大的钢铁生产省份。中国北部的卫星图像经常显示,有一片烟雾集中在该省份上空。在绿色和平所做的全国污染最严重的城市排名中,排在前六位的城市均位于河北。Separate reports show that lung cancer rates in the cities of Beijing and Tianjin, both bordering Hebei, have also increased. In Beijing, the incidence rate for males was 75.2 per 100,000 in 2010, a more than 50 percent rise from eight years earlier. For women, whose smoking rates are far lower than for men in China, the incidence rate also rose more than 50 percent during the same period, to 45.9 per 100,000, China Daily reported in 2014, citing Wang Ning, deputy director of the Beijing Office for Cancer Prevention and Control.另外一些报道也显示,与河北交界的北京和天津的肺癌发病率也出现了上升。《中国日报》2014年援引北京市肿瘤防治研究办公室副主任王宁的话报道,2010年,北京地区男性的肺癌发病率为10万人中有75.2例,相比于八年前增长了逾50%。尽管中国女性吸烟比例远低于男性,但同一时期北京地区的女性肺癌发病率也增长了50%以上,达到10万人中有45.9例。A 2009 research paper whose lead author was He Yutong, chief physician at the Hebei Tumor Hospital, ruled out increasing life spans as the main cause for the rise in lung cancer deaths in the province, stating that the research pointed to air pollution as a chief cause.在河北省肿瘤医院主任医师贺宇彤2009年领衔发表的一份研究论文中,排除了人口寿命延长是肺癌死亡人数增加的主因,反而表示,研究结果表明空气污染才是第一病因。Other factors may also be important. Smoking rates in China, at least among males, are far higher than in many countries, including the ed States. Chinese men, who constitute about a tenth of the world’s population, smoke one-third of the world’s cigarettes, a study published last year in The Lancet found.其他一些致病因素也非常重要。中国的吸烟率比包括美国在内的很多国家都要高很多,至少在男性中是如此。《柳叶刀》杂志去年发布的一份报告显示,约占全世界人口十分之一的中国男性,消耗了全世界三分之一的烟草。 /201602/427519

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