当前位置:黑龙江地方站首页 > 龙江新闻 > 正文


2020年01月24日 22:00:46    日报  参与评论()人

重庆医大附属一院几点开门重庆324医院是私立医院吗Books and Arts; Book Review;The power of faith;Irrational belief;文艺;书评;信仰的力量;非理性信仰;The Believing Brain: From Ghosts and Gods to Politics and Conspiracies—How We Construct Beliefs and Reinforce Them as Truths. By Michael Shermer. 《有信仰者》:从鬼神到政治阴谋——我们是怎样形成信念并固以视之为真理。——麦可·薛默著。Michael Shermer is a psychologist, cyclist, one-time fundamentalist Christian, founder of Skeptic magazine and, currently, the author of a monthly column with the same name published in Scientific American. He has built a professional career out of casting a rationalists eye over some of the wackiest beliefs that humanity has to offer.麦可·薛默(Michael Shermer)是一位心理学家和骑自行车爱好者,曾经一度是基督教原教旨主义者、《怀疑论者》杂志的创始人,而现在是《科学美国人》中与其同名的每月专栏的作家。他已成就了他的职业生涯,因为他以理性的眼光审视人们情不自禁流露出来的某些极为荒谬的信念。But his latest book is more than just a display case full of specimens collected by a man fascinated by the paranormal. Mr Shermer is interested in how such beliefs come to be held, and why they can persist even in the face of what, to others, can seem to be the overwhelming evidence that contradicts them.然而他的最新著作不仅仅是装满了着迷于超自然的他所收集案例的展示柜。而且薛默先生还展示了他感兴趣的是人们是怎么怀有这样的信念以及为什么他们在面对似乎有压倒性据去反驳他们时还固执己见。The first part of the book is a mixture of psychology and trendy neuroscience research that presents the evidence for Mr Shermers central claim: that, instead of shaping belief around painstakingly gathered, soberly judged evidence, people most often decide upon their beliefs first, and then use an impressive range of cognitive tricks to bend whatever evidence they do discover into support for those pre-decided acts of faith.该书的第一部分是心理学和盛行的神经科学研究的大杂烩,提供了明薛默先生主要观点的据:也就是,四处煞费苦心收集来的成形信仰和冷静判断的依据。人们很多时候首先决定自己的信念,然后,无论他们所发现据是否去撑他们以前决定的信仰行为,他们也利用一些令人印象深刻的认知骗局去扭曲事实。In the second part of “The Believing Brain” Mr Shermer applies those observations to the almost infinite variety of weird and wonderful beliefs that people hold, from alien abductions to government conspiracies to bring down the World Trade Centre—and, inevitably, to religion (a chapter on politics, by contrast, feels misplaced and forced). He is an able skewerer of sloppy thinking. The section on conspiracy theories, for instance, memorably exposes the bizarre leaps of logic that adherents often make: “If I cannot explain every single minutia [about the collapse of the twin towers]…that lack of knowledge equates to direct proof that 9/11 was orchestrated by Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld and the CIA.”在《有信仰者》第二部分,薛默先生引用了这些对人们所怀有的几乎所有怪异信仰的观察结果,从外星人绑架到炸毁世界贸易中心的政府阴谋,不可避免地也谈及到宗教(相比之下,政治这一章让人感觉有点错位和牵强)。他是一个能干的凌乱思维整理者。例如, 关于阴谋论部分,明显出现逻辑思维的断层:信徒们常常认为“如果我不能解释出[关于双子塔倒塌]的每一细节... ...这认识的缺失相当于直接明9/11是布什、切尼、伦斯斐和中央情报局精心安排的。A common risk with this kind of book is that the author comes across as overly smug and superior; just look at how the duke of debunkers, Richard Dawkins, is sometimes perceived, even by his fans. Mr Shermer is aware of this risk, and is at pains to reassure ers that his conclusions apply to everyone, even himself. In a chapter on alien abductions, he recounts an abduction story of his own. Exhausted after cycling 1,259 miles in 83 hours as part of an endurance challenge called the Race Across America, he becomes convinced that the motorhome carrying his support team is actually an alien spacecraft, and that his teams pleas for him to come inside and get some rest are merely a cunning pretext to get him to co-operate with a spot of alien probing. Surprised when the interior of the mothership turns out to closely resemble a General Motors motorhome, Mr Shermer consents to lying down. On waking a couple of hours later, he is able to joke about the experience with his team-mates.这类书籍的常见风险是,作者看上去好像过于自以为是和过于哗众取宠;只要看看揭露真面目者的公爵理查德·道金斯有时给人的感觉就明白了,甚至连他的粉丝也有这种感觉。薛默先生是意识到这种风险,并煞费心思地使认为“作者的结论适用于每个人,甚至他自己”的读者安心下来。在关于外星人绑架那章中,他讲述了他自己的绑架故事。经过被他称为战横穿美国的长征的83小时1259英里的骑行耐力挑战后,他筋疲力尽。他开始相信,装载着他持的球队的房车实际上是一艘外星飞船,他的球队那让他进去歇歇的请求仅仅是一个狡猾的借口好让他与之合作一起探索外星船。当他发现母舰内部酷似通用汽车房车,薛默先生十分惊讶并同意躺下歇会。他在两个小时后醒来,他还能拿这经历来和队友们开玩笑。That experience gives one useful definition of a sceptic, as Mr Shermer understands the term: one who is aware of the fallibility of intuitions, and willing to take steps to minimise them. It remains, sadly, an uncommon combination.这经验给出了怀疑论者的很好的定义,正如薛默先生理解术这语一样:一人意识到直觉的不可靠性,并乐意采取措施尽量减少直觉的偏差。可惜,这仍是一种不寻常的组合。 /201211/209781重庆第一医院做隆胸 Business.商业。South Koreas music industry.韩国音乐产业。Top of the K-pops.韩流顶端。Korean musicians must export or starve.韩国音乐家,音乐外销成唯一出路。PSY (pictured, also known as Park Jae-sang) is having the time of his life. On August 12th at a stadium in Seoul, the rap stars concert felt like the only party in town. He entertained 30,000 fans for almost four hours. And this veteran of the South Korean charts has suddenly become popular in the West, since the for his song ;Gangnam Style;, in which he rides an imaginary horse around a posh part of Seoul, went viral on YouTube. The track even hit number one on the iTunes dance chart in Finland.PSY(如图,本命朴载相)火了。8月12日,这位说唱明星在首尔一家体育馆内举行了演唱会,场面火爆万人空巷。他为30000名粉丝表演了近4个小时。不仅如此,新歌;江南style;骑马舞(在首尔高档社区附近做骑马的动作)MV在油管的爆红,使得经常登上韩国音乐榜单的PSY在西方也赢得了瞩目。这首歌甚至在芬兰iTunes舞曲排行榜上也成为了第一。Korean pop (known as K-pop to fans) is turning into an export success. Groups such as Super Junior and 2NE1 now sell millions of CDs and concert tickets in other parts of Asia. As K-pop zooms up the foreign charts, share prices of leading labels, such as SM Entertainment, have soared too.韩国流行音乐(也称韩流)正取得出口上的成功。诸如super junior和2NE1等组合在韩国以外的其他亚洲地区售出了上百万CD及演唱会门票。韩流在外国的飞速发展,让SM等大型唱片公司的股票价格水涨船高。But the outlook at home is less rosy. With the worlds fastest broadband connections, Koreans have embraced downloading. This in itself is not a problem, but the way they do it is.不过,韩国音乐产业在国内前景却不容乐观。有着全球最快宽带速率的韩国人喜欢从网上下载音乐,这本身并不是问题,问题出现在下载的方式上。In other countries, many music-lovers still pay for downloads, through the likes of Apples iTunes shop. Fans typically shell out at least 99 cents per track (and more in countries such as Japan and Britain). Of this, 70% goes to music labels and artists.在其他国家,许多音乐爱好者付费,通过苹果Itunes等在线商店下载音乐。一般下载一首歌曲的价格至少为99美分(有的国家收费更高,如日本和英国)。其中,音源下载收入的70%会交给唱片公司和歌手。In South Korea, the market works differently. Subscription-based services, which allow the listener to rent music, are extremely popular. For a period of one month fans of rock and pop music pay a fee of around 9,000 won () for 150 tracks. Such services have helped to drive overall music sales to 430 billion won in 2011.韩国音乐市场的运营模式则不一样。该国的订阅务允许用户租听音乐,这种务在其国内极其流行。有段时间,只需付9000韩元(8美元),爱好摇滚或流行音乐的用户就可以在一月内租听150首歌曲。2011年,该项业务的销售额为4300亿韩元。Alas for labels and artists, however, their payout is miserly. Under subscription deals, they collect as little as 30 won per track. This must then be split between performers, writers and the label itself. SM Entertainments boss complains that even 1m downloads cannot cover the cost of making a music .不过,唱片公司和歌手就悲剧了,他们从中获得的分红简直少得可怜。订阅销售模式下,唱片公司和歌手每首歌只能收取30韩元。就这点钱还得在表演者、作词作曲者和唱片公司间进行再分配。SM公司老板抱怨说,100万下载量收取的分红还不够MV制作费。The fear of illegal downloading keeps the average price per track of digital music low. That the subscription-service operators are a powerful oligopoly further reduces the labels bargaining power. Thus, SM Entertainment took in a trifling 1.9 billion won in domestic digital sales in the first quarter of 2012. By contrast, the firm sold CDs worth 3 billion won, despite the physical formats supposed demise.为遏制非法下载,数码音源的价格被压得很低。而租听务运营商的垄断地位,进一步压缩了唱片公司的谈判空间。因此,SM公司2012年第一季度的国内音源收入才19亿韩元。形成鲜明对比的是,尽管有朝一日CD终将被淘汰,该公司的唱片销售额仍旧达到了30亿韩元。SM Entertainment and other purveyors of K-pop cover this shortfall at home by having their stars hawk the latest phone, or appear on television variety shows. The biggest labels have become adept at squeezing cash out of their pop stars names, rather than their music. But only a handful of musicians are famous enough to benefit.SM和其他公司通过让明星代言最新手机,或是参加电视综艺节目来弥补这块收入短板。唱片巨擘们善于利用偶像名号赚取利润,音乐本身反倒其次。不过,能单以名气吸金的明星毕竟只占少数。South Koreas old business model, perfected by its carmakers, was to use a captive home market as a launch-pad from which to invade foreign shores. The countrys pop musicians have turned this model upside down: they have to export their tunes to make up for meagre pickings at home.传统的韩国商业模式已由汽车制造商发展到极致,即先掌控国内市场,然后以此为跳板征外国市场。而这个国家音乐人却将这个模式颠倒过来:不得不通过音乐出口来补贴国内的微薄收入。 /201208/196287重庆注射隆鼻能维持多久

万州区儿童医院激光脱毛多少钱乐山祛斑得多少钱 重庆吸脂减肥哪家医院好

奉节县注射丰唇一针多少钱Lots of people these days get their exercise at gyms and health clubs, oftentimes by walking or running on tmills—that is to say, running without going anywhere. If youve ever been on a tmill for some time and then suddenly stepped off it, youve probably experienced the weird sensation that you are suddenly moving much faster than you think you should be. Why?这些天很多人去健身房、健康俱乐部锻炼身体,时间大多花在跑步机上——也就是说原地不动行走或者跑步。如果你在跑步机上跑了一段时间,突然停下时,你心头可能会出现一种古怪的感觉:你移动得比实际要快。为什么?This deceptive sensation is the result of sending your brain two different signals at once. The first signal is the one coming from your legs; during exercise they are in rapid, regular motion, and the brain understands by this fact that the body is moving through space. The second signal comes from the eyes, which are seeing that the objects around you are not passing by, and hence you are standing still. In a sense your eyes are disagreeing with your legs. The result is that after about ten minutes of this input disparity, the brain recalibrates its internal sense of motion.这种欺骗性的感觉实际上是大脑一次传递两种不同信号的结果。第一种信号来自于你的双腿,在锻炼的时候它们快速,有规律地移动,然后大脑把这个事实理解成在空间里穿行。第二种信号来自于你的眼睛,眼睛看到的周围的物体并没有远去,因为你是站着不动的。在意识里,你的眼睛和你的腿是不一致的。结果,在这种输入分歧之后大约十分钟,大脑开始重新调整内心的动作感。In simple terms, your brain tells itself: this is how fast objects move by when Im walking at this rate, as opposed to what was formerly the case. That means when you step off the tmill and begin actually moving through space again, your recalibrated brain is now sent the incorrect message that you have suddenly increased your speed significantly. Once again, what the legs say and what the eyes say is out of sync. The sensation of accelerated motion is only temporary, though, and the ever-adaptable brain soon justs itself once more—until the next time you step up on that rolling, immobile track.单纯意义上来说,大脑告诉自己:当我以这样的速度行走时,身边的物体也以同样的速度在移动,不同于先前那种情况。这意味着,当你跳下跑步机再次开始真正的空间运动时,你调整过一次的大脑将会发送错误的信息:你突然加度了。腿和眼睛传达的信号再一次不同步。尽管加速运动的感觉只是暂时的,能不时顺应的大脑很快又会再次调整,直到下次你再踩在那滚动着但稳定的轨道上。原文译文属!201209/79 重庆专业祛斑医院排名重庆医科大学附属第一医院修眉多少钱




重庆去豆痕价格多少钱 铜梁区丰额头多少钱久久时讯 [详细]
遂宁做隆胸多少钱 泸州哪个医院治疗皮肤疤痕比较好 [详细]
璧山区儿童医院看病怎么样 养心大夫重庆市星辰美容怎么预约69乐园 [详细]
百科助手重庆激光除皱一般多少钱 重庆微针美容的大概费用当当问答重庆做腋臭手术要多少钱 [详细]