大理东方妇科医院治疗内分泌怎么样好不好飞度云面诊

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原标题: 大理东方妇科医院治疗内分泌怎么样好不好69互动
Scientists have long been aware of the link between drinking andsmoking.科学家们长期以来一直在研究喝酒和抽烟之间的联系。In fact, eighty to ninety percent of alcoholics alsosmoke, which is about three times the rate in the generalpopulation.事实上,在那些喝酒的人当中,80%到90%都抽烟,这个比率是总人数的3倍。But a recent study suggests that what youredealing with isnt just behavioral–it also has to do with brainchemistry.但最近有研究称这不仅与人的行为有关,而且与大脑化学反应也有一定关系。The study suggests that alcohol increases the pleasurable effects of nicotine.这项研究表明酒精可以增强尼古丁令人愉快的效果。Participants drankan alcoholicbeverage and smoked either a regular cigarette or a nicotine free one.参与者喝一杯酒精饮料后再抽一烟或者抽一不含尼古丁的香烟。Those whosmoked nicotine-free cigarettes didnt report as much satisfaction, which indicates that the nicotineitself plays a critical role in the interaction.那些抽没有尼古丁香烟的人并没有感受到满足感,由此表明尼古丁在相互影响时自身起到关键性作用。And then theres all that lowering of inhibitions that happens when you drink. 如果喝酒的话就会降低抑制作用。It doesnt take muchalcohol to increase the pleasures of nicotine.只需少量的酒精就能增加尼抽烟的的快感。Once scientists get to the bottom of thepharmacological interaction that happens between alcohol and nicotine, they may have a betterunderstanding of how to treat both addictions more effectively.曾经有科学家弄清酒精和尼古丁之间药物影响的真相,这让他们更好的了解如何有效地治疗酗酒和吸烟上瘾的人。 201404/293871Business商业报道African entrepreneurs非洲企业家Parallel players同舞者Why many of Africas budding businessfolk are jacks-of-all-trades为何许多非洲的新兴企业家杂而不精ONE of the many terms Silicon Valley has bequeathed to the business world is serial entrepreneur, a label for those restless souls who start one business after another.硅谷留给商界的众多术语之一是连续企业家,指的是那些接连创业的不安分的人。Perhaps Africa can now contribute another expression: the parallel entrepreneur.也许非洲正在提供另一种表述并行企业家。More than in any other part of the developing world, the continents budding business folk create networks of several firms across a number of different sectors of the economy, according to research by IMANI, a think-tank based in Ghana.根据加纳智库IMANI的研究,与世界任何发展中的地区相比,更多非洲大陆的新兴企业家创造了横跨不同经济领域的系列公司网络。The 189 successful entrepreneurs it surveyed in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya own, on average, six businesses each.在参与调查的加纳,尼日尔和肯尼亚的189个成功企业家中,他们人均拥有6家企业,其中一位拥有超过60家企业。One boasted more than 60. What explains this entrepreneurial hyperactivity?如何解释这种企业家的极度活跃现象?One reason for it is simply the wealth of opportunity, says Cyril Allen II, a well-connected businessman in Liberias capital, Monrovia.利比里亚首都蒙罗维亚一家实力雄厚的家族式企业家,Cyril Allen 二世表示,大量的机会是造成这种现象的原因之一。He and his family farm cocoa and coffee, run a cleaning business, lease out property and manage logistics for international companies.他和他的家族种植可可树和咖啡树,经营一家清洁公司,财产租赁以及为跨国公司提供物流管理务。The civil war here ended less than a decade ago.他还表示内战已经结束将近十年了。Once a firm has established a degree of trust among its customers, that can in turn spawn new businesses, particularly when many other firms are unreliable.公司一旦在客户群中建立了一定的信用度,这就可以育出新的公司,尤其是在其他企业没有信用的情况下。We work based on relationships, so if I have a good relationship with a client, they might ask for another service,我们的工作基于关系网,这样如果我与客户维系一个良好的关系,客户就有可能会要求提供其他务。explains Njeri Rionge, an entrepreneur in Kenya whose interests extend from an internet provider to a management consultancy.肯尼亚企业家Njeri Rionge的业务涉及网络接入到管理咨询务等领域,他解释道。Necessity can also give rise to the creation of more than one company.需求会导致更多公司的创建。UT Holdings, in Ghana, started out in 1997 granting loans.位于加纳的UT Holdings创建于1997年,提供贷款务。But Prince Kofi Amoabeng, its founder, soon discovered that he needed to provide additional services to make the loans business work. He first added a debt-collection company, then security firms.但创建者Kofi Amoabeng王子很快发现他需要提供额外的务来维持贷款业务的运行。We found existing companies wanting, says Mr Amoabeng.他说:我们发现已有公司的需求。He keeps expanding his business portfolio, which now includes a life-insurance firm.他首先创立一家债务收缴公司,然后是劵公司。他不断的扩展公司的业务组合,目前还包括了一家人寿保险公司。Certain characteristics of African economies also make it more profitable to keep starting new firms rather than build a single big one.非洲经济的特性同样使得创建新企业比建立一个大型企业更加有利可图。Key resources are scarce.关键资源非常稀少,Mid-level managers are in sufficient supply, but few are capable of running large businesses, which is why they often apply their talents in several firms simultaneously.中型企业的管理者可以获得充足的供应,但很少人有能力运行一家大型企业,这也是他们使人才同时从事不同企业的原因。Financing is hard to come by; entrepreneurs find it easier to get several small loans for each business rather than a large chunk of money.融资非常困难,而企业家发现为几个企业单独申请小额贷款比一宗大笔贷款更加容易。But the most crucial factor may be bureaucracy.但是最关键的因素应该是政府。Its unpredictability deters businessmen from putting all their resources into one basket—out of fear that the market could be the target of onerous regulation.它们不可预知的阻碍商人将所有资源集中到一起—由于担心市场会被麻烦的监管条例所限制。Separate companies are often used to lower tax payments, says Bright Simons, an entrepreneur in Accra, Ghanas capital, who also works as a business analyst.Bright Simons是加纳首都阿克拉的企业家,同时也是一名商业分析师。A second firm might be formed to supply materials to the first, he explains, allowing the owner to adjust the prices and profits.他解释说,单独的公司通常缴纳较低的税金,而第二个公司为第一个提供原材料,这使得企业家可以调整产品的价格和利润。And once an entrepreneur has learned how to navigate the red tape, why not apply this valuable skill to other undertakings?如果一个企业家学会了如何驾驭这些政府的繁杂手续,为何不将这种有价值的技术应用于其他的企业中呢?Critics of Africas parallel entrepreneurs worry that jacks-of-all-trades cannot become masters of any.针对非洲并行企业家的批评家担心,这种杂而不精的方式会使企业变得没有专长。And some investors are wary of putting money into African firms because of their often labyrinthine ownership structures.一些投资者由于非洲企业错综复杂的所有权结构而采取非常谨慎的投资行为。But multitasking has its good sides, argues Ms Rionge, who in one of her parallel activities mentors young entrepreneurs.但在自己的并行企业中培训青年企业家的Rionge女士认为,这种多企业的并行方式有着自身的优点,It makes African business leaders agile and adaptable—both good skills that are absent in many developed economies.它培养了非洲企业领导人的灵活性和适应性,而这两种优秀技巧正是许多发达经济体中所欠缺的。 /201307/247736

Even without the guidance of organized religion, some animals instinctively know that its a good thing to help others.即使没有类似人类宗教的指引,有些动物仍能本能地救助处于危难中的其它动物。For example, when a bird spots a predator, instead of just flying away, it calls out in alarm and warns everyone in the vicinity.比如,一只小鸟发现了捕食者,它就会发出叫声以警示和提醒附近其它的小动物们。When a dolphin is injured, other dolphins help it swim up to the surface and get some air.如果一只海豚受伤了,那么其他海豚也会帮助它一直游到岸边以呼吸新鲜空气。And in a lab experiment that was set up so that one rat had to sit on a platform or else his rat friends would get an electrical shock when they tried to feed, the rats quickly learned to cooperate and take turns sitting on the platform.在类似试验中,一只老鼠必须要坐在一个平台上以防止它的朋友们试图进食时被电击,很快老鼠们就学会了如何协作,它们轮流坐在平台上以防止同伴被电击。You might think that evolution would work against this kind of altruism since, instead of concentrating on their own survival, animals spend time and energy helping others.因为这些动物们不仅仅只关心自己的生命,也会花费时间与精力去帮助其他动物。所以,你可能会认为进化过程会有悖于这种利他主义。But evolutionists suggest that when animals help animals who are their genetic relatives, or who are likely to return the favor later on, they are actually helping their species to survive the process of natural selection.但进化论者认为,当动物们在帮助那些遗传亲属,或可能会在稍后回报其所提供的这种帮助时,它们实际上是在帮助它们的种群能够在自然选择的过程中存活下来。Some animals will even sacrifice their own lives to insure the survival of the larger group. The worker honeybee, for example, will die defending her hive if necessary.某些动物甚至会牺牲自己的生命以保全更大种群的存活。比如说工蜂,在保护蜂巢的过程中就会不惜牺牲生命。Even acts that seem selfish may end up helping the group in the long run. For instance, when there isnt enough food to go around, wasps and termites will cannibalize their nest-mates. Gruesome as this may seem, it insures the colonys survival through tough times.甚至,某些看上去貌似自私的行为实际长远看来也有助于种群存活。比如说,当附近没有足够的食物时,黄蜂和白蚁就会对它们同族的伙伴进行蚕食。也许听上去很可怕,但实际上这保了艰难时期种群的存活。Although here at A Moment of Science, we dont condone human cannibalism, we still hope that these examples of altruism in animals will give you some food for thought.我们《科学一刻》栏目虽然不能宽恕人类自相残杀的行为,但我们希望,这些存在于动物之间的利他主义将会带给大家一些发人深省的思想。 /201308/253096Business商业报道Aviation航空运输业Ghost at the feast宴会上的幽灵Airlines stand to lose heavily should the euro collapse一旦欧元崩溃,航空公司需面临其带来的惨重损失MEETINGS of airline bosses are rarely cheerful events, profits being tighter than leg room in economy.航空公司老板们的商务会议鲜有高兴的事,该领域的利润比经济舱那放脚空间还要拮据。But this years annual gathering of the International Air Transport Association should have been different.但是今年国际航空运输协会的年度聚会应该会有所不同。For a start, the airlines umbrella group picked the most promising market to host the pow-wow, which was held in Beijing.首先,航空公司的伞型集团选择了在最有前景市场的北京来主持举办这次会晤。Not only is air travel booming within and from China, but the countrys airlines also made half of all global profits last year.不仅是中国国内、国际航空旅行的蓬勃发展,而且该国航空公司去年赚到了全球航空领域一半的利润。But as IATA delegates assembled for their gala dinner on June 11th at the Great Hall of the People in Tiananmen Square,但是6月11日,当国际航空运输协会代表们在天安门广场人民大会堂里齐聚一堂共度晚宴时,there was a ghost at the feast.宴会上存在一个幽灵。The topic on most peoples minds was not the dozens of airports to be opened this decade in China, nor the quarter of a trillion dollars the host country is spending to become an aviation and aerospace superpower.大多数人考虑关注的话题不在于中国数十个机场将在本年代陆续开放,也不在于该主办国将花费数万亿美元的四分之一即成为航空航天的超级大国。On the contrary, all eyes were focused on the spectre of financial chaos in Europe.相反,所有的目光都聚焦着对欧洲经融危机带来的恐慌和忧虑。The euro zones troubles have aly pushed many European carriers into the red.这次欧元区的危机已使得许多欧洲航空公司财政赤字。IATA predicts that there is a “serious risk” of bankruptcies.国际航空运输协会预测存在着一个破产的“严重风险”。Indeed, Malev and Spainair, two fair-sized European airlines, have aly gone bust.实际上,匈牙利航空和西班牙航空这两家一般规模的欧洲航空公司已经破产。Several big airline groups, notably Air France-KLM, are trying to make deep cuts. The global industrys after-tax profits are forecast to fall from .9 billion in 2011 to billion this year; that is just 0.5% of revenue.几大航空公司团体,特别是法航-荷航正试图大幅削减。全球行业内的税后利润预计将从2011年的79亿美元降低到今年的30亿,这仅仅是国家财政收入的0.5%。And if the euro collapses?那如果欧元崩溃了呢?“It would be worse than 9/11,” says Willie Walsh, the boss of I, which owns British Airways and Iberia.拥有英国航空公司和伊比利亚航空的国际航空集团老板威利沃尔什声称,这个比例将不到9/11。Things feel all the worse because 2012 might otherwise have been a good year.有些事情感觉反而更糟,这是因为2012年或许在其他方面将会是美好的一年。Oil prices have moderated of late. Global passenger traffic has risen by 6%, faster than the long-term trend.石油价格近来已经回落。全球客流量上升了6%,上升速度超过了长期趋势。Freight contracted in 2011, but is reviving in many markets.2011就签下了货运合同,在许多市场这仅仅正在复苏之中。Asset utilisation is 79%, up from 74% in .资产利用率从年的74%上升到了79%。Planes are relatively full, especially in America.飞机相对完整,尤其是在美国。That said, the industry faces three risks besides a European meltdown.这就是说,该行业除了欧洲金融危机将面临三大风险。First, an oil-supply shock—resulting from an Iranian crisis, say—would send fuel prices sharply up again and wipe out profits.首先是伊朗危机下的石油供应冲击,这将使得燃料价格再次飙升,削减行业利润。Some airlines, including KLM, are investing in biofuels, but full commercialisation looks a decade away.包括荷航在内的一些航空公司正在投资于生物燃料,但是者想要完全商业化可能还需要十年时间。Others use financial hedges, but these are pricey and can backfire if oil prices drop.另一些航空公司则使用金融对冲基金,但是这是相当昂贵的而且如果石油价格下降的话可能适得其反。Delta is even now finalising a deal to buy an oil refinery.美国达美航空公司甚至现在正在最终敲定一项购买一个炼油厂的协议。The second risk arises from the flood of new planes due to be delivered shortly.第二个风险滋生于即将大量交付使用的新飞机。Production snags at both Airbus and Boeing have kept capacity tighter than planned.空中客车公司和波音公司的生产障碍在于比原计划保其客容量需更加严格。If everyone uses their new planes to expand capacity, rather than to replace clunkers, there could be a lot of empty seats.如果所有的人都使用他们的新飞机来扩大产能,而不是更换旧机的话则可能会有很多空位。The final threat pits ghost against host.最后的威胁是针对这次主办方的。The European Commissions inclusion of greenhouse gases from aviation in its emissions-trading scheme is opposed by over 30 countries,欧盟委员会在它提出的碳排放交易计划中关于来至航空温室气体混合物这点有超过30个国家反对,of which China is the most defiant.对此中国是最肆无忌惮的。If a compromise is not found, European countries must levy hefty fines on offenders and may seize aircraft—which could set off a trade war.如果没有找到一个妥协之处,欧洲各国必定会对其违规者征收巨额罚款,而且可能会扣押飞机,这必将引起一场贸易战。On June 12th the China Air Transport Association, which represents Chinese carriers, said that China would retaliate with similar measures.6月12日,代表中国航空公司的中国航空运输协会声明:中国将采取相似的措施以作为回应。The Chinese government has forbidden its airlines from participating in the ETS.中国政府已经禁止其航空公司参与该碳排放交易计划。It has even threatened to cancel orders placed by its airlines with Airbus.它甚至还威胁要取消其航空公司与空中客车公司的订单。No coincidence, then, that this weeks banquet was paid for by the European aircraftmaker.那么本周的宴会是由欧洲的飞机制造商赞助的,这也并非偶然。The Chinese appear unbowed.中国看起来似乎不会屈。 /201307/246988

The canyon has power and attraction compelling the visitor to gaze into its depth. 大峡谷有着吸引来访者们深入探究的无穷魅力。These few points to a time when rainfall here would be significantly greater and the river evermore able to cover its channel through the granite landscape. 这几个地方曾经有非常大的降雨量而且河流永远能够通过花岗岩景观冲刷这个通道。This volcanic rock would have been formed many kilometers underground and pushed to the surface by the movements of the earths crust. 数千公里地下的火山岩形成之后通过地壳运动被推到地表。In geologic terms, the weird and wonderful rock forms at the recent result of severing temperatures, shattering frosts, eroding winds and flush floods.-Hello!用地质术语来说,奇形怪状的岩石在最近似的温度,霜冻的鬼斧神工,风的侵蚀及洪水冲刷中形成,太绝妙了!201310/261994Science and technology科学技术Blood simple简单的输血A small change in how babies are delivered might abolish infantile anaemia分娩方式的简单改变可能帮助消灭婴儿贫血An unkind cut?争议的一剪?CHILDHOOD anaemia is a problem.儿童贫血症是一个全球性的问题,Around the world, almost a quarter of under-fives suffer from it.将近四分之一的五岁以下儿童忍受着该病的折磨,And anaemia is not a trivial thing.使得我们无法忽视它。A childs development, both physical and mental, is stifled by a lack of iron.儿童身体和智力的发育,都会受到铁元素匮乏的影响,The reason is that, besides its well-known role in haemoglobin, the oxygen-transporting molecule in the blood,因为除了在血液中的氧气运输分子—血红蛋白中发挥着众所周知的作用外,iron is also involved in many aspects of brain development.铁元素还在许多方面参与了大脑的发育。A study just published in the British Medical Journal by Ola Andersson, an obstetrician at the Hospital of Halland in Halmstad, Sweden,来自瑞典哈尔姆斯塔德市哈兰医院的产科医生Ola Andersson刚刚在不列颠医学杂志上发表的一项研究表明,suggests that a simple change of medical procedure when a child is born may bring a big reduction in anaemia.简单改变婴儿分娩的流程,也许就能显著降低贫血症的发生。That change is not to cut the umbilical cord linking the child with the placenta straight after birth—as is standard practice,这个改变是,不要像惯常操作那样,在胎儿出生后马上剪断连接胎儿与胎盘的脐带,but, rather, to give it time to transfer more of the placentas contents to the child it has been nurturing.而是等一等,让更多胎盘中的物质流向胎儿。The argument in favour of rapid clamping is that too much blood may flow from the detached placenta to the newly born child, and that this can cause problems of its own.坚持快速钳住脐带的观点认为,让太多的血液从胎盘流向新生儿会带来其自身的问题,But that is unproven, and would be a strike against evolution because, in nature, the umbilicus of a mammal usually does remain attached to the infant for some time after birth.但这种观点其实从未被实,而且显然与进化论相抵触,因为在自然界中,哺乳动物的胎儿通常在出生后一段时间内仍然通过脐带与母体相连,Only the modern technology of clamps and sharp scissors permits the slithery tube to be dealt with at speed.只有钳子和剪子这种现代工具,才能迅速地处理光滑的脐带。To test her idea that extended post partum connection to the placenta is good for a childs health,为了实延长产后胎儿与胎盘的连接时间确实有益于儿童的健康,Dr Andersson and her colleagues recruited 334 pregnant,Andersson士和她的同事们招募了334个没有吸烟习惯的妇志愿者,non-smoking women whose fetuses appeared to be healthy.她们肚中的胎儿看起来都很健康。When these women came to term, their midwives followed one of two sets of instructions, chosen at random and given to them just before each birth.在妇们临产时,助产士为她们从两种生产方式中随机选择一种。In 166 cases the newborns had their umbilical cords clamped within ten seconds of delivery.在166例中,脐带在新生儿出生后的十秒内被钳住,The other 168 had them clamped after at least three minutes had passed.而在另一组168例中,这个时间至少超过三分钟。When the children were four months old, Dr Andersson re-examined them and took a blood sample.在这些儿童四个月时,Andersson士重新对他们进行检查并抽取血样。Those babies whose umbilical clamps had been applied after three minutes had, on average,那些脐带在三分钟后才被钳住的儿童,iron levels 45% higher than those whose cords had been clamped immediately.体内的铁元素平均水平要比采用速钳法的儿童高出45%。Put another way, only 0.6% of them were anaemic, compared with 5.7% of the rapidly clamped.从另一个角度看,相较于采用速钳法的儿童中5.7%的贫血症发生率,他们的这个比例只有0.6%。Rapid clamping of the umbilicus, then, seems to cause one child in 20 to become anaemic, at least in the early months of its life.看起来速钳法在每20个儿童中便导致一例在其出生后的最初几个月内发生贫血。Any experiment of this sort needs to be repeated, of course, to check it is correct.当然,这类研究结果都需要通过重复实验来验可靠性。But if it is, then the burden of proof in the matter of when to cut the cord will have shifted from those who would cut late to those who would cut early.但如果这个结论确实正确,那么采用速钳法的人将更有义务来明为什么要迅速的剪断脐带,The cost of doing so would seem negligible; the benefit, great.毕竟延长几分钟时间没有什么麻烦,而益处却是显而易见的。 /201306/243941

American spies in Germany美国间谍在德国Up pops another…and another一个一个冒出来The Americans are snooping even on Germanys anti-snooping committee美国人竟挑衅德国反监听委员会IF THE tawdry tale is confirmed, the Americans hired a German working for his countrys equivalent of the CIA as their double agent. A 31-year-old clerk sorting classified papers reportedly gave the Americans 218 documents in return for a paltry 25,000. Three concerned the committee in the Bundestag that is investigating revelations by Edward Snowden about American surveillance in Germany. So the Americans are spying on Germanys parliament even as it looks into American spying.像美国雇佣一名在德国相当于CIA部门工作的德国人做双面间谍这种低俗故事居然是真的。据报道一名整理机密文件的31岁员工将218份关于美国的文件排序分类以不到25000欧元的价格出售给美国。其中3份是关于西德联邦议会的一个委员会,这个委员会正在调查爱德华·斯诺登关于美国监视德国的启示书。所以美国监视德国议会就如同在调查美国间谍一样。This was followed on July 9th by news of a second American spy—though few details have been released. The downward spiral in German-American relations began with the Snowden affair and continued with news that America had tapped Chancellor Angela Merkels phone. It seems that the Americans collect German metadata on a vast scale. American surveillance has caught up a 27-year-old computer-science student in Bavaria named Sebastian Hahn: his mistake was merely to run a server belonging to a network that encrypts internet communications.这个美国第二个间谍的新闻于7月9日曝光,即使并没有什么细节被透露。德美关系呈螺旋形下降起于斯诺登事件,又因美国监听德国总理安吉拉·默克尔的电话而加剧。由此看来美国似乎收集了大量的德国元数据。美国的监管部门于巴伐利亚监控了一名27岁计算机科学专业的学生,其名叫斯巴斯蒂安·韩。他犯的错误仅仅是运营了一个务器,而这个务器隶属于一个将网络通信转化为密码的网络。Outrage over Americas behaviour is widesp. Joachim Gauck, Germanys president, called it “a gamble with friendship” between the two countries. “We have to say, enough!” As a former East German, like Mrs Merkel, Mr Gauck is sensitive about state spying and personal liberty. The interior and foreign ministers chimed in. The justice minister accused the Americans of “surveillance mania” and suggested he may prosecute them. The opposition has stepped up calls to give Edward Snowden, now in Russia, asylum in Germany in exchange for his testimony.对美国这种行为的愤怒正在德国蔓延。德国总统约阿希姆·高克称之为两国之间“友谊的冒险”。“我们受够了!”同默克尔一样,高克曾经也是东德人,他对国家监视和人身自由非常敏感。内政和外交部长也插手了。司法部长指控美国政府是“监控狂热”,并且暗示自己会起诉他们。反对党加紧提出要给现在俄罗斯的爱德华·斯诺登的德国政治庇护权来交换他的词。Mrs Merkel was in China when the news broke. She would have preferred not to comment there, but the timing left her little choice. The allegations are “very serious,” she said, standing next to a beaming Chinese premier. They “contradict everything that I understand to be a trusting co-operation between friendly partners.” Her counterpart, Li Keqiang, presented China and Germany as bonded in victimhood under a common American threat.当消息爆发时默克尔总理正在中国。她选择不对此作,但是时机让她别无选择。站在坦荡的中国总理旁边的她称这些断言是“非常严肃的”。这些监视行为“否定了我对友好伙伴之间的信任合作的理解。”与她相衬的李克强称中国和德国是在美国常见威胁下的牺牲品中紧密结合。Scenes like these should make American policymakers pause. Are the benefits of their spying worth the costs? In Berlin to plug her new book, Hillary Clinton, Americas former secretary of state, suggested the answer may be no. She offered an apology to Mrs Merkel for the phone-tapping. And she told interviewers that she would like senior American policymakers to visit Germany, to listen and to understand.这样的场景通常应该让美国的决策者们暂停行动。他们的监视所带来的益处与代价相比是否值得?在柏林美国前国务卿希拉里·克林顿宣传她的新书时,表示是不值得。她为窃听电话的事件像默克尔道歉。并且她还告诉采访者她希望美国高级决策人能来访问德国,来倾听和理解。Germany will stop short of granting Mr Snowden asylum or expelling American agents. The transatlantic free-trade talks, aly controversial in Germany, may survive. But a crucial Western alliance has been damaged. When members of Germanys anti-spying parliamentary commission meet now, they throw their mobile phones into a box and turn up the music—for fear of America, not Russia. That is what things have come to.德国将暂停授予斯诺登政治庇护和驱逐美国特工的提议。美国的自由贸易谈话原本在德国还存有争议,但如今也可以得以发展。但是一个重要的西方联盟关系已经被破坏了。如今当德国反监听议会委员会的成员见面时,他们将自己的手机扔进一个箱子里并且打开音乐,防的就是美国,而非俄罗斯。这就是事态的发展。 /201407/312936Italian payment practices意大利的付习惯Unhealthy delays有害的延误Late payments are an Italian speciality—particularly in health care延迟付是意大利的特色——尤其在医药保健领域IN MEDICINE speed is of the essence.在医药领域,速度就是核心。If the ambulance arrives a minute late, the patient may be dead.如果救护车晚到一分钟,病人就可能死亡了。Italian paramedics are no doubt as swift as those in other countries.意大利的护理人员无疑同其他国家一样行动迅速。But Italys health-care authorities are shamefully slow when it comes to paying suppliers—making it difficult for them to survive.但谈到向供应商付时,意大利的医疗机构就慢的令人羞耻了—简直让供应商们难以生存。Were still waiting to be paid for goods sold in , says Stefano Rimondi, the managing director of Bellco, a maker of equipment for dialysis with revenues of more than 100m and a workforce of 360 people.我们还在等年出售的货物的付款,Bellco公司的常务董事Stefano Rimondi说道。Bellco是一家渗透设备制造商,拥有360名员工,每年收入超过1亿欧元。We have one employee working full-time chasing up late payers, he adds.他补充道,我们有一个员工全职专司向延迟付款人追讨款项。Bellco is not the only company to suffer.Bellco不是唯一一家深受其害的公司。The 250 other members of Assobiomedica, a trade group for firms that supply medical equipment, are owed 5.6 billion;提供医疗设备的贸易组织,意大利生物医药联合会下属的250家公司有未付款56亿欧元;those of Farmindustria, which represents 200 pharmaceutical firms, are waiting for 4 billion.意大利制药工业协会下属的200家制药公司则有未付款40亿欧元。The farther south you look, the longer the delays in payment.你往南看的越远,付的延迟时间就越长。The Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige regions in north-eastern Italy and Valle dAosta in the north-west settle bills after about three months.在意大利东北部的Friuli 和Trentino-Alto Adige区域,以及在西北部的Valle dAosta都在三个月后付账单。The regions of Calabria and Molise pay on average after two years.Calabria 和 Molise区的人平均两年后才付账。The record is held by one Neapolitan health authority:那不勒斯省中某市的卫生部门保持着相关记录:some of its suppliers have been waiting for more than four-and-a-half years.他的一些供应商已经等了至少四年半了。Small Italian firms that rely on the home market are hit particularly hard.一些依赖家庭市场的意大利企业尤其损失严重。Often they cannot get bank financing at reasonable interest rates.他们通常不能以合理的利率从贷款。And long delays in payment create all kinds of tax and accounting headaches.而长时间延误付款将导致税收和会计方面的一系列问题。Suing late-payers doesnt help much.起诉延迟付款者也没有太大作用。Courts are at least as slow as health-care authorities.法院的速度至少和医疗机构一样慢。In five regions a law even blocks the use of courts to compel authorities to cough up.甚至有一项法律在五个地区中禁止法院强制官员吐出资金。Once we were able to recover about 5m of interest a year, but now weve had to give up, says the executive of a large American drugmaker, which had started to take legal action in 2007.一家大型美国制药公司在2007年采取法律行动以后说道:曾经我们可以收到一年大约500万欧元的利息,但现在我们放弃了。Pharmaceutical firms cannot simply stay clear of the worst offenders:制药公司不能简单的远离最极端的冒犯者们:they are legally required to supply drugs even to notoriously slow authorities.法律甚至要求这些为慢的臭名昭著的官员提供药品。Desperate measures are also unlikely to help.令人绝望的法规同样很难起到作用。Starting a boycott of late-paying authorities could trigger an antitrust investigation.启动对延迟付款官员的联合抵制将触发反垄断调查。And paying sweeteners to move invoices to the top of the list can land you behind bars.而通过贿赂使账单排到列表最顶端的举动将使你锒铛入狱。Some suppliers are pinning their hopes on new European Union legislation which requires health-care authorities to settle bills within 60 days;一些供应商寄希望于要求医疗机构在60天内付款的欧盟监管新条例;it takes effect in March next year.此条例将于明年三月份生效。Yet Mr Rimondi would be shocked if things improved:但如果情况真的有所改进的话,Rimondi先生会感到震惊,Some clause will be dreamed up so that the directive can be dodged in Italy.将有一些条款被设计出来,让意大利逃过监管。 /201307/247869

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