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淮安去哪家医院割包皮比较好淮安治疗宫颈炎要多少钱Blackcaps are small songbirds that breed in Central Europe. Fifty years ago, most blackcaps went south for the winter to Spain or Portugal. But since the 1960s more and more blackcaps have started wintering in Britain and Ireland. By 2003, blackcaps were seen perched at one in every three backyard bird feeders in Britain! But why did so many blackcaps change their winter vacation location?黑头莺是一种体型较小的鸟类,主要生活在欧洲中部。50年前,大多数黑头莺每到冬季就会迁徙到南部的西班牙或者葡萄牙。但是自20世纪60年代起,越来越多的黑头莺开始飞往英国和爱尔兰过冬。到2003年,有三分之一的英国家庭后院里的喂食器上出现过黑头莺。然而是什么促使如此多的黑头莺另择越冬地呢?The direction birds migrate is coded in their genes. Each population of birds has an average direction they will go, but individuals can vary as much as forty degrees from the average. Although historically, the average direction for blackcaps was towards Portugal, a few birds genes pointed them in a slightly different direction and they ended up in Britain.鸟类迁徙的方向由基因决定。每个鸟群迁徙时都有个平均方向,但个体可以在偏离这个方向40度范围内活动。尽管历史上黑头莺迁徙的平均方向是朝着葡萄牙,但还是有不少黑头莺定位稍有偏差,结果就来到了英国。But for the numbers of blackcaps wintering in Britain to change so dramatically, there must be some significant advantage to fly north rather than south. Perhaps the benefit is simply from the shorter, less taxing flight to Britain. Or maybe it’s because Britain has many bird lovers that stock backyard birdfeeders.在英国过冬的黑头莺数量激增,至于它们选择飞往北方而不是南方,其中肯定有一些显著的优势。也许是因为英国比较近,不必大费周折飞那么远,也许是因为英国有许多鸟类爱好者,在后院到处悬挂喂食器。But researchers from Germany and the UK believe the key difference is the shorter winter days in Britain. Shorter days affect migration and breeding behavior, so British birds return to summer breeding grounds about ten days earlier than birds that went south.但来自德国和英国的研究人员认为关键区别在于英国冬季的白昼较短。白昼短这一点可以影响到鸟类的迁移和繁殖行为,所以,在英国过冬的鸟类会比飞往南方的鸟类提前十天返回夏日的繁殖场所。This ten-day head start lets British migrants claim the best territories and start breeding sooner. Females paired with British males laid more eggs and hatched more chicks than those mated to southern birds. Each year, blackcaps with genes orienting them towards Britain pass on those genes to more chicks. And so the number of blackcaps with the disposition to fly to Britain steadily increases.开头的十天会保这些候鸟们占领最好的领地,迅速开始育下一代。并且,与在南方配对的雌鸟相比,与英国的雄鸟配对的雌鸟产蛋更多,孵出的雏鸟也更多。年复一年,黑头莺会把向英国迁徙的基因一代代传下去。因此,飞往英国过冬的黑头莺数量急剧增长。原文译文属!201212/215976淮安中山医院网上预约挂号平台 Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;A history of mapmaking;Views of the world;地图史;世界景象;There is no such thing as an objective map;准确地图谁见了;A History of the World in Twelve Maps. By Jerry Brotton.《12幅地图中的世界历史》,作者杰里·布洛顿。 Around 150AD an astronomer named Claudius Ptolemy wrote a book about how to make a proper map of the world. Penned in Greek on a papyrus scroll, the work, known as the “Geography”, is one of the most famous ancient texts on the science of mapmaking. It placed the job firmly in the domain of the geographer, who could use astronomy and mathematics to calculate from the stars what the world looked like below.公元150年前后,一位名叫克劳狄斯·托勒密的天文学家写了一本关于如何恰当绘制世界地图的书。该书用希腊文书写在一卷莎草上,这部被称为《地理学》的著作是地图制图学方面最著名的古文献之一。该书毫不含糊地将这项工作归于地理学家范畴,因为地理学家可以使用天文学和数学知识推测从星球上观测下面的地球是什么样子。Ptolemys “Geography” was an attempt to take myths out of maps. It recommended using geometric lines of latitude and longitude to convey a three-dimensional Earth on a two-dimensional surface, and it included the co-ordinates of over 8,000 locations in the ancient world. Whether Ptolemy drew his own maps is unclear. The “Geography” disappeared for a thousand years, only for an unoriginal copy to appear in the 13th century, replete with coloured maps drawn by Byzantine scribes. Regardless, these geographic drawings and all other maps based on scientific calculation are his legacy.托勒密的这部《地理学》试图揭开地图的神秘面纱。它告诉人们如何用经纬线这样的几何线条在二维的平面上表现出三维的地球来,书中还有古代世界8000多个地点的坐标。托勒密是否亲手绘制地图,目前尚不可知。《地理学》曾消失了一千年,直到13世纪才有一个副本出现,这个副本里倒是有很多拜占庭抄书官绘制的色地图。不管怎样,这些经过科学计算的地理绘图和其它地图都是他留给后人的宝贵财富。But as Jerry Brotton explains in “A History of the World in Twelve Maps”, Ptolemys scientific influence tells only part of the story. Mapmakers operate in environments of subjective knowledge. Their work is influenced by politics and patrons, regional assumptions and religious beliefs, all of which jostles with the science in determining what a map looks like and what it is used for. Mapmakers may be geographers and cartographers, but they can also be artists and imperialists, storytellers and propagandists.但正如杰里·布洛顿在《12幅地图中的世界史》中解释的那样,托勒密的科学影响力只是这个故事的部分。地图绘制者生存的环境主观色浓厚,他们的工作受到政治、赞助人、区域假设以及宗教信仰等因素的影响,在确定地图的面貌及用途时,这些因素与科学相互碰撞。地图绘制者可能是地理学家和制图专家,但他们同时也可能既是艺术家又是帝国主义者,既是故事讲述人又是宣传分子。Mr Brotton, a professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary University of London, examines the complexity of mapmaking through the stories of 12 maps, which stretch across space and over time. The examples are impressively varied, from Ptolemys toils to Google Earth, and include some lesser-known Islamic and East Asian works. Despite their differences, these maps enjoy some intriguing similarities, largely for the way they illustrate the priorities of their authors.作为伦敦玛丽女王大学文艺复兴研究的教授,布洛顿先生通过12幅地图的讲述对绘图的复杂性进行了考察。这些地图跨度巨大,分属于不同时期、不同地区,既有托勒密艰苦劳作的产物,也有谷歌地球,还有一些更鲜为人知的伊斯兰作品和东亚作品。尽管它们之间各不相同,但也有一些有趣的相似之处,主要是由于这些地图反映了制图者在制图时所考虑的优先次序的方式。The medieval Mappa Mundi in Englands Hereford cathedral, for example, is little more than drawings on vellum, or stretched calfskin, and it lacks Ptolemys geometric method. Yet it is a beautifully detailed map of the Christian world, based on the topography of the Bible—bewildering to the geographer, but sensible to people of faith. Oriented east, Jerusalem sits at the centre. Britain clings insignificantly to the edge.比如,中世纪制作的英格兰赫里福德教堂世界地图不过是些绘在羔皮、或者说拉伸了的犊皮上的图案,没有使用托勒密的几何方法。但这幅基督教界的地图,取材于圣经上的记录,细节做得非常漂亮。这张地图让地理学家困惑不解,但对于基督徒来说则是顺理成章。它以东方为重心,把耶路撒冷放在地图的正中,英国则偏居一隅。Time would change this view of the world in the eyes of British mapmakers. By the 19th century maps often placed the British Isles at the core. One such map in the book features a view of the globe with Britain and the North Atlantic in the centre to better portray the empires sea power; Australia and half of South America are left off. Many of these maps, like those of the Spanish and Portuguese imperialists of the 16th century, did more to illustrate dominance and ambition than to improve cartographical practice.在英国制图者看来,人们对于世界的看法会随着时间的改变而改变。到了19世纪,不列颠群岛常被放在地图的中心。这本书中就有一幅这样的全球地图,将英国和北大西洋放在中心位置,以更好地彰显大英帝国的海洋实力。澳大利亚以及半个南美竟被忽落。这其中的很多地图,比如16世纪西班牙和葡萄牙的地图,更多地是为了显示帝国的统治和野心,而不是为了提高制图技术。Even now, when mapmakers have access to tools such as satellite images, there is still no objective and universally accepted map, argues Mr Brotton. “The idea of the world may be common to all societies; but different societies have very distinct ideas of the world and how it should be represented.” The author reckons that Google Earth and other digital mapping applications are just as vulnerable as their predecessors to national priorities and cultural norms. These maps can be cluttered with links to commercial enterprises and are subject to censorship. At their most penetrating, they raise questions of privacy.布洛顿先生认为,即便是现在,虽然绘图者有卫星影像这样的工具可用,准确的、可被普遍接受的地图依然难觅。“世界的概念对所有的社会来说是可能是共同的,但不同的社会中的世界概念及其表现形式千差万别”。作者认为,谷歌地球以及其他的数字制图程序与其前身一样,在国家利益和文化传统面前都显得脆弱不堪。这些地图与商业有着千丝万缕的联系,并且要遵守各种各样的审查制度。最严重的还会牵扯到隐私问题。Though he sets out to examine a mere 12 maps, Mr Brotton cannot help but give dozens more at least a passing mention. Ironically, this can be disorienting. Still, there is much to gain from this rich if overly detailed book. As the products of both art and science, maps are often fascinating interpretations of the perceived world. They are about data and spatial awareness, but also about money, empire and discovery. They tend to reveal more about the mapmakers than the lands they chronicle. Mr Brotton may fall short of providing the promised “history of the world”, but he offers plenty of good reasons to see old maps as windows to lost times.尽管最初着手研究的地图只有区区12幅,但布洛顿先生在书中提及的地图却有很多,令人啼笑皆非地是,这可能让读者有些找不到方向。但不管怎样,只要你仔细阅读定会受益良多。地图既是艺术品,又是科学产品,常常是对这个被感知世界的美妙诠释。这些地图呈现给读者的是数据和空间感,但它也涉及到金钱、帝国和发现,向人们提供更多的是地图背后那些地图制作者的故事。布洛顿先生可能没有提供给读者所谓的“世界历史”,但是,他提供了大量理由来解释,为什么可将看老地图作为了解已逝时代的窗口。 /201209/198385The force of will make all mistakes necessary to get the right answer.这种意志力量把所有的必要错误变为正确。He was never at the moment of Oh, no, Im not gonna have failure That because of his ego,他从来没有“噢,不,我不会失败的”的这种时刻,因为他的自尊,I dont think it ever occurred to him.我不认为这曾经发生在他身上。Hes not gonna have the failure.他不会有失败。What it matters is that you keep your eyes on the prize.最重要的是你要争取这个奖项。For Einstein that prize is the Nobel.对爱因斯坦来说就贝尔奖。Proceeds he has promised to Mileva and his two sons.他已经答应把所得给米列娃和他的两个儿子。In 1915, hes asked to present his General Theory of Relativity at a prestige forum to the most important German scientists.在1915年,他被要求在最重要的德国科学家的一个权威论坛递交他的广义相对论。Einstein accepts but 8 years of work, his theory still has two major problems.爱因斯坦接受,但8年的工作后,他的理论仍有两个主要问题。Its completely unproven, and the math appears of be flawed.完全有存疑,而且数学方面出现瑕疵。After nearly a decade of work,经过近十年的工作后,Einsteins General Theory of Relativity is still far from finish,爱因斯坦的广义相对论还远未完成,his math is wrong, and without the correct calculation, his theory cant be proven.他的数学也是不对,没有正确的计算,其理论就无法被明。And now he scheduled to deliver a paper to the most prestige scientific gathering in Germany.而现在他计划在最权威科学家门聚集在德国的这一时刻发表这个理论。Prussian Academy, its a very formal place.普鲁士学院,这是一个非常正式的场合。Its a place that knows how distinguish it is, how historically significant its.这是一个能够区分优劣,历史底蕴十足的地方。its reasoning means considered as an attempt by you know,如你所知,其推理方式视为一种试探,some of Germanys leading thinkers to act as if the world were not one it was.一些德国主要的思想家扮演着整个世界都没有这样的如此出色的角色。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/180506淮安做保宫可视人流术的医院

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淮安梅毒怎么治疗 Science and Technology,Eradicating polio,Late? Or never?科技,根除脊髓灰质炎,为时已晚?或絕無可能?A plan to wipe out polio by the end of next year is in trouble明年底消灭脊髓灰质炎的计划倍受挑战HUBRIS is always dangerous. In 1977 smallpox was eradicated and—an accidental infection in a British laboratory a year later aside—that claim has stood the test of time.骄傲自满通常是危险的行为。1977年,人类宣称消灭了天花(若将一年后英国实验室发生的一次偶然天花感染排除在外的话),这份声明经历了时间的考验。Having eliminated one viral disease, the authorities decided they ought to be able to get rid of another: polio.在消灭了一种病毒疾病后,权威专家们认为他们有能力再消灭另一种病毒:脊髓灰质炎病毒。That, though, proved a tougher opponent.但实践明,脊髓灰质炎是个难以应付的对手。The World Health Organisations original target, set in 1988—a polio-free world by 2000—proved illusory.世界卫生组织于1988年定下的原始目标——到2000年实现全世界无脊髓灰质炎——被明是天方夜谭。The latest deadline set by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the multinational body charged with dealing with the disease, is next year.全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动小组(GPEI)是负责消灭该疾病的跨国机构,它将消灭脊髓灰质炎的最后期限定为明年。On July 20th, though, Sir Liam Donaldson, once Englands chief medical officer and now the chairman of an independent watchdog committee that scrutinises the GPEIs activities, published a report which says this deadline, too, is at risk.但7月20日,利亚姆·唐纳森发布的一份报告指出这个最后期限也正面临风险。利亚姆·唐纳森是英国前首席医疗官,现任负责审查;全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动;活动的独立监督委员会主席。In truth, the GPEI has not done badly.事实上,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动一直成绩卓著。The number of cases of polio is a mere 1% of what it was in 1988.目前,脊髓灰质炎的病例数量仅为1988年的1%。But that number has hardly budged for several years.而且在数年间,该数字几乎都未发生变化。Squeezing the last few cases out of existence has proved far harder than expected.要想根除最后的少量残存病例明比预期更难。Polio poses a particular challenge to countries with unstable politics and weak health systems.在政治动荡和卫生系统薄弱的国家,消除脊髓灰质炎将面临很严峻的挑战。To contain outbreaks, surveillance must be vigilant: the virus usually lurks silently, paralysing just one carrier in 200.为控制疾病爆发,必须在疫情监测上提高警惕:此种病毒通常悄无声息地潜伏于人体内,每200名病毒携带者中仅有1名会遭受此病毒侵袭。Moreover, the vaccine is delicate and must be kept cool.此外,由于病毒疫苗的敏感特性使其必须在低温下保存。And immunisation requires repeated vaccinations.并且要想实现免疫还需要反复接种。Today polio is endemic in only four countries: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. It has, however, re-emerged in several others (see chart).目前脊髓灰质炎仅在四个国家流行:阿富汗、印度、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。但此病在其它几个国家也曾死灰复燃(见图表)。Each endemic country has its own particular problems.每个疾病流行的国家都有自己特殊的问题。In Afghanistan the GPEI has failed to stop transmission in 13 war-ridden southern districts.在战火纷飞的13个阿富汗南部地区,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动没能够阻止疫情的传播。Most of India is free of the disease, but the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar continue to struggle.印度大部分地区都未出现该病疫情,但北方邦州和比哈尔邦州仍在与该疾病抗争。In 2003 and 2004 Nigeria was gripped by rumours that polio vaccine would sterilise children and infect them with HIV.2003年和2004年,尼日利亚坊间盛传脊髓灰质炎疫苗会使儿童绝育并让他们感染艾滋病毒。And although in Pakistan the incidence of polio dropped tenfold between 1995 and 2000, conflict, poor sanitation and a mobile population helped the number of cases jump by 62% last year.尽管巴基斯坦的脊髓灰质炎发病率在1995年到2000年间降低了10倍,但战争冲突、恶劣的卫生条件和人口的流动使病例数量在去年激增了62% 。In 2010 the GPEI adopted a new strategy, with the goal of stopping transmission by the end of 2012.2010年,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动通过了一项新策略,其目标是到2012年底阻止脊髓灰质炎的传播。If no cases are seen for three years after that, the disease will be certified as eradicated.如果接下来的三年内无病例发生,那就明该疾病被彻底根除了。One priority of this new strategy is to work carefully with local leaders, to win support for immunisation.这项新策略的首要任务是寻求与疫情当地领导人的紧密合作,赢得他们对免疫行动的持。In Asia, where polio cases are concentrated in just a few places, the GPEI has tailored plans for each of them.在亚洲,脊髓灰质炎仅集中在少数几个地区,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动已经为它们量身定制了几套方案。For example, better co-ordination between Afghanistan and Pakistan would help manage cross-border transmission.例如,阿富汗与巴基斯坦的通力合作有助于控制疫情的跨境传播。In Africa, where the virus now roams across a broad swathe of countries, the GPEI would scale up activity in places such as Angola, Chad, Guinea and Mali where polio has reappeared in recent years.在非洲,病毒目前在众多国家肆虐。近年来,脊髓灰质炎在安哥拉、乍得、几内亚与马里等国家死灰复燃,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动将扩大对它们的救治规模。The response to new outbreaks would be swifter and stronger; the administration of vaccines, broader. A new, more effective oral vaccine will help.对新疫情爆发的反应将更加快速而有效,并且疫苗的投放范围将更为广泛。一种新型更为有效的口疫苗也将对疫情防治有所帮助。One final push最后一搏Sir Liams committee was itself a product of this new strategy, and now it is fulfilling its remit by pointing out where other components are going wrong.利亚姆负责的委员会本身就是这项新策略的产物,他们要履行的职责是指出根除脊髓灰质炎行动计划中的错漏之处。Though India has made gains, elections interrupted progress in Nigeria.尽管印度在脊髓灰质炎防治方面取得成效,但尼日利亚的大选阻断了该病所取得的进展。Pakistans emergency action plan seems to have had little effect—the country has recorded 54 cases this year, double the number in the first half of 2010.巴基斯坦的紧急行动计划似乎也成效甚微——该国今年已经发生了54宗病例,比2010年上半年增加一倍。Countries with resurgent polio are struggling as well.脊髓灰质炎复发的国家也面临同样的困境。Chad, for example, has been slow to implement a strong plan of action.例如乍得迟迟未付诸实施强有力的行动计划。The original strategy for the Democratic Republic of the Congo was to concentrate vaccination in three provinces.刚果民主共和国原先的策略是将免疫计划集中在三个省。However, transmission is now more widesp, so a broader campaign might prove necessary.然而现在疾病传播反而更加广泛了,因此可能需要在更大范围内与该疾病抗争。More than billion has been spent to date, with more than billion of that coming from the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation.迄今为止,各国已经投入了80多亿美元对抗脊髓灰质炎,其中有十几亿美元资金来自于比尔·盖茨和梅林达·盖茨基金会。Mr and Mrs Gates hope their investment will pay a big dividend.盖茨夫妇希望他们的投资会带来很大成效。A recent paper estimated that eliminating polio would bring a net benefit of between billion and billion over the period from 1988 to 2035.一份最近的报告估计从1988年到2035年间消除脊髓灰质炎将带来400亿到500亿美元的净收益。But that assumed eradication by 2012.但其前提是到2012年要将脊髓灰质炎彻底根除。Donald Henderson, the doctor who led the campaign to rid the world of smallpox, predicts that even if polio is deemed eradicated, vaccination will have to continue, just in case.唐纳德·亨德森医生曾领导消灭全世界天花的斗争,他预测即使有天脊髓灰质炎被消灭了,免疫工作仍要继续以确保万无一失。That will drive up costs.但这将推高行动计划的成本。For now the GPEI is resolute. But the eradication campaign cannot last for ever.目前全球根除脊髓灰质炎的行动是坚决的,但病毒消灭战役不可能永无休止地进行下去。 /201211/210443金湖县妇保院男科预约淮安中山医院治疗子宫肌瘤多少钱

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