昆山哪家医院做流产好一点最新频道

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 昆山哪家医院做流产好一点中医优惠
This will be a day when you may find yourself split in two, dear. It won#39;t be easy to reconcile the demands of your group on the one hand and the recent resolutions that you have made to yourself on the other. You no longer want to be caught up in a spiral of never-ending responsibilities, which is just what is occurring today. Be patient and wait until tomorrow when things will be a lot easier...亲爱的,今天你可能发现自己分裂成了两半。一方面,你需要照顾团体的需求;另一方面需要负责最近做出的决定,调和这两件事并非轻易之举。你再也不想要承担像螺旋一样永无止境的责任,而这也是今天将会发生的。耐心点等待着,明天一切会容易许多。Your well being horoscope幸福运势You may find yourself feeling a little under the weather today. You may even be developing sniffles or a sore throat. If this is the case, consider taking time to visit the doctor. This can be an especially unwelcome development, as it keeps you from certain activities. If you act quickly, you may find that your ailment doesn#39;t worsen. Take the time you need to feel healthy again before returning to your routine.今天你可能感觉自己身体不舒。甚至会流鼻涕或喉咙痛。如果是这样的话,可以考虑去看医生。由于生病让你不能参加某些活动,因此你可能尤为不快。如果快速采取行动,你可能会发现这一小病并没有更加严重。在重新投入到日常生活之前,可以花些时间让自己恢复健康。Your finance horoscope财务运势There are lots of issues to be resolved today, both personal and financial. You may get a phone call from your bank manager, or see some alarming numbers on your ATM receipt. Don#39;t get upset. Ultimately these matters will be resolved. As for personal matters, you may learn some new information about someone that you thought you knew well. A relationship you once thought of as close may not really be.今天你需要解决很多问题,既有个人问题也有财务问题。经理可能会给你打电话,又或是取款机凭条上的数字让你感到忧心忡忡。别沮丧。最终这些问题都会得到解决。至于个人问题,你可能对自以为熟知的人有些新看法。你曾以为亲密的关系可能并非那么亲密。Your love horoscope爱情运势Today you could be in the mood for romance. You might not want to focus much on serious matters. Instead, you#39;ll be caught up in daydreams, writing flirty emails and sending them to your sweetheart. Or you could send them links to websites that are of particular interest to the two of you. You#39;ll be lost in your own little romantic world.今天你可能想要邂逅浪漫。也许你不想将注意力放在严肃的事情上。相反,你可能会做白日梦,写一些轻佻的信给亲爱的。或许你会给亲爱的发送你们俩都感兴趣的网站链接。你会在自己的浪漫世界中迷失的。Your career horoscope事业运势You are in a good position to make major breakthroughs in your life. Your incredible sensitivity is working to your advantage and giving you insight into things that other people have absolutely no clue about. The good news is that with this sensitivity comes an extra grounding force that is helping you to be more practical in your decisions and rational in regard to your actions. This wonderful combination of forces is helping you attain the success and good fortune you deserve.现在,你可以让自己的生活取得重大突破。你极强的敏感度会带给你优势,让你洞察到其他人完全摸不着头脑的事。好消息是这种敏感度会让你额外有力,让你在做决定时更加实际,在行动时更加理智。这种力量的完美结合能有助于你获得应有的成功和财富。译文属 /201608/460682Today, Eva Hagberg Fisher is a PhD student, architecture critic and writer based in Berkeley. She just sold her second book, a memoir about friendship. And for the last eight years, Hagberg Fisher has lived with continual uncertainty over how long she might live.伊娃#8226;哈格伯格#8226;费舍尔(Eva Hagberg Fisher)生活在加州伯克利,在一名在读士生,同时也是建筑家和作家。她刚刚出版了第二本书,一本关于友谊的回忆录。在过去的八年里,费舍尔一直在忐忑不安中度日,她始终不知道自己还会活多久。In 2008, Hagberg Fisher was living in New York City, and slowly started to feel a little weird. She was dizzy a lot of the time, and thirsty almost always. One day in January she woke up and walked into her kitchen, where she felt “like the floor was rising up to meet me, or like I was heading down to meet the floor”, she wrote in an e-book about her medical struggles. “Like there was a rolling wave that began on the floor and then rose up through my body, bringing with it the acidic taste of boiled metal, the treble sound of high violin strings.” A doctor at NYU sent her for an MRI. Perhaps it was a small tumour, wrapping around her ear, throwing off her balance. She went to rehab, undergoing vestibular therapy twice a week. It didn’t do much. 2008年时,哈格伯格#8226;费舍尔生活在纽约,她慢慢的开始感觉到身体的不适。在这段时间中,她常常感到头晕,口渴。一月的一天,她睡醒后起床走向厨房,她感觉“地板好像在上升,越来越高,要么就是我倒下来摔在地板上,”她在之后出版的一本有关求医经历的电子书中这样描述当天的情形。“那种感觉就像地板上掀起了层层热浪,席卷我的身体,空气中有一种沸腾的金属的酸味,小提琴琴弦发出的高音。”纽约大学的医生让她去做了核磁共振检查。医生认为或许是因为长在她耳朵后面的一个小肿瘤,使她失去了平衡。她之后进入康复中心,每周两次进行内耳治疗,但效果有限。She thought perhaps it was the stress of living in such an exhausting city, so in 2009 she moved to Portland to relax. “I basically rode my bike and ate a lot of Oreos and kind of had this palette-cleansing year,” she told me. While in Portland, she applied for graduate school and in 2010 moved to Berkeley to start a PhD program in architectural history. 也许是因为生活在纽约这样令人疲惫的城市才会出现这样的问题,哈格伯格#8226;费舍尔在2009年搬到了波特兰(Portland)以减少生活压力。“我基本上每天都骑自行车,吃了很多奥利奥饼干,一年都过着这样清心寡欲的生活,”她告诉我说。在波特兰期间,她申请研究生学位并在2010年搬到伯克利继续建筑史士课程。But early into her PhD and her time in Berkeley, she noticed more unusual symptoms. The dizziness was back. She was anxious all the time. She found herself consumed with obsessive thoughts. A doctor in San Francisco prescribed her an anti-anxiety medication. Anxiety was common among graduate students, they said, it was likely responsible for her dizziness too. The medication numbed her but it didn’t really stop the problems. “It made my symptoms kind of easier to accept, but it didn’t make them go away.” Slowly, everything started getting harder and harder to do. She woke up sweating, and struggled to focus on anything. She had sudden mood swings and tantrums, throwing glasses around her kitchen and forgetting her students’ names. “Things just stopped making sense physically and they also stopped making sense mentally,” she says.但是就在她开始在伯克利攻读士学位不久,她就注意到自己又开始出现一些不寻常的症状,她又开始头晕了,心里总是很焦虑,并且开始胡思乱想。旧金山市的一位医生给她开了一种抗焦虑药物。他们说,焦虑症状在研究生中很常见,很有可能导致了她的晕眩。药物暂时麻醉了她的神经,但是并没有中止症状。“药物使我更容易接受自己出现的症状,但是并没有解决问题”。慢慢地,一切都开始变得越来越难了。她出现了盗汗,并且很难集中注意力的症状。她经常发脾气,在厨房摔玻璃,忘了学生的名字。她说:“所有的事情都没有了意义,内心也很难理解任何事情。”And then she fainted. In the hallway of her yoga studio, mid-conversation, she blacked out and fell to the floor. At the student health services centre, a doctor gave her an EKG, and diagnosed her with something called Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, a heart condition in which the electrical signaling in the heart malfunctions. One of the risks of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the doctors told her, is “sudden death”. The next day Hagberg Fisher woke up and couldn’t walk. “Nothing made sense, I was really confused.”然后她晕倒了。在瑜伽工作室的走廊里,正说着话就昏了过去,倒在地板上。在学生健康务中心,医生给她做了心电图,并诊断她患有一种叫做沃尔夫-帕金森-怀特氏症候群(Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, WPW症候群,预激综合征)的疾病,这是一种心脏传导的异常现象。医生告诉他,这个症状的其中一个风险就是“猝死”。第二天清晨,哈格伯格#8226;费舍尔醒来后发现自己无法行动。“任何事情都难以说通,我真的很困惑。”At the emergency room, where the doctors were convinced she was simply dehydrated, a nurse lobbied to have her admitted. She spent the next six days in the hospital, while doctors struggled to figure out what was causing her array of symptoms. They ruled out diabetes, syphilis, AIDS, liver cancer, and Lyme disease. They un-diagnosed her with Wolff-Parkinson-White. One resident thought it was depression. Another thought it might be an aggressive tumour. Oddly, the idea of a tumour that would kill her quickly was almost a relief. “I had been thinking that I just need to try harder and breathe better and get better at doing yoga and all of a sudden they’re talking about a carcinoid tumour, words that I had never heard before, and my first thought was validation, because I had been trying to get better on my own and I couldn’t.” 而急救室医生都认为她只是单纯脱水,经护士劝说后允许她住院治疗。她在医院住了六天,医生们试图弄清楚她的病因,他们排除了糖尿病、梅毒、艾滋病、肝癌、和莱姆病。他们也不认为是沃尔夫-帕金森-怀特氏症候群。一位住院医师认为这是抑郁症。另一位认为可能是来势凶猛的肿瘤。奇怪的是,因患肿瘤而死这样的想法对她来说几乎是一种解脱。“我一直在想,我只是需要更努力的生活,呼吸,更好的做瑜伽,突然间他们已经在讨论一种肿瘤,我从未听说过这样的说法,我马上想到的是验了我的想法,因为我一直尝试自我努力改善身体状况,但是始终无法做到。”Eventually she convinced the doctors to do an MRI to look at her brain. A few hours later, they came back with the first solid result she would get: a lesion in her brain that had hemorrhaged behind her pituitary gland. But this was only the beginning of years of medical confusion, diagnoses and un-diagnoses, and a continuous life on the brink of death. 最终她说医生给她的大脑做一次核磁共振。几个小时后,医生们首次带回来了一个目前能够确定的结果:她的脑下垂体位置的某个病灶部位在出血。但这个结果仅仅是一系列混乱的医学诊断,确诊,推翻诊断等的开始,哈格伯格#8226;费舍尔开始了一段在死亡边缘的生活。Over the course of the next five years, Hagberg Fisher’s medical story started looking like an episode of the drama House. Doctors thought she had ovarian cancer, a brain tumour, overian cancer again, chronic fatigue syndrome, mould illness and more. Some of those suspicions turned into diagnoses, and some of those diagnoses were then reversed. She had surgery for something suspicious in her ovaries, but it turned out to be nothing. She was moments from death in an ambulance driving across the Golden Gate Bridge when her sodium levels dipped two points away from brain stem death. “I remember looking out the back windows and crossing over the bridge and thinking ‘this is going to be the last thing I’m ever going to see,’ and I was calm. That calm that people talk about, I felt it. At the time I thought I was really calm because I was tough, but now I know it was that my brain was shutting down.” She was re-diagnosed with Wolff-Parkinson-White and had heart surgery to treat it.在接下来的五年里,哈格伯格#8226;费舍尔求诊经历就像是美剧《豪斯医生》中的剧情一样具有戏剧性。医生认为她患卵巢癌,脑肿瘤,然后又是卵巢癌,慢性疲劳综合征,霉菌病等等。其中一些疑似症状之后被确诊,一些被确诊的又被推翻。她因卵巢里长了可疑物质动了手术,但结果又什么都没发现。当她的钠水平接近脑干死亡水平的时候,她差点死在救护车里。“我记得当救护车驶过金门大桥时,我抬头从后窗看往大桥,我心想,这将是我所能看到的最后的风景,”我很平静。那种人们常常讨论的内心宁静,我感受到了。当时我觉得我很平静,因为我内心坚强,但现在我知道是我的大脑停止运转了。”她被重新诊断出患有沃尔夫-帕金森-怀特氏症候群,并接受心脏手术进行治疗。之后她搬到亚利桑那州居住,躲避她所认为的过敏症状。但并未奏效。 /201606/451541

Millions of us could be putting our lives at risk by not applying sunscreen properly, experts have warned.专家警告说很多人都会由于防晒霜用得不对从而对身体造成损害。An online poll from the British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) revealed eight out of 10 Brits don#39;t apply sunscreen before going out in the sun. What#39;s more, 70% of us aren#39;t reapplying the protection every two hours.一项英国皮肤科医学会进行的网上民意测验显示,每10个英国人中就有8个人外出之前不涂防晒霜。而且有70%的人并不会每隔两个小时补一次防晒霜。“Applying liberally half an hour before going out into the sun, and then again shortly after going outside, is vital to ensure that you are fully covered and that the sunscreen has had time to be absorbed into the skin,; said BAD#39;s Johnathon Major.英国皮肤科医学会的约翰森·梅杰说:“外出晒太阳前半小时要涂好防晒霜,刚出去一小会就要再涂一次,这才能确保你完全被覆盖了,而且能给皮肤足够的时间吸收防晒霜。”;It should then be reapplied at least every two hours, as the protective filters can break down over time.;“至少每隔两小时要补一次防晒,因为保护物质会慢慢分解。”;It should also be reapplied after any activity where it might be accidentally removed, such as swimming. Water-resistant sunscreens are not friction-resistant, and therefore they can be accidentally removed if you towel dry after swimming or sweating.;“脸上的防晒霜要是偶然被弄掉了(比如游泳过后),你也应该补一次。防水的防晒霜不耐磨,所以如果你游泳或出汗后用毛巾擦脸的话,防晒霜可能会被擦掉。”The online poll questioned 215 people. Other potentially bad habits also came to light as 35 per cent of people surveyed would only seek shade if they were hot, rather than to avoid burning.这项网上调查询问了215个人。其他潜在的坏习惯也暴露出来了,有35%的被调查者只有在太热时才会找阴凉,而不会为了避免晒伤而寻找阴凉处。Although getting a tan looks great, prolonged exposure can increase the risk of developing melanoma - the deadliest form of skin cancer.虽然皮肤黝黑也不错,但长期暴露在阳光下会增加黑色素瘤出现的风险,这是最严重的皮肤癌。Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the UK and rates have been climbing since the 1960s.皮肤癌在英国是最常见的癌症,从20世纪60年代起这个数字一直在攀升。Every year over 250,000 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer – the most common type – are diagnosed, in addition to over 13,000 new cases of melanoma, resulting in around 2,148 deaths annually.每年有超过25万例新的非黑色素瘤皮肤癌(最常见的癌症)患者被确诊,此外还有超过1万3千例新的黑色素瘤患者,每年造成约2148人死亡。;While we have succeeded in making people aware of the link between sunburn and skin cancer, we have more work to do in teaching people how to use sunscreen properly,; said Mr. Major.梅杰先生说:“虽然我们已经成功使人们意识到了晒伤和皮肤癌之间的联系,但我们仍要付出更多努力教会人们如何正确使用防晒霜。” /201608/460366

A new study found that many people who befriend their former lovers are narcissists and psychopaths.一项新的研究发现:很多喜欢和前任成为朋友的人都是自恋狂和变态。A new study has sought to uncover why people with ;dark personality traits; (such as narcissism, duplicity, even psychopathy) maintain relationships after their expiration. For many people, staying friends with an ex is unthinkable. Even Psychology Today has urged the public not to befriend extinguished flames because: ;they are less emotionally supportive, less helpful, less trusting, and less concerned about the other person#39;s happiness.;一项新的研究发现了那些拥有黑暗个性特点(比如自恋,表里不一甚至是变态)的人会在分手后仍然保持恋人关系。对于很多人来说,和前任保持朋友关系是件不可思议的事情。即便是如今的心理学也敦促大众不要和旧情保持朋友关系,因为“这样的关系不太有情感做撑,对人无益,不值得信任而且和另外一个人的幸福也没有关系。”In ;Staying friends with an ex: Sex and dark personality traits predict motivations for post-relationship friendship,; Oakland University researchers Justin Mogilski and Lisa Welling asked 860 subjects to list the motivations for their involvement with their exes. According to the Daily Mail, the researchers also surveyed the subjects to determine who had dark personality traits. ;Previous studies have shown that people who score highly for these traits are more likely to pick friends for strategic reasons, and prefer short-term relationships,; the Daily Mail reported. The researchers wanted to know if this were true for former lovers, too.在“和前任保持朋友关系:性和黑暗的人性特点预示着后一段关系的动机,”奥克兰大学的研究员贾斯汀和丽莎采访了860个主体,以列出和前任保持关系的动机。根据《每日邮报》称,研究员们也调查了这些主体,从而决定谁有黑暗的人格特点。每日邮报也报道了:“之前的研究表明了:那些在黑暗人格特点方面得分高的人更有可能有目的的去选择朋友,而且也喜欢短期的关系。”研究员们想得知在前任问题方面是不是也是如此。Dark personality types are most interested in how relationships can be useful to them and that such people may stay connected to [to exes in order to] have access to valuable resources. They also have inside information about their exes vulnerabilities and weaknesses that they can exploit and manipulate which gives them a sense of power and control.黑暗人格类型的人更加感兴趣的是一段关系对他们是否有好处,而且此类人与前任保持联系是为了接近有用的资源。他们对于前任的弱点和缺点都了如指掌因此他们可以开发和利用这些而带给自己一种权力和控制的感觉。 /201605/444407

I first encountered these intriguing attitudes to sleep during my first stay in Japan in the late 1980s. At that time Japan was at the peak of what became known as the Bubble Economy, a phase of extraordinary speculative boom. Daily life was correspondingly hectic. People filled their schedules with work and leisure appointments, and had hardly any time to sleep. The lifestyle of this era is aptly summed up by a wildly popular advertising slogan of the time, extolling the benefits of an energy drink. “Can you battle through 24 hours? / Businessman! Businessman! Japanese businessman!”我第一次见识到日本人对于睡眠的这种有趣态度是在上世纪80年代末首次去日本时。当时,日本正处于泡沫经济的巅峰时期,整个社会的投机氛围泛滥,日常生活也处于高度忙碌状态。人们整天忙于工作和休闲约会,几乎连睡觉的时间都挤不出来。当时最为流行的一条能量饮料广告语恰如其分地反映了这段时期人们的生活方式:“谁能24小时战斗不停?商人!商人!日本商人!”Many voiced the complaint: “We Japanese are crazy to work so much!” But in these complaints one detected a sense of pride at being more diligent and therefore morally superior to the rest of humanity. Yet, at the same time, I observed countless people dozing on underground trains during my daily commute. Some even slept while standing up, and no one appeared to be at all surprised by this.许多人抱怨说:“我们日本人工作太辛苦,简直太疯狂!”但是在这种抱怨声中也不乏一丝自豪:勤勉苦干的日本人由此拥有了对其他民族的某种道德优越感。然而,与此同时,我每天在地铁车厢里都会发现有无数的日本人在打盹,有些人甚至站着就呼呼大睡,没人会对此大惊小怪。I found this attitude contradictory. The positive image of the worker bee, who cuts back on sleep at night and frowns on sleeping late in the morning, seemed to be accompanied by an extensive tolerance of so-called ‘inemuri’ – napping on public transportation and during work meetings, classes and lectures. Women, men and children apparently had little inhibition about falling asleep when and wherever they felt like doing so.我发现这种态度自相矛盾。这些晚上很晚才睡,却在早晨因为缺乏睡眠而哈欠连天的“工蜂”在日本属于正面形象,而社会对于“小憩”(inemuri,日本汉字为“居眠”)——指在公共交通工具上、在工作会议、课堂和讲座期间打盹的行为却普遍持宽容态度。无论是妇女、男人还是儿童,都能很自然地随时随地酣然入睡。If sleeping in a bed or a futon was considered a sign of laziness, then why wasn’t sleeping during an event or even at work considered an even greater expression of indolence? What sense did it make to allow children to stay up late at night to study if it meant that they would fall asleep during class the next day? These impressions and apparent contradictions led to my more intensive involvement with the theme of sleep for my PhD project several years later.如果人们认为在床上或榻榻米上睡觉属于懒惰行为的话,那么为什么不认为在会议上甚至工作时打瞌睡是更严重的懒散行为?为什么要让儿童学习到深夜,却在第二天的课堂上补觉?带着对这种矛盾意识的疑惑,在几年后攻读士学位时,我选择了睡眠的文化含义作为课题做了深入研究。Initially, I had to fight against prejudice as people were reluctant to consider sleep a serious topic for academic enquiry. Of course, it was precisely such attitudes that had originally caught my attention. Sleep can be loaded with a variety of meanings and ideologies; analysing sleep arrangements and the discourse on it reveals attitudes and values embedded in the contexts in which sleep is organised and discussed. In my experience, it is the everyday and seemingly natural events upon which people generally do not reflect that reveal essential structures and values of a society.研究刚开始的时候,人们认为睡眠本身不是一个严肃的学术研究课题,对此我做了很大努力才打消他们的这种偏见。当然,当初吸引我的正是这种消极态度。睡眠本身承载着多种含义和意识形态要素,对睡眠和与之有关的话语进行分析可以揭示出深植在睡眠组织和讨论语境下的价值观。我发现,大多数人不认为睡眠这种日常而自然的现象会反映出一个社会的核心结构和价值观。We often assume that our ancestors went to bed ‘naturally’ when darkness fell and rose with the Sun. However, sleep times have never been such a simple matter, whether in Japan or elsewhere. Even before the invention of electric light, the documentary evidence shows that people were scolded for staying up late at night for chatting, drinking and other forms of pleasure. However, scholars – particularly young samurai – were considered highly virtuous if they interrupted their sleep to study, even though this practice may not have been very efficient as it required oil for their lamps and often resulted in them falling asleep during lectures.我们往往认为人类的祖先遵循日出而作、日落而息的规律生活。但实际上,不管在日本还是在其他地区,人们的睡眠习惯从来就没有如此简单过。即便在电灯发明前,当时的文献记录就曾记载了很多人因为深夜沉湎于聊天、喝酒和其他享乐,迟迟不睡而遭到责备的故事。但人们普遍认为有文化的人——尤其是年轻的武士——挑灯夜读是一种好的品德,即使这种学习习惯可能效率并不高,因为这不仅会耗费更多的油来点燃油灯,而且还会在第二天上课时打盹。Napping is hardly ever discussed in historical sources and seems to have been widely taken for granted. Falling asleep in public tends to be only mentioned when the nap is the source for a funny anecdote, such as when someone joins in with the wrong song at a ceremony, unaware that they have slept through most of it. People also seem to have enjoyed playing tricks on friends who had involuntarily dozed off. 历史文献里几乎从未提起过打瞌睡,好像当时的人们对此都习以为常。唯一的例外是在公共场所打瞌睡引起某些趣闻轶事的情形,比如,某人在一场典礼上加入合唱时唱错了歌曲,因为他们在典礼的大部分时间内都在睡觉。另外,人们还喜欢拿不知不觉打瞌睡的朋友开玩笑。Early rising, on the other hand, has clearly been promoted as a virtue, at least since the introduction of Confucianism and Buddhism. In antiquity, sources show a special concern for the work schedule of civil servants, but from the Middle Ages onwards, early rising was applied to all strata of society, with “going to bed late and rising early” used as a metaphor to describe a virtuous person.另一方面,清晨早起被誉为是一种美德,至少从儒家和佛家被引入日本后是如此。古代文献中有人们对于公务员工作时间表感到担忧的记载,但从中世纪以来,早起就已经成为社会各阶层的共同喜好,“晚睡早起”成为有文化品德的人的象征。Another interesting issue is co-sleeping. In Britain, parents are often told they should provide even babies with a separate room so that they can learn to be independent sleepers, thus establishing a regular sleep schedule. In Japan, by contrast, parents and doctors are adamant that co-sleeping with children until they are at least at school age will reassure them and help them develop into independent and socially stable adults.另一个有趣的问题是父母是否与子女共寝。英国的习惯是,父母让儿童在单独卧室里独睡,即便在婴儿时期也是如此。这样做的目的是让儿童学会独立入睡,并建立起有规律的入睡习惯。然而,日本父母和医生却坚决主张父母与子女共寝直到学龄。他们的理由是:这样做不仅会消除儿童的紧张情绪,还有助于塑造独立和适应社会的成人人格。Maybe this cultural norm helps Japanese people to sleep in the presence of others, even when they are adults – many Japanese say they often sleep better in company than alone. Such an effect could be observed in spring 2011 after the huge tsunami disaster destroyed several coastal towns. Survivors had to stay in evacuation shelters, where dozens or even hundreds of people shared the same living and sleeping space. Notwithstanding various conflicts and problems, survivors described how sharing a communal sleeping space provided some comfort and helped them to relax and regain their sleep rhythm.可能正是这种文化习惯才让日本成年人在他人面前毫无心理负担地酣然入睡。许多日本人说,他们在有人陪伴时睡眠质量比独处时更好。2011年春天,威力巨大的海啸袭击了日本几座沿海城市。灾难发生后,幸存者们挤住在避难所里,数十甚至数百人共处同一片屋檐下。虽然人和人之间也发生了某些冲突和问题,但幸存者们却说,和这么多人一起睡觉让他们更为放松,更易入眠,并且重新找回了健康的睡眠节律。However, this experience of sleeping in the presence of others as children is not sufficient on its own to explain the widesp tolerance of inemuri, especially at school and in the workplace. After some years of investigating this subject, I finally realised that on a certain level, inemuri is not considered sleep at all. Not only is it seen as being different from night-time sleep in bed, it is also viewed differently from taking an afternoon nap or power nap.然而,婴儿时期与他人共寝的经验无法解释日本人对于小憩,尤其是对学校和工作场所小憩的的广泛宽容态度。经过为期数年的调查,我终于意识到:在某种程度上,日本人根本不把小憩和睡眠同等对待。在日本人心目中,小憩不仅和夜间床上睡眠毫不相干,与睡午觉也有所区别。How can we make sense of this? The clue lies in the term itself, which is composed of two Chinese characters. ‘I’ which means ‘to be present’ in a situation that is not sleep and ‘nemuri’ which means ‘sleep’. Erving Goffman’s concept of “involvement within social situations” is useful I think in helping us grasp the social significance of inemuri and the rules surrounding it. Through our body language and verbal expressions we are involved to some extent in every situation in which we are present. We do, however, have the capacity to divide our attention into dominant and subordinate involvement.原因何在?首先要从它的文字组成来分析。“小憩”的日语汉字写法是由两个汉字组成:“居”和“眠”。“居”指“在场”,“眠”指“睡眠”。我认为,埃文#8226;古夫曼(Erving Goffman)提出的“融入社会环境”概念能够帮助我们了解小憩的社会意义以及与其有关的规则。通过身体语言和口头表达,我们在某种程度上介入到所处的环境之中。然而,我们可以把自己的注意力分割为数个可配的底层介入活动。In this context, inemuri can be seen as a subordinate involvement which can be indulged in as long as it does not disturb the social situation at hand – similar to daydreaming. Even though the sleeper might be mentally ‘away’, they have to be able to return to the social situation at hand when active contribution is required. They also have to maintain the impression of fitting in with the dominant involvement by means of body posture, body language, dress code and the like.在这种情况下,小憩可看做是一种底层介入,在没有打扰所处的社会环境的情况下,不必对此大惊小怪——这点和白日梦很类似。尽管小憩者此时可能已经精神溜号,但在需要主动参与时,他们就会立刻返回到所处的社会环境中来。他们还可以通过身体姿态、身体语言、衣着符号等方式保持符合可配介入活动的印象。Inemuri in the workplace is a case in point. In principle, attentiveness and active participation are expected at work, and falling asleep creates the impression of lethargy and that a person is shirking their duties. However, it is also viewed as the result of work-related exhaustion. It may be excused by the fact that meetings are usually long and often involve simply listening to the chair’s reports. The effort made to attend is often valued more than what is actually achieved. As one informant told me: “We Japanese have the Olympic spirit – participating is what counts.”工作场所中的小憩就是一个很好的例。原则上,工作场所要求员工态度专注、主动参与,在工作场所睡觉则会给人留下性情倦怠、逃避责任的印象。然而,打瞌睡也会是勤奋工作的产物。在要求听众被动聆听主席台上冗长报告的会议上,听众非常容易入睡。来参加会议本身比会议能取得什么成果更加重要。一位消息人士告诉我:“我们日本人都有奥林匹克精神——重在参与。”Diligence, which is expressed by working long hours and giving one’s all, is highly valued as a positive moral trait in Japan. Someone who makes the effort to participate in a meeting despite being exhausted or ill demonstrates diligence, a sense of responsibility and their willingness to make a sacrifice. By overcoming physical weaknesses and needs, a person becomes morally and mentally fortified and is filled with positive energy. Such a person is considered reliable and will be promoted. If, in the end, they succumb to sleep due to exhaustion or a cold or another health problem, they can be excused and an “attack of the sleep demon” can be held responsible. 日本人认为,勤奋是指长时间尽全力工作,这是一种得到高度推崇的美德。在筋疲力尽或者疾病缠身的情况下仍然参加会议的人表现出的是勤奋态度、责任感和自我牺牲精神。通过克身体不适和需求,一个人就能在道德和精神意义上变得更加强大,并且充满正能量。人们会觉得这类人忠诚可靠,应当晋升。如果他们因为过度劳累、患上感冒或其他疾病而酣然入睡,人们会原谅他们,并且打趣地说,这是因为“睡魔”袭来的缘故。Moreover, modesty is also a highly valued virtue. Therefore, it is not possible to boast about one’s own diligence – and this creates the need for subtle methods to achieve social recognition. Since tiredness and illness are often viewed as the result of previous work efforts and diligence, inemuri – or even feigning inemuri by closing one’s eyes – can be employed as a sign that a person has been working hard but still has the strength and moral virtue necessary to keep themselves and their feelings under control.另外,日本社会也高度崇尚谦虚这项美德。因此,没人会四处吹嘘他工作勤奋–此时就需要采取某种巧妙的方法获得社会认可。由于劳累和疾病往往是由于过去的努力工作所致,这时可以小憩一番–甚至闭上眼睛假装小憩–从而表明该人一直在努力工作,虽然他现在正在打瞌睡,但却仍然具有控制自身及情绪的力量和道德。Thus, the Japanese habit of inemuri does not necessarily reveal a tendency towards laziness. Instead, it is an informal feature of Japanese social life intended to ensure the performance of regular duties by offering a way of being temporarily ‘away’ within these duties. And so it is clear: the Japanese don’t sleep. They don’t nap. They do inemuri. It could not be more different.因此,日本人的小憩习惯不能和懒惰划等号。恰恰相反,它是日本社会生活中的一种非正式行动,目的在于通过暂时“离开”职责而确保日常职责得以履行。很明显:日本人不是在睡觉,也不是在打瞌睡,他们正在小憩。这三者之间的区别可大了去了。 /201606/449653We all know that ditching carbs and alcohol can help shift the weight around our middle but did you know there#39;s plenty of other reasons you may be struggling to get a flat stomach that don#39;t have anything to do with the food that passes your lips?我们都知道,减少摄入碳水化合物和酒精可以帮我们甩掉腰部赘肉,但我们不知道的是,为了甩掉小肚腩我们还要和其他很多因素抗争,而这些与我们的饮食毫无关系。Chewing gum吃口香糖Munching on a piece of minty fresh gum makes you swallow too much air, which gets trapped in your digestive system causing pressure, bloating and gas. The same thing can happen if you gulp air when snacking on the run, eating too quickly, talking while eating or drinking from a straw.嚼一片薄荷味口香糖会让你吞下大量空气,这些空气困在你的消化系统里,会产生压力、腹胀和废气。如果你一边小跑一边吃零食、吃得太快、边吃东西边说话,或者用吸管饮水时吞下空气,都会产生类似情况。Rushing your food边跑边吃It is often easy to eat too quickly or on the run especially breakfast and/or lunch if time is short but it can cause bloating. If you eat on the run your body is feeling stressed because you are rushing.人们很容易就吃得过快,或者边跑边吃,特别是在时间紧张的早午饭时,而这会让你腹胀。如果你边跑边吃,身体会紧张,因为你在奔跑。The stress response was designed to enable you to either run or fight for your life, during which time digestion of food was unlikely, the natural flow of energy is diverted away from your digestive system to your extremities to give you the energy to run or fight.压力反应会让你跑起来,或者为生活奔波,而在此期间身体不可能去消化食物,能量的自然流动会从消化系统转移到四肢,让你有能量奔跑或奔波劳碌。Your body literally shuts down your digestive function and food stagnates and ferments, making you feel bloated and often giving you gas.你的身体会让消化系统停工,食物在体内滞留发酵,让你感到腹胀,体内也有更多废气要排出。Stress hormone cortisol压力荷尔蒙皮质醇The main reason some people gather more fat around their middle than others is specifically because of the action of the stress hormone cortisol.一些人比其他人腰部赘肉多的主要原因是压力荷尔蒙皮质醇的作用。And if you eat something sugary or fatty as a consequence of the post-stress appetite surge, any weight you gain as a result, will be around your middle. The reason fat targets the middle is because it is close to the liver where it can most quickly be converted back into energy if needed.如果你因为有压力后食欲增加,而吃了含糖或含脂肪食品,你因此增加的赘肉都会集中在腰部。脂肪容易集中在腰部是因为这里离肝脏近,在需要时可以迅速转化回能量。Lack of sleep缺乏睡眠People who are sleep deprived have an increased appetite. Inadequate sleep lowers levels of leptin, a hormone that suppresses appetite, and increases grehlin, a hormone that increases food intake and is thought to play a role in long-term regulation of body weight. All this suggests that sleep deprivation can make weight loss extremely difficult because it causes your body to work against you!缺乏睡眠的人食欲更大。睡眠不充分会降低人体内瘦素的水平,增加胃生长素。瘦素是一种能够抑制食欲的激素,而胃生长素能增加人体的食物摄入,据称在人体体重的长期调节中发挥着重要作用。这些都表明,缺乏睡眠会让减肥极其困难,因为这会导致你的身体和你对着干!Keep a regular sleep routine, include 30 minutes of exercise in your day, avoid all stimulants in the evening (including chocolate, coffee, tea), avoid bright light around the house before bed, have a relaxing bath and keep your bedroom quiet, dark and cool.保持规律睡眠,白天拿出半小时来锻炼身体,避免在晚上摄入所有的刺激性食物(包括巧克力、咖啡和茶),睡觉前把室内灯光调暗,洗个让人放松的澡,保持卧室安静、光线暗淡、凉爽。Bad gut bacteria讨厌的肠道细菌Our stomach is made up of good and bad bacteria, called gut flora, which has a controlling influence over many important body functions, including metabolism and fat reduction. However, our lifestyle habits can often damage our gut bacteria. These factors include taking antibiotics, a diet high in sugar, stress and alcohol. Try to eliminate these to help with fat reduction.我们腹内的细菌有好有坏,称为肠道菌群,并对我们的很多重要身体机能有配性影响作用,包括新陈代谢和减肥。而我们的生活习惯经常会破坏肠道菌群。影响因素包括吃抗生素、高糖饮食、压力和饮酒。试着剔除这些因素能有助于减肥。Water retention from periods经期水潴留Water retention is a problem for many women and it is often worse just before a period. Don’t be tempted to limit your intake of fluids, which can actually cause bloating. Your body will think it needs to conserve water, which exacerbates the problem. Water is a natural diuretic and it should be drunk as frequently as possible.水潴留对很多女性来说都是个问题,尤其是在经期前。不要有限制水分摄入的念头,这其实会让你腹胀。你的身体会认为需要保水,这更会加剧这一问题。水是自然的利尿剂,越经常喝水越好。Too much salt吃太多盐Table salt is sodium chloride and sodium is a mineral that affects your body’s ability to balance water retention. Another mineral, potassium, works with sodium to regulate water balance and normalise heart rhythm. The more sodium you consume, the more potassium you need to counteract this effect.食用盐的成分一般是氯化钠,钠是一种能影响身体平衡水分能力的矿物质。另一种矿物质,钾,与钠一起作用时可以调节体内水分平衡,维持正常心律。你摄入的钠越多,就需要更多的钾来中和。If you have a high salt intake, you could be carrying around an extra 1.8kg (4lb) in excess weight due to water retention. Water retention can be caused by not drinking enough water and also too much salt but it can also be caused by the same blood sugar swings that trigger many of the pre-menstrual symptoms.如果你吃盐太多,你就会因为水潴留而超重大约1.8公斤。水潴留可能是因为你饮水不足,或者吃盐太多,但也可能是因为引发很多经前期症状的血糖波动而导致的。 /201607/452443

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  • (责任编辑:郝佳 UK047)