楼主:365社区 时间:2019年12月07日 00:19:18 点击:0 回复:0
The deadliest Ebola outbreak in history that has so far killed almost 1000 people in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria in West Africa has sparked fear around the world.最近,埃拉病毒在几内亚、利比亚、塞拉利昂和尼日利亚等西非国家肆虐,已造成1000多人死亡,是史上最严重的一次埃拉大爆发,令全世界人心惶惶。The outbreak is unprecedented both in infection numbers and in geographic scope. Officials from the World Health Organization (WHO) said earlier this month the outbreak “is moving faster than our efforts to control it”, reported CNN. So far, the battle against the virus doesn’t appear to be slowing down.此次疫情感染人数之多,传播范围之广都是前所未有的。本月上旬,世界卫生组织官员在CNN的报道中说,此次埃拉“蔓延速度之快,已超出了我们的控制范围。”截止今天,与埃拉的斗争仍然刻不容缓。The Ebola virus is terrifying no matter where it strikes: It’s a disease with no cure that causes headaches and fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting and bleeding and has been known to kill up to 90 percent of its victims.不论在哪里,埃拉病毒都令人闻风丧胆,感染埃拉病毒会导致头痛、发热、严重腹泻、呕吐以及出血;而它目前尚无治疗方法,死亡率高达90%。It is understandable for people to be panicked, but those living outside Africa shouldn’t be particularly concerned about contracting the virus, says a Washington Post article.《华盛顿邮报》的一篇文章写道:人们的恐慌是可以理解的,但是,身处非洲国家之外的人不必过于担心自己会被感染。This is because transmission of Ebola requires direct contact with an infected person’s blood, vomit or other bodily fluids during the period that he or she is contagious. It is something that is extremely unlikely for anyone but healthcare workers. The virus is not sp by coughing or sneezing.这是因为埃拉是通过体液传播的,只有直接接触感染者的血液、呕吐物或是其他体液才可能被感染,而咳嗽、打喷嚏并不会传染。由此看来,医务工作者才是最容易感染病毒的人。Media outlets in the US and the UK are using terrifying headlines, wrongly claiming that people infected with the virus have traveled to their countries.一些美国与英国媒体却用耸人听闻的标题,误称有感染者进入自己国家境内。Too early to panic恐慌过早James Ball at The Guardian says the Ebola outbreak in Africa is tragic, but it is important to keep a sense of proportion. Other infectious diseases, including common influenza, are far, far deadlier.来自《卫报》的詹姆斯?鲍尔说,埃拉在非洲爆发确实情况惨烈,但是大家保持镇定同样重要。相较而言,其他一些传染性疾病,甚至普通的流感在蔓延期间远远比埃拉更加致命。Ball points out that since the Ebola outbreak began in February, around 300,000 people have died from malaria, while tuberculosis has likely claimed more than 600,000 lives. Ebola is not even close to being the biggest problem in Africa right now.鲍尔指出,自今年2月埃拉在非洲爆发以来,30万人死于疟疾,60万人死于肺结核,埃拉现在甚至并不是非洲最严重的问题。Ball says the most real effect for millions of people ing about Ebola will be fear and stigma.而它造成最现实的影响却是让成千上万人看到“埃拉”一词,就心生恐惧,令一些人为此背上污名。。During the SARS outbreak of 2003, Asian-Americans were stigmatized, with public health hotlines inundated with calls from Americans worried about “buying Asian merchandise”, “living near Asians” and “going to school with Asians”.2003年“非典”爆发之时,亚裔美国人就备受歧视,美国公共医疗热线每天都会接到人们的电话,担心“买了亚洲商品”、“邻居是亚洲人”或是“要和亚洲人一起上学”。Similarly, in this Ebola outbreak, quite a few people hope their governments will shut off all travel to West Africa and forbid citizens in the infected regions to return to their countries. Panic and ignorance has even prompted some US politicians to suggest that migrant children attempting to enter the US from Central America may be carrying the virus, reported Salon.无独有偶,在此次埃拉疫情爆发期间,很多人希望本国政府能禁止任何人去往西非,同时不允许从疫区回来的本国公民回国。《沙龙》杂志报道,一些被恐惧和冷漠冲昏头脑的美国政客甚至认为那些从中美洲前往美国的移民子女也可能携带埃拉病毒。In the coming months, says Ball, almost none of us will catch the Ebola virus. Many of us, though, will suffer from fevers, headaches, shivers and other symptoms of illness.鲍尔还说,在接下来的几个月里,很多人也许都会有发烧、头痛、颤栗以及其他疾病症状,但是几乎不会有人真的感染埃拉病毒As communities are stigmatized and mildly sick people fear for their lives, Ball says, it’s worth reflecting what the biggest threat to our collective well-being is: rare tropical diseases, or the media’s terrible coverage of them.而鲍尔认为,有些居民已为此背上了污名,还有的人即使有轻微症状也会担心为此丧命,因此,我们要深思:究竟是当下对人类共同幸福最大的威胁,是这种罕见的热带传染病,还是媒体耸人听闻的报道? /201408/321577The Associated Press says at least 786 children in the ed States have died of abuse and neglect in a six-year span, saying the children died ;in plain view of child protection authorities.;美联社报道,在六年期间,美国至少786名儿童死于虐待和疏忽。这些儿童在“儿童保护机构的眼皮底下”死去。AP says it discovered during its eight-month investigation that many of the children were ;beaten, starved or left alone to drown while agencies had good reason to know they were in danger.;美联社说,在历时八个月的调查中发现,儿童保护机构完全应该了解这些儿童死亡之前的处境危险,他们中的许多人“受到殴打、挨饿或者无人看护溺水身亡”。AP conducted the survey in the 50 U.S. states, plus the District of Columbia and branches of the military. The report says many states ;struggled to provide numbers; and that ;secrecy often prevailed.;美联社在美国的50个州以及哥伦比亚特区和美国军队多个部门做了这项调查。The survey revealed that most of the 768 children known to have died were under the age of four.调查报告显示,已知死亡的768个儿童中,绝大多数年龄在4岁以下。The data collection system on child deaths is so flawed, AP said, that no one can say for certain how many children overall die from abuse or neglect every year.美联社说,有关儿童死亡的数据收集系统存在缺陷,因此没有人能够确切地说出每年究竟有多少儿童死于虐待或者疏忽。The federal government estimates an average of about 1,650 deaths annually in recent years. The Associated Press reports many believe the actual number is twice as high.美国联邦政府估计,近些年平均每年有大约1650名儿童死于虐待和疏忽。美联社报道,许多人认为实际数字是这个数字的两倍。 /201412/350201

There’s no use denying it — autonomous cars are coming. Experts says that partially autonomous cars will be on the road by 2017, and that within a decade, fully autonomous vehicles will be zooming on highways and through our neighborhoods.不容否认,自动驾驶汽车离我们已经不远了。专家表示,能实现部分自动驾驶的汽车将于2017年上路;不到10年,完全自动驾驶汽车将开始穿梭在高速公路和大街小巷。When this day comes, though, what will become of the two car garage? It may not be needed anymore, according to a new study from the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.等那一天真的来了,双车车库会有什么样的遭遇?根据密歇根大学运输研究院的一项最新研究,到时我们可能就不再需要这种车库了。The study essentially posits this: if autonomous cars become the norm, they could be shared by two people in the same household. Say Jack and Diane are married and live in the center of a medium-sized city, one where there is no major public transportation to speak of. Their self-driving car could take Jack to his job in the suburbs, then return to the apartment, where Diane would get in and be shuttled to her job in another part of town. The two no longer need their own vehicles to get to work, and can share the one autonomous car without having to deal with car pooling or going out of their way.该研究指出:如果自动驾驶汽车成为常态,两位家庭成员就可以同时使用一辆车。比如杰克和丹妮是一对夫妇,居住在一座中型城市的市中心。他们的自动驾驶汽车可以载着杰克到郊外上班,然后返回他们的公寓,载着丹妮去城里的另一个地方上班。两人无需分别开一辆汽车上班,也不必再为拼车之类的麻烦事操心,而是可以共用一辆自动驾驶汽车。“This reduction in ownership and an accompanying shift to vehicle sharing within each household, in the most extreme hypothetical scenario, could reduce average ownership rates by 43% (from 2.1 to 1.2 vehicles per household,)” the report says.该报告指出:“家庭汽车拥有量的减少和用车模式的转变,在最极端的假设下,可能使家庭汽车的平均拥有量降低43%(每个家庭从拥有2.1辆车下降到1.2辆)。As noted, though, this is just the most extreme possibility. Brandon Schoettle, the lead writer of the study, said the actual reduction in car ownership could be much less than that, depending on a few factors. For instance, states may pass laws that prohibit such an arrangement by requiring autonomous cars to only operating with a human inside.不过正如上文强调的,这只是最极端的假设。该研究项目的首席作者布兰登o舒特勒认为,受一些因素的影响,机动车保有量的实际减少幅度可能显著低于这个比率。比如,美国的有些州可能会出台法律,禁止无人驾驶汽车单独上路,而是要求必须有一名驾驶员坐在车内。And even though driverless cars are starting to creep into the mainstream, don’t expect this change to happen overnight. Schoettle said turning over the existing fleet of cars would take time, so any reduction in the number of cars on the road could take “decades.”即使无人驾驶汽车已经开始潜入主流,但这种改变也不会一夜之间发生。舒特勒表示,要淘汰现有数量的汽车需要很长时间,所以要想看到路面汽车数量明显减少这一幕,可能还得等上“几十年”。 /201503/362743

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