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楼主:京东报 时间:2019年08月25日 19:14:32 点击:0 回复:0
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News that Ikea is rolling out an online shopping platform in China – its first in the Asia-Pacific region – could be a sign that Western retailers are at last reacting to rising costs and shifts in consumer shopping behaviour. 宜家(Ikea)即将在中国推出在线购物平台,这将是其在亚太地区的首个电子商务平台。这一消息可能表明,西方零售商终于要对中国市场上经营成本上升、消费者购物行为发生转变做出反应。But what has taken them so long?但它们为何花了这么长时间才有所行动?Despite operating online models successfully in the UK and other parts of Northern Europe, it has taken Ikea seven years to get to a similar point in China. 尽管在英国和其他北欧国家成功运营着在线购物平台,但宜家花了7年时间才在中国推出电商平台。With stores in major cities including Shanghai and Beijing, Ikea has followed a similar strategy to many other Western retailers; investing in bricks and mortar outlets in China’s thriving tier 1 and 2 cities.宜家在包括上海和北京在内的大城市开设了店铺,奉行与其他许多西方零售商类似的策略:在中国蓬勃发展的一二线城市投资建设实体门店。However, consumer demand has been growing right across China and while rising costs remain an issue, Western retailers urgently need a strategy to develop this market potential.然而,中国各地消费者需求都在持续增长,同时,尽管成本上涨依然是个问题,西方零售商亟需制定挖掘中国市场潜力的战略。Online malls are probably the only, viable way for Western and Chinese retailers to reach consumers right across this vast continent – particularly bearing in mind that China has hundreds of tier 3 and more than 1,000 tier 4 cities. 西方和中国零售商要想接触这个庞大市场的消费者——尤其别忘了,中国有数百个三线城市和逾1000个四线城市——在线平台可能是唯一可行的途径。There is also the problem of a lack of internationally-skilled management in these cities, due to a lack of exposure to international businesses.由于没有国际企业入驻,这些城市也存在国际化管理人才匮乏的问题。For Western retailers, there is the added challenge that China is just one part of their large, global network of territories and senior management teams are typically based elsewhere, so may not be aware of how quickly consumer shopping behaviour is changing.对西方零售商来说,还有一个额外的挑战,中国只是它们庞大的全球业务版图的一部分,高级管理团队往往常驻其他地区,因此可能意识不到消费者购物行为是多么的日新月异。Developing an independent strategy for expanding a business model in China is not easy for Western retailers, however. 然而,对西方零售商来说,为扩大中国市场业务模式而研究制定一套独立的战略并不容易。Tesco and Bamp;Q are among those that decided to withdraw from China just a few years after investing in rolling out stores.有些零售商在中国投资建设门店几年后就决定退出这一市场,其中包括特易购(Tesco)和百安居(Bamp;Q)。Rising labour costs and increases in commercial rents are putting pressure on margins and while some Chinese retailers have addressed this by pursuing a 24-hour, micro-store strategy, this is difficult for Western retailers to replicate.劳动力成本上升和商业租金上涨令零售商利润率承压,一些中国零售商通过实施24小时微型店铺战略解决这一问题,但西方零售商复制该战略比较困难。Walmart China’s decision to restructure its business and sell its e-commerce grocery site, YHD.com, to the country’s biggest online retailer, JD.com, in July 2016 could be interpreted as a further sign that Western retailers are struggling to keep pace with rapid market changes.沃尔玛中国(Walmart China)在2016年7月决定重组业务并向中国最大的在线零售商京东(JD.com)出售其电商网站一号店(Yhd.com),可能被解读为西方零售商很难跟上快速市场变化的进一步迹象。Under Walmart’s ownership, YHD.com’s share of China’s online marketplace slipped from 1st to 6th position, according to official data, requiring significant investment to boost its performance. 官方数据显示,在隶属沃尔玛旗下的时候,一号店在中国在线市场的份额排名从第一降至第六,这需要巨额投资来提升其业绩。This is the most likely reason for Walmart’s decision to dispose of the business.这可能是沃尔玛决定处置该业务的最大原因。Despite the inherent challenges, there is still an excellent opportunity for Western retailers in China. 尽管存在这些固有挑战,但西方零售商在中国市场仍存在绝佳的机遇。Ikea’s decision to trial and roll-out an online mall is a bold move and demonstrates that the brand is serious about developing an independent strategy. 宜家试水推出电商平台的决定是一个大胆的举措,表明该品牌在制定独立战略方面是严肃的。Depending on its success, others are likely to follow.如果宜家取得成功,其他零售商可能会效仿。Of course, there are a number of considerations for Western retailers planning to launch online malls in China. 当然,计划在中国推出在线平台的西方零售商也有许多考虑。They would probably need to cooperate with Alibaba or Tencent, both of which have dominant positions and control China’s online payment market.它们很可能需要与阿里巴巴或腾讯合作——阿里巴巴和腾讯在中国电商市场占据主导地位,并控制着中国在线付市场。They would also need to establish local distribution centres in each sub-area, close to the targeted tier 3 and 4 cities. 它们还需要在靠近三四线目标城市的子区域建立当地物流中心。Offering low-cost or free delivery is also important in China as many local retailers aly offer this. 提供低价或免费派送在中国也很重要,因为许多国内零售商已经提供了这种派送务。Therefore, establishing competitive agreements with delivery service providers in China is essential.因此在中国与物流务提供商缔结有竞争力的协议非常关键。The business environment for Western retailers in China is changing very quickly and they must choose to accept dwindling profits or invest in online expansion. 西方零售商在中国市场的商业环境日新月异,它们必须选择接受利润日益下降的局面或者投资扩大在线业务。Building on the popularity of its stores, Ikea is taking the plunge and launching an online mall to attract consumers that have so far been out of reach. 鉴于其实体店铺受到欢迎,宜家决定冒险尝试推出在线平台,以吸引迄今接触不到的客户。In this case, allowing time to develop a strong brand presence before making their move could be just the right strategy.在这个案例中,留出时间打造强大的品牌形象、之后才采取行动可能是正确的战略。 /201609/464391Global migration means millions of people are starting new lives in cities far removed from the places they were born, where they will help to shape the urban fabric of the communities around them.跨国移民意味着数以百万计的人将在远离他们出生地的城市开始新生活,在新的天地里,他们将影响和改变自己周围社区的城市肌理。Despite accusations from some that all cities are becoming alike, these newer citizens are carving out identities distinct from both their ethnic origins and those of the longer-standing inhabitants around them.虽然有人批评称,所有城市的面目正变得越来越千篇一律,但这些新来者正在创造出新的身份认同——既不同于他们自身的种族血统,也不同于他们身边那些老居民。For example, when Annika Marlen Hinze conducted a study of families of Turkish origin in Berlin, she found they identified themselves as neither Germans nor Turks, but as Berliners or even as residents of a particular neighbourhood. “One woman told me: ‘I’m telling my son he’s both Turkish and German, but I also tell him he’s a Kreuzberger,’#8202;” says Ms Hinze, assistant professor of political science at Fordham University in New York.例如,当安妮卡#8226;马伦#8226;欣策(Annika Marlen Hinze)在开展一项有关生活在柏林的土耳其裔家庭的研究时,她发现这一群体既没有把自己看作是德国人,也不认为自己是土耳其人,他们自诩为柏林人,甚至某个特定社区的人。“一个女人告诉我:‘我对儿子说,他既是土耳其人,也是德国人,但我同时也告诉他,他是十字山(Kreuzberger)人,’”欣策说道。她是纽约福德姆大学(Fordham University)的政治学助理教授。Kreuzberg and Neuk#246;lln are two areas of the German capital that have shaped their inhabitants of Turkish origin, who themselves have contributed to Berlin’s landscape after they started to come as guest workers in the 1960s.作为柏林的两个区域,十字山和诺伊科恩(Neuk#246;lln)深刻影响了在那里生活的土耳其裔居民。这些居民也已成为柏林城市面貌的一部分,最初他们是在二十世纪六十年代作为外来工人来到柏林的。The experience of these migrants in establishing mosques and kebab shops near the Berlin Wall may be particular to them, but one in five of all migrants live in the world’s 20 largest urban centres, the International Organization for Migration says. In 2015, fresh waves of migrants, including Syrian refugees, brought the effect of mass migration on urban centres to wider public attention.对于这些移民自己而言,在靠近柏林墙的地方建起清真寺以及开设土耳其烤肉店的经历或许是特殊的,但据国际移民组织(International Organization for Migration)指出,每5个移民中就有1个生活在全球前20大中心城市。2015年的新一轮移民潮,包括来自叙利亚的难民潮,使大规模移民涌入对于中心城市的影响受到了更广泛的公众关注。Christopher Choa, director for cities and urban development at Aecom, a design and engineering consultancy, says trade and migration shape the built environment: “The DNA of the city is baked, in physical terms, into the pre-existing forms of the streets, but the cities are adapted by new [groups] and by the services [they] prefer.”建筑设计与工程顾问公司艾奕康(Aecom)的城市与城市开发业务主管克利斯托弗#8226;乔(Christopher Choa)表示,贸易和移民改变已经建成的环境。他说:“城市的DNA以实体形态体现在已经存在的街道中,但城市会被新的居民群体以及他们所偏好的务所改变。”This creates a dilemma for planners, who may either want to preserve a city’s traditional shape or swing in the direction of creating spaces designed for more recent arrivals.这让城市规划者陷入了两难处境,规划者要么努力保存一座城市的传统形态,要么努力打造为新来者设计的空间。“There’s usually a strong traditional theme that runs through the populations in all these cities,” says Mr Choa. “They are seeking to protect the urban qualities that make the cities unique in the first place, the architectural patrimony.乔指出:“在所有这些城市,通常都有一个深入影响市民群体的强有力的传统主题。他们试图保护那些最初让一座城市独一无二的城市特色——老建筑。”“But if cities cannot absorb new waves of immigration you can end up with a kind of marginalisation or ghettoisation. You miss out on those positive mutations of the landscape.”“但如果城市无法吸收新涌入的移民潮,最终可能出现某种形式的少数族群化或者隔都化(ghettoisation)。你将错失那些能给城市面貌带来积极改变的机会。”On their most obvious level, such battles may be fought over the buildings of minority religions, such as mosques in Germany and elsewhere in Europe.在最显眼的层面上,这种斗争或将围绕少数族裔的宗教建筑展开,例如在德国或者欧洲其他地区修建的清真寺。#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;……These arguments are not confined to the western world. Protests against the opening of Starbucks in Beijing’s Forbidden City and a McDonald’s restaurant in a historic villa in the Chinese city of Hangzhou carried similar symbolic weight. Arguments also centre on new housing as populations swell. In London, traditionally a low-rise city, residents are fighting proposals for the construction of about 318 residential towers despite a severe housing shortage, and in Hong Kong a long controversy rages over the potential use of country park land to build homes.上述争议并不仅限于西方世界。针对开在北京紫禁城内的星巴克(Starbucks)以及开在杭州市一处古迹内的麦当劳(McDonald#39;s)餐厅的抗议活动,也有同样重大的象征意义。随着城市人口的膨胀,新建住宅也成了争议的焦点。在伦敦这座传统上以低层建筑为主的城市,市民们努力反抗修建约318栋高层住宅楼的提案——尽管目前伦敦面临严重的住宅短缺。而在香港,是否能将郊野公园土地用于兴建住宅的问题,长期以来一直存在激烈争议。In Paris, the preservation of its historic centre resulted in a ring of suburbs or banlieues, where many families of migrant origin live in poverty. In San Francisco a similar decision to retain the historic waterfront has resulted in a housing squeeze as the technology industry attracts newcomers.在巴黎,对历史性城市中心区的保护导致形成了环状的郊区地带,很多移民出身的家庭在这些地方过着贫困的生活。旧金山也出台了一个类似的决定,保护历史悠久的滨海区。随着旧金山科技产业吸引新的人口迁入,这个决定导致了该地住房供给高度紧张。But some cultural fusions have been in less tense. While Asian migrants have created Chinatowns around the world, China’s big trading centres have taken inspiration from the west. “Shanghai now looks much more like an American or European city than a Chinese city,” says Aecom’s Mr Choa. He thinks global cities are becoming more similar to one another, which he sees as a positive development enabling the exchange of “ideas, younger populations, the next generation of wealth creators”.但某些文化融合的过程则没有那么剑拔弩张。亚洲移民在世界各地创建了许多个中国城,中国最大的贸易中心城市上海却借鉴了来自西方的灵感。艾奕康的乔表示:“上海如今看起来更像是一个美国或者欧洲的城市,而非一个中国城市。” 他认为国际大都市正变得越来越相似,并把这看成是一种积极的发展趋势, 有助于“观念的交流、年轻人群以及下一代财富创造者”的流动。But sociologist Saskia Sassen takes the opposing view of this phenomenon, calling it a “monster#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;coughing out tall towers everywhere#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;killing the people’s houses and small shops and little streets and squares”, with the result that “everywhere became nowhere”.但社会学家萨斯基亚#8226;萨森(Saskia Sassen)对这一现象持相反观点,称其为一个“怪物……到处吐出高楼大厦……扼杀了人们的房子、小商店、小街道以及广场”,导致了“每个地方都变得哪儿也不是”的结果。It may be such tensions are just inherent in cities subject to mass migration, but there is no evident uniformity in Berlin’s Turkish districts.或许这样的紧张局面是面临大规模移民涌入的城市无法避免的,但柏林的土耳其街区并没有表现出明显的趋同性。Indeed, residents of Kreuzberg and Neuk#246;lln have strongly different and separate identities. Kreuzberg has a strong history of protest while Neuk#246;lln is known for its strong integration policies for migrants.正相反,十字山和诺伊科恩的居民有着截然不同且非常独立的身份认同。十字山区有着深厚的抗议传统,而诺伊科恩则以强有力的移民融合政策而闻名。Meanwhile, second-generation Turkish-German children have begun travelling the other way, migrating to Istanbul to discover their roots and exploit their command of both languages, says Ms Hinze. One example is the Turkish-German architect Cem Arat, who has designed a stadium for Istanbul’s Galatasaray football club.欣策指出,第二代土耳其裔德国人现在已经开始了反向流动,迁回伊斯坦布尔以寻找他们的根,并充分利用他们掌握的两门语言。其中的一位代表人物是土耳其裔德国建筑师杰姆#8226;阿拉特(Cem Arat),他为伊斯坦布尔的加拉塔萨雷(Galatasaray)足球俱乐部设计了一座体育场。However, Ms Hinze says many of these second-generation migrants, often the children of working-class parents from rural Turkey, find themselves once again feeling like outsiders when they reach Istanbul.但欣策表示,这些第二代移民中的很多人——他们的父母通常是来自土耳其乡村地区的劳动阶层——在来到伊斯坦布尔后会再次感到自己是个外乡人。“A lot of them were curious to see this interesting, bustling metropolis,” she says. “But they tell me: “We feel really different.”欣策说:“他们中有很多人非常想要了解这座有趣、繁华的大都市。但他们告诉我:‘我感觉自己格格不入。’” /201608/461131

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