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上饶祛雀斑上饶有脉冲能祛除眼袋吗南昌大学上饶医院丰胸多少钱 But it was hard for wolves.但对狼而言却是难事。Wolves that have been raised by people should have had the same success at finding the sealed container, but they didnt.被人类所抚养的狼应该和一样找到密封容器,但它们却未能成功。Even chimpanzees, which are very smart animals indeed, werent as fast at finding the food as dogs.甚至是黑猩猩这种非常聪明的动物也无法像那样能够迅速发现其中诀窍。What does this mean?这代表着什么呢? One interpretation is that dogs do, in fact, have a natural ability to understand forms of human communication.一种解释是们事实上有一种天然理解人类交流形式的能力。Even nine-week old puppies found the food, suggesting the skill is there before training.即使出生刚满9周的小也可以找到食物,这表明未经过训练就已经拥有天生技能。Wolves dont have the skill, suggesting that it has developed in dogs since the time they branched off from their evolutionary predecessors.而狼并不具备这种能力,这表明自从从先祖中分离时狼已经从类中得以进化。There is debate about this idea.关于这个想法存在着争论。But Tomasello thinks that in the past fifteen thousand years, as human beings and dogs have evolved together, the basis for fidos ability to understand what you mean may have become encoded in his genes.但是托马塞洛认为在过去的15000年里,随着人类和一同进化,理解人类意图的能力可能已经融入到自身基因当中。201502/358581A lot of people spent the Fourth of July weekend grilling out or swimming at the beach. But Cale Nordmeyer spent his time trudging through the muck and grasses in a Michigan wetland.Nordmeyer works for the Minnesota Zoo and hes on a mission with a small window of time. Hes part of a small team of researchers working to save endangered Poweshiek skipperlings.The butterflies hatch this time of year, and are out for only around two weeks, so Nordmeyer hopped on a plane as soon as he heard they had hatched here in Michigan.The butterflies used to be common, but today its estimated there are only around 500 left.Thats it.500 total in the world, and their numbers have been dropping off fast.;In my home state of Minnesota, they are most likely extinct,; says Nordmeyer. ;And that used to be the heart of the range.;Holding on in MichiganToday, one of the strongholds for the Poweshiek skipperling has been a series of prairie fens, here in Oakland County. Fens are wetlands with a lot of grasses and flowers.I met up with Nordmeyer at one these fens with my daughter Cecelia. Right away, he spotted his first butterfly—the big neon blue and pink one printed on Cecelias T-shirt. Nordmeyer said the butterfly picture on her shirt is modeled after a Charaxes butterfly.;Its orange and white with blue all over it. Theyre stunning. Theyre totally cool. And my favorite part about them... they have attitude.;Nordmeyer says the Powershiek skipperling—the butterfly were looking for today—isnt nearly as big.;What makes skippers unique among other butterflies is that theyve got a huge head—and when theyre at rest—they have a fighter jet pose—theyre not always the biggest or the flashiest but I think theyre one of the cutest butterflies out there.;Nordmeyer says he first fell in love with butterflies when he was six years old. He found a big, brightly colored caterpillar in his backyard and was hooked.If we were going to find a Poweshiek among this swirl of bugs—his eye would spot it. We went out on a hot, sunny day—perfect butterfly weather.;Im walking out. Im scanning the landscape ahead of us,; says Nordmeyer as he steps with his butterfly net in hand, ;And Im looking at the black-eyed susans for a small little silver skipper that could be sitting right on top of them. Or Im looking for a little flash of a skipper flying by. They almost sparkle as they go by.;Nordmeyer came to this same fen four years ago and he saw Poweshiek skipperlings in really high numbers.;So we should have come out and we should have aly seen dozens,; he says. ;It wouldnt have been uncommon to spend a couple of hours doing a survey and see hundreds of them. Every black-eyed susan would have a little skipperling on it.;When we met up with him, Nordmeyers trip hadnt been going that well. Hes just wasnt finding that many.His goal is to capture some females, hold onto them for a few days while they lay eggs, and then raise the caterpillars back at the Minnesota Zoo. After they lay their eggs, he releases the females back into the same fen.Its all part of a program to try to save the butterfly.Reasons for the decline—no one smoking gun?Habitat loss is a huge reason for the decline.Prairies and fens have been disappearing for a long time. Its estimated that only around 4% of the original tall grass prairies remain. But up until around 15 years ago, the butterfly had been found in big numbers—even in these insolated spots.Nordmeyer says a class of insecticide used in farming might be at play here as well.Theyre called neonicotinoids.;The connection with neonicotinoids and the decline of some of these butterflies, like the Poweshiek skipperling, largely come from the effects that we now know that they have on some other pollinators—particularly bees,; says Nordmeyer.;And the timing of their use and popularity here in the Midwest does correspond pretty dramatically with the decline of the species, or at least the observed decline of the species. But correlation does not necessarily mean causation, and definitely more research is needed.;He doesnt think theres one smoking gun.The Poweshiek only moves around in small pockets, so it cant travel that far.The reason for declines in each area could be unique to that spot. Some prairies and fens might have too much prescribed burning or too much grazing from cattle. Researchers are also looking at the effects of climate change on the species. The amount of winter snow pack could affect their survival as well.Fewer lepidopteristsAnother limiting factor for these butterflies is that there are just not that many people studying them.;One of our biggest problems actually, is that there arent enough people who can positively identify it,; says Nordmeyer. ;Theres a hope that theres some population out there, and theyre still hanging on.;The survival of this little butterfly depends on people like him.Nordmeyer says his work can be hard. Watching declines like this isnt easy for a lepidopterist.;Its kind of emotional coming out here and knowing what there used to be,; says Nordmeyer. ;This should be perfect butterfly weather. We should be seeing them. And then not seeing them—its really, really hard.Now of course, theres a lot of hope. Were out here trying to reverse that, and thats what I try focus on.;Nordmeyer continued to scan the open field in front of us.He spotted one—a male.He took a quick swing at it with his butterfly net so we could take a close look at it.;I missed it,; he said to Cecelia with a sheepish grin as the butterfly skipped off into the grass.Males arent the target here. Hes after females. He did manage to capture a few females, and he drove back to the Minnesota Zoo with his precious cargo—Poweshiek skipperling eggs.He hopes to be back next year to release the Poweshieks in chrysalis form.201607/453481上饶面部脱毛术

婺源县丰额头多少钱上饶市铁路医院瘦腿针多少钱 Late Saturday afternoon I was in Lansing, driving to an awards ceremony at the state Library of Michigan, when I started hitting a whole bunch of potholes near the Capitol.;Dont the legislators drive on these roads?; my sweetheart asked. My flip answer was that I didnt think most of them went to the library very often.But sure enough, when I got home, I found a bubble the size of an egg in my drivers-side tire. Thats the second time thats happened to me this year. I drive more than most people do, but somehow Id bet that I am far from alone.Now, you may be under the impression that the Legislature finally passed bills to fix the roads last year. Unfortunately, that would be wrong. They did raise our taxes by 0 million dollars, but any serious new money for the roads wont start trickling in before next January.The plan eventually is supposed to produce .2 billion a year in new money for the roads, but it will take years to get there, and by that time, that amount will be hopelessly inadequate to fix our daily worsening highways.Even worse, the plan also calls for 0 million to be taken out of the aly strapped general fund every year, meaning there is bound to be less money for things like education.Democrats are certainly capable of crass and politically self-serving things. But what Senate Minority Leader Jim Ananich said last November is absolutely true: ;This plan wont fix our roads. It will however, create new problems that will need to be fixed later.;But lets say for a moment that I could turn the clock back exactly two years to April 4, 2014, and some candidate could make voters believe this: ;Elect me, and two years from today I will have in place a plan that will completely fix the roads, and you will be paying .29 cents a gallon for gas.;That candidate would have been elected in a landslide.Why? Because two years ago today, we were paying .67 a gallon. I filled up my trusty station wagon yesterday for .09, and there were some cheaper places.Tack on 20 cents to the price of a gallon of gas—and that would generate more than enough to fix the roads. Wouldnt it make sense for the Legislature to pass a law doing that, effective immediately, and repeal the earlier clunky legislation?Of course it would. But there is no way theyd do it, because they live in terror of being accused of raising taxes, especially in an election year. The average driver is paying far more in the cost of wear and tear on his or her car than even a far larger tax increase would mean.But the combination of gerrymandering, the tyranny of Tea Party fanatics over the GOP, and the effect of term limits have all worked against common sense and good government.Our system is clearly broken, and this is only one example. Theres a reason that Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump are doing so well——they are the candidates most loudly proclaiming that government in this country no longer works.You can see the proof in our tires.Jack Lessenberry is Michigan Radios senior news analyst. Views expressed in his essays are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan Radio, its management, or the station licensee, The University of Michigan.201604/435200上饶瘦脸针多少钱

上饶治咖啡牛奶斑要哪家医院好According to a recent study, oil and gas activities may have caused nearly nine in 10 of the earthquakes Texas has experienced in the past 40 years. 根据最近的一项研究,石油和天然气活动可能引发了德克萨斯过去40年中近九成的地震。The quakes have become more frequent as oilfield activity has picked up in the past decade. 在过去的十年中,随着油田活动的兴起,地震已变得更加频繁。Researchers led by University of Texas-Austin geoscientist Cliff Frohlich wrote that ;of the 162 Texas earthquakes of magnitude 3 or greater between 1975 and 2015, 由德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校的地球学家克利夫带领的研究人员写道,在1975至2015年间德克萨斯发生的3级或以上地震中,a quarter were ;almost certainly; induced by oil and gas activities, while 33 percent were ;probably induced and 28 percent were ;possibly induced.; 四分之一“几乎肯定”是石油和天然气活动诱发的,百分之33“很可能诱发”和百分之28“或许诱发”。In their study, the researchers also criticized the Texas Railroad Commission, 在他们的研究中,研究人员还批评德克萨斯铁路委员会,the agency responsible for regulating petroleum production in the state, for being ;slow to acknowledge that induced earthquakes occur in Texas.;该机构负责管理国家石油生产,慢慢承认在德克萨斯会诱发地震。译文属。201605/444379 German macroprudential reforms德国的宏观审慎改革Beware Teutonic caution谨防日耳曼式谨小慎微The Bundesbank should not exert its new clout too zealously德国央行新令牌在握,切莫肆意呼风唤雨THE European Central Bank (ECB) decided a year ago to hold this week’s monetary-policy meeting in Barcelona, but the timing turned out to be perfect. Spain is in the crosshairs of the markets, not least because of budgetary overruns by regional governments such as Catalonia’s. And the contrasting economic fortunes of beaten-up Spain, where the jobless rate has reached 24%, and resilient Germany, where it is below 6%, exemplify the difficulty of finding the right monetary policy in a currency union of 17 members.欧洲中央(ECB)早在一年前就决定了将于本周在巴塞罗那召开货币政策会议,现今看来,会议召开的恰是时候。现在的西班牙正处在市场的风口浪尖,特别是因为加泰罗尼亚等自治区政府的预算超才导致了西班牙到了这般田地。同德国相比,西班牙经济死气沉沉,失业率飙升至24%;德国经济稳步反弹,失业率则低于6%。如此鲜明的对比恰也印了,在这个由17名成员组成的货币区内制定出一项正确的货币政策确实不易。The ECB’s meeting on May 3rd (after The Economist went to press) was not expected to change its monetary stance. Behind the scenes, however, there are acute tensions within its 23-strong governing council, made up of six board members and the heads of the 17 national central banks. In particular Jens Weidmann, the president of the powerful German Bundesbank, opposed the decision to cut interest rates to 1% in December, and frets about the adequacy of the collateral against which the ECB has lent so much money to banks in recent months.货币政策会议在本期《经济学人》付梓之际尚未召开。预计欧洲央行不会在5月3日召开的会议上改变其货币政策。然而在幕后,各委员的意见却是针锋相对;欧洲央行管理委员会共由6名欧洲中央执行委员会成员和17名欧元区成员国央行行长组成,在这23人的委员会中,唯独德国联邦行长权利较大,而最为不满的人也正是他。早在去年12月,他就曾反对欧洲央行将利率下调至1%的决议,近几个月来,频频以抵押物换取欧洲央行贷款,更是引起了魏德曼对欧洲央行所持巨额资金抵押品的堪忧。Among other things Germany’s top central banker wants to avoid a home replay of the credit and property boom whose excesses have been so harmful in Spain. Loose monetary policy makes him nervous about the possibility of a property bubble in Germany. After a long period when house prices fell and then stagnated, they have picked up in the past couple of years (see chart). Homebuilding orders are up by a fifth on a year ago.超额的信贷和过度繁荣房地产已经令西班牙元气大伤,德国央行行长也是极力避免在这两个领域步入其后尘。宽松的货币政策令魏德曼惴惴不安,唯恐低息环境滋生德国房地产泡沫。德国房价曾一度下跌,经过了漫长的萧条期后,终于在过去的几年里开始攀升(见上图)。房地产开发订单在一年前更是提升了五分之一。Such anxiety looks premature: house-price rises represent a thawing in the property permafrost rather than a market on fire. But if Mr Weidmann is minded to take pre-emptive action, he will soon have the means to do so. At present the Bundesbank can preach about risks to financial stability but it cannot impose counter-measures such as setting higher capital requirements for banks or putting constraints on specific types of lending such as mortgages. The authority for implementing these steps lies with BaFin, Germany’s bank supervisor (which is assisted on the ground by Bundesbank staff).魏德曼的焦躁之态未免有点操之过急:房价攀升仅表示冰冻的房地产市场正逐步回暖,而非过热。但是,若魏德曼先生有先发制人之意,他不久就会拿到行事之器。联邦目前尚可大肆鼓吹金融稳定性的危险,但却不能将对抗措施强加于人——如调高的资本要求,或限制抵押贷款等特定贷款项目。上述措施能否顺利实施,取决于德国联邦金融监管局(BaFin)。而在实际操作中,这个德国的监管机构却是由联邦员工协助运转。This will change under new proposals to set up a joint committee, which will have representatives from the finance ministry and BaFin, but which will give the Bundesbank the leading role and enable it to push through binding directives. The legislation won’t come into force until next year, but since it is designed to strengthen his hand, Mr Weidmann would probably be able to get his own way before then.然而,建议成立联合委员会的新提案一经提出,形势又将大有不同。要成立联合委员会,须有财政部和监管局(BaFin)的代表参与;监管局(BaFin)代表加入委员会后必定会将大权递交至联邦手中,让提案突破约束指令顺利通过。可立法明年才会生效,但鉴于立法旨在坚固魏德曼的权力,魏先生也有可能在立法生效前为所欲为。The reform is part of a general move to add “macroprudential” instruments to the toolkit of central banks, allowing them to choke off credit excesses while monetary policy is set for the economy as a whole. If anything, Germany is ting less far down this path than some other countries—in Britain, for example, the Bank of England will call the shots through a powerful new Financial Policy Committee, which has aly started work. Such powers should be particularly useful in the euro area, providing countries with a national lever to pull if their banks are getting too festive (though Spain’s pre-crisis policy of “dynamic provisioning”, designed to get local banks to set aside more provisions in the good times, cautions against investing too much hope in macroprudential tools).欧元区各大央行欲将“宏观审慎”工具纳入自己的政策工具包,上述改革不过是扩充工具包大行动的一部分而已。这样一来,一旦欧洲央行制定的货币政策适合于整个欧元区,各成员国央行便可用它来抑制信贷超额。德国的改革远不如其他国家进行的彻底,举英国为例,英国央行就已借助强大的新金融政策委员会开始宏观审慎监管。西班牙对过多寄希望于宏观审慎手段持谨慎态度,特意制定了一项“动态准备金”预防制度,该制度要求地方在经济形势大好时大量计提准备金。尽管如此,在欧元区使用“宏观审慎”还是尤为有效,欧元区国家可在信贷过热时,利用这一操纵杠杆对进行控制。But in the current climate there is also the danger that such regulations may be used in bigger economies to grab back power from the ECB. By reducing credit availability national central banks can contravene the euro zone’s wider monetary stance. Speaking in New York in late April Mr Weidmann said that if monetary policy becomes too expansionary for his home country, “Germany has to deal with this using other, national instruments.” If Mr Weidmann does use his new powers overzealously that could dash one of the few remaining hopes for the hard-hit peripheral economies: a strong recovery in the euro area, led by Germany.然而就目前形势而言,更大的经济体为了从欧洲央行手中夺回更多权力,可能会采用“动态准备金”政策。而削减各成员国央行的信贷可获量又有违欧元区的整体货币政策。魏德曼先生上个月在纽约表示,如果欧洲央行的货币政策对德国而言过于宽松,“德国将不得不运用其他国家政策工具来抵消影响。” 欧元区边缘经济体饱受摧残,寄希冀于德国,期待德国能领导欧元区强势反弹。如果魏德曼真用新权力呼风唤雨,则会将这些经济体推向绝望深渊。 翻译:王葭苇译文属译生译世 /201606/450296上饶市立医院激光去斑多少钱上饶市中医医院治疗青春痘多少钱



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