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西安西京医院胃病胃肠专家qq电话知道中文

2019年10月21日 01:58:31|来源:国际在线|编辑:周社区
Qing Dynasty清朝The Taiping Rebellion太平起义During the mid-nineteenth century, China’s problems were compounded by natural calamities of unprecedented proportions, including droughts, famines, and floods.19世纪中期,中国的麻烦由空前的自然灾害造成,包括干旱、饥荒和洪水。Government neglect of public works was in part responsible for this and other disasters, and the Qing administration did little to relieve the widesp misery caused by them.政府对于市政工程的忽视是造成灾害和其他一些灾难的部分原因,并且清政府并没有实行举措来缓解由它们带来的大范围苦难。Economic tensions, military defeats at Western hands, and anti-Manchu sentiments all combined to produce widesp unrest, especially in the south.经济紧张、与西方国家交战失败和反清的情绪共同导致了广泛的动荡,尤其是在南方地区。South China had been the last area to yield to the Qing conquerors and the first to be exposed to Western influence.中国南方是最后一片向清朝屈也是最早受到西方影响的地方。It provided a likely setting for the largest uprising in modem Chinese history---- the Taiping Rebellion.这为中国近现代史上最大的一次起义——太平起义创造了条件。The Taiping rebels were led by Hong Xiuquan (1814—1864), a village teacher and unsuccessful imperial examination candidate.太平起义军由洪秀全(1814——1864)领导,他是一个乡村先生,在科举考试中名落孙山。Hong formulated an eclectic ideology combining the ideals of pre-Confucian utopianism with Protestant beliefs.洪秀全制定了一个折衷的意识形态,将早先儒家的乌托邦思想与新教的信仰结合起来。He soon had a following in the thousands who were heavily anti-Manchu and anti-establishment.他迅速拥有了成千上万反清和反建制的追随者。Hong’s followers formed a military organization to protect against bandits and recruited troops not only among believers but also from among other armed peasant groups and secret societies.追随者们成立了一个军事组织以对抗土匪并从其他农民武装组织和机密团体而不仅仅是教徒中招募军人。In 1851 Hong Xiuquan and others launched an uprising in Guizhou Province.1851年,洪秀全和其他人在贵州省发动起义。Hong proclaimed the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (or Taiping Tianguo) with himself as king.他建立了太平天国并自己称帝。The new order was to reconstitute a legendary ancient state in which the peasantry owned and tilled the land in common; slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium smoking, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols were all to be eliminated.新规规定要重新建立一个传说中的国度,农民共同拥有和耕作土地;奴隶制、纳妾制、包办婚姻、抽鸦片、缠足、严星拷问和偶像崇拜都被禁止。The Taiping tolerance of the esoteric rituals and quasi-religious societies of south China---- themselves a threat to Qing stability---- and their relentless attacks on Confucianism---- still widely accepted as the moral foundation of Chinese behavior ---- contributed to the ultimate defeat of the rebellion.太平天国对于中国南方的神秘仪式和准宗教社会的宽容使它们成为了清朝的一大威胁,它们对于仍被认作是中国行为道德根基的儒家文化的残酷攻击导致了起义的最终失败。Its advocacy of radical social reforms alienated the Han Chinese scholar-gentry class.它们对激进的社会改革的拥护使其遭到了中国汉家上流学者阶层的孤立。The Taiping army, although it had captured Nanjing and driven as far north as Tianjin, failed to establish stable base areas.太平军尽管攻占了南京又向北打到了天津却没能建立一个稳定的根据地。The movements leaders found themselves in a net of internal feuds, defections, and corruption.统治者间存在着内部纷争、变节与贪污腐败。Additionally, British and French forces, being more willing to deal with the weak Qing administration than contend with the uncertainties of a Taiping regime, came to the assistance of the imperial army.不仅如此,英国和法国的军队更希望与清朝谈判而不愿与太平天国的不确定作斗争,他们为朝廷军提供了帮助。Before the Chinese army succeeded in crushing the revolt, however, 14 years had passed, and well over 30 million people were reported killed.在中国军队成功摧毁起义前已经过去了14年,据传被杀害的人数超过了30000000.To defeat the rebellion, the Qing court needed, besides Western help, an army stronger and more popular than the demoralized imperial forces.为了击败叛乱,清廷除了需要西方军队的帮助外还需要一只更强大、比士气低迷的朝廷军更得民心的军队。In 1860, scholar-official Zeng Guofan (1811—1872), from Hunan Province, was appointed imperial commissioner and governor-general of the Taiping-controlled territories and placed in command of the war against the rebels.1860年,来自湖南省的士大夫曾国藩(1811——1872)被任命为钦差大臣以及太平天国统治地区的总督,他被命令与起义军开战。Zeng’s Hunan army, created and paid for by local taxes, became a powerful new fighting force under the command of eminent scholar-generals.曾国藩由当地税收创建和付薪酬的湘军,在这位杰出的士大夫将领的指导下,成为了一强大的新的作战部队。Zeng’s success gave new power to an emerging Han Chinese elite and eroded Qing authority.他的胜利为出现的汉人精英提供了新的力量并瓦解了清朝的主权。Simultaneous uprisings in north China (the Nian Rebellion) and southwest China (the Muslim Rebellion) further demonstrated Qing weakness.在中国北部(捻军起义)和西南部(穆斯林起义)同时发生的叛乱进一步展现了清朝的软弱无能。 /201512/412276

Men are believed to be more creative than women, even if they show equal skill.就算表现出的能力不相上下,人们还是觉得男性的创造力比女性强。This is according to a series of studies that found most people associate creativity with #39;masculine qualities#39;, such as risk-taking and a sense of adventure.一系列研究结果发现,大多数人都把创造力和男性特质联系起来,比如承担风险的能力或是冒险精神。The findings provide a clearer insight into why men tend to get promoted faster than women in a range of professions, the researchers say.研究人员表示,这些研究结果让人们可以更明确地洞悉为什么在职场中男性比女性晋升得更快。#39;Our research shows that beliefs about what it takes to #39;think creatively#39; overlap substantially with the unique content of male stereotypes,#39; says lead researcher Devon Proudfoot at Duke University.这项研究的领头人、美国杜克大学的德文·普劳德富特说:“我们的研究表明,人们对于‘创造性思维’的认知很大方面都和传统观念的男性特质相重合。”In an online study, the researchers randomly assigned 80 participants to a passage describing a type of creativity.在第一个实验中,研究人员在网上随机指派80名参与者阅读一篇描述创造力的文章。They included the ability to #39;think outside the box#39;, also known as divergent thinking, or the ability to #39;connect the dots#39;, known as convergent thinking.这篇文章所描述的创造力包括“跳出框框思考”,也称作发散性思维,以及“将多个点连在一起”的能力,也叫作聚合思维。After ing the passage, the participants rated how central 16 different personality traits are to creativity.读完文章后,参与者对16种不同的人格特质按照他们和创造力的关联大小进行排序。As expected, participants associated creativity more with stereotypically masculine traits, including decisiveness, competitiveness, risk-taking, ambition, and daring, than with stereotypically feminine traits like cooperation and understanding.果不其然,相比传统观念中的女性特质(如合作和理解),参与者挑选出的大多都和典型的男性特质相符,包括坚定果断、争强好胜、勇于冒险、雄心勃勃以及大胆勇敢。In a second online study, Proudfoot randomly assigned 169 participants to about either an architect or a fashion designer; some were told the professional was male and others were told that the professional was female.在第二个在线实验中,普劳德富特随机指派169名参与者阅读关于一个建筑师或一个设计师的资料,一部分人被告知这名专业人士为男性,另一部分人被告知这名专业人士为女性。The participants viewed three images of the person#39;s work and rated the work on its creativity, originality, and outside-the-box thinking.参与者通过三张照片了解这位专业人士的作品,并从创造性、原创性和开创性思考三个方面来给作品打分。The male architect was judged as more creative than the female architect, despite the fact that their creations were identical.尽管他们的作品大体相同,但人们还是觉得男性建筑师比女性建筑师更加富有创造力。#39;This result suggests that gender bias in creativity judgments may affect tangible economic outcomes for men and women in the workplace,#39; the researchers write.普劳德富特写道:“研究结果表明,在判断创造力方面的性别偏见可能会影响男女在职场中实际的经济收入。#39;In suggesting that women are less likely than men to have their creative thinking recognized, our research not only points to a unique reason why women may be passed over for corporate leadership positions, but also suggests why women remain largely absent from elite circles within creative industries,#39; says Proudfoot.“研究显示,女性的创造性思维相比男性更难以得到认可。我们的研究不仅从一个独特的角度解释了女性为什么会与公司高层职位失之交臂,也解释了为什么创意产业的精英圈子里难觅女性的身影。 /201510/401656

Jim and Grace Lai, a couple in their early thirties, had the wedding of their dreams last year. But five months later they are still living apart with their respective parents. 三十岁出头的Jim Lai与Grace Lai去年举办了自己梦幻般的婚礼。但5个月过去了,他们还是分别与自己的父母同住。 Welcome to the world of Hong Kong millennials, every bit as vexed as the experiences of their counterparts in the US and Europe. Seventy-six per cent of Hongkongers aged 18-35 are still living with their parents, according to the Urban Research Group of City University of Hong Kong, despite an unemployment rate of just 3 per cent. 欢迎来到香港千禧一代的世界,他们经历着与美国、欧洲同龄人一样的烦恼。香港城市大学(City University of Hong Kong)城市研究小组的调查显示,尽管香港失业率仅为3%,但在18至35岁的香港人中,76%仍与父母同住。 That is almost twice the level of the US, the UK or France. 该比例几乎是美国、英国或法国水平的两倍。 Concerns about job opportunities and being locked out of the housing market mean Hong Kong millennials have much in common with their western peers. But while American and European youths are entering a world alien to previous generations, the problem confronting Hong Kong’s millennials is one with which their parents are all too familiar. 对工作机会的担忧以及被房地产市场拒之门外,意味着香港千禧一代与他们的西方同龄人有很多共同点。但是,在欧美年轻人正在进入一个令上几代人感到陌生的世界之际,香港千禧一代面临的问题对于他们的父母来说实在太熟悉了。 The land-scarce territory has the least affordable homes in the world, a position it has held for years. Median prices last year — which may represent a peak — were 19 times gross income, more than twice the proportion in the UK although some parts of London have aly reached a similar level. 土地资源稀缺的香港是“全球房价最难负担城市”,它已保持这一头衔多年。去年,香港房价中值(或许已达到峰值)达到了家庭税前年收入中值的19倍,是英国的两倍多,虽然伦敦部分地区早已升至同等水平。 Even though multi-generational households have long been the norm in Asia the relentless rise of house prices has accelerated the stay-at-home trend over the past decade. The number of couples “married but living apart” hit a record high last year, according to a study by Hong Kong Ideas Centre, a think-tank. 在亚洲,虽然多代同堂家庭长期以来都属常态,但过去10年持续暴涨的房价加剧了年轻人继续与父母同住的趋势。智库香港集思会(Hong Kong Ideas Centre)的一项研究显示,香港“已婚却分居”的夫妻数量去年创下历史新高。 The Lais know three other married couples in the same situation. Lai氏夫妇知道的跟他们处境相同的已婚夫妻就有3对。 Ji Ling of the City University research group characterise the new generation’s housing choices as a deliberate strategy “to bridge the gap between dreams and reality” at a time of uncertainty and financial stress. Political tension with the mainland is rising and the economy — forecast by the government to grow just 1-2 per cent this year — is slowing, as China’s rate of growth declines. 香港城市大学研究小组的Ji Ling将香港新一代年轻人的住房选择形容为一项经过深思熟虑的策略——以在面对不确定性和财务压力时“弥合梦想与现实之间的差距”。香港与中国内地间的政治紧张正在加剧,而随着中国经济增速下滑,香港的经济增长——香港政府预计今年的增速仅为1-2%——也正在放缓。 There are deep repercussions to young people’s decisions to stay home with their parents: at 1.1 children per women, Hong Kong’s fertility levels are far below the replacement rate. 年轻人与父母同住的决定会造成深远影响:香港的生育率水平只有1.1,即每名妇女平均生育1.1个子女——远低于人口替换率。 But another factor is also at play, one that parents far from Hong Kong might recognise. 但起作用的还有另一个因素——一个香港以外的父母或许也会认可的因素。 An overwhelming 95 per cent of those living with their parents like to do so, according the Urban Research Group. The city’s millennials prefer to have more money to spend by not paying rent; most said they liked being taken care of and avoiding domestic chores. 城市研究小组的调查显示,95%的与父母同住的年轻人喜欢这样。香港千禧一代喜欢这种不用交房租、把更多的钱用于消费的状态;大多数人说他们喜欢被父母照顾,还不用做家务。 The newly-wed Mrs Lai recalls her mother once suggesting it was “funny” to live separately but has little time for such doubts herself. 新婚不久的Grace Lai回忆自己的母亲曾暗示他们小两口自己住会“有趣”,但她自己基本没有过这种怀疑。 “We see friends who spend most of their salary on rent,” she says. “Why suffer so much for it?” “我们有朋友把大多数工资都花在房租上,”她说。“为什么要在这方面损失这么多呢?” /201603/433006

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