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重庆激光脱唇毛大概需要多少钱荣昌区妇幼保健医院做祛眼袋手术多少钱Science and technology科学技术Prospecting for oil石油勘探Grains of truth千虑一得之法Putting rocks in medical scanners may help the search for oil and gas采用医学扫描仪对岩石样本扫描,可帮助寻找石油和天然气STRIKING oil is one thing.开采石油是一回事。Getting it out of the ground in economic quantities is quite another.然而从经济角度考虑,能从地下开采出多少石油又完全是另一回事。Doing so depends on understanding the granular structure of the rock it is trapped in,要做到这点,人们需要对某些岩石的颗粒结构有所了解,而这些岩石是有石油困于其中的。分and analysing that is a tedious business of placing countless samples in pressure vessels to assess their capacity to hold hydrocarbons and to estimate the flow rate of those hydrocarbons through them.析岩石颗粒结构是极其枯燥乏味的事情,研究人员需要将无数个样本放置在压力容器内以评估它们含纳碳氢化合物的能力并估計其中蕴藏的碳氢化合物的产量。This can take years.这可能需要花费数年的时间。Help, though, is at hand.然而可施之法即在眼前。Computerised tomography scanning has been used in medicine for several decades.计算机X线断层照相扫描术在医学领域应用已有几十年时间。Now it is being applied to geology.目前它正被应用于地质学。In alliance with electron microscopy, the geological use of CT scanning has given birth to a new field, digital rock physics.在与电子显微镜配合使用下,CT扫描术在地质上的应用育了一个新的领域—数字岩石物理。The fields proponents believe it will let oil companies decide far more quickly than they could in the past which strikes are worth exploiting, and which should be abandoned.该领域的倡导者认为,该项技术能使石油公司较之以往更加快速地判断哪些石油矿值得开发,哪些应该放弃。One of those proponents is Amos Nur, chief technology officer at, a company based in Houston, Texas.科技公司Ingrain总部设在得克萨斯州休斯敦,其首席技术官阿莫斯?努尔是该技术倡导者之一。His firm is one of three independent digital-rock-physics laboratories in the world.他所在公司是全球三家独立数字岩石物理实验室之一。According to Dr Nur, the new technology is capable of creating three-dimensional pictures of a samples structure with a resolution of 50 nanometres.努尔士表示,这项新技术能为岩石样本结构创建分辨率为50纳米的三维立体照片。That is enough to work out how oil and gas trapped in the pores between the grains of such a rock might be expected to behave.这足够预测出困在岩石颗粒细孔间的石油和天然气的表現方式。Most of the samples analysed by Ingrain start as cylindrical cores brought up from deep below the Earths surface by drills.开始分析的大部分样本都来自于地下深层钻探得到的圆柱形岩石核。A typical core is several metres long, so it is first subject to a rough and y CT scan using a standard medical scanner.典型的岩石核有几米长,因此首先要采用标准医学扫描仪对其进行粗略的CT扫描。The scanner is fitted with calibration rods made of a proprietary material whose properties provide reference points for the creation of an image.该扫描仪安装了许多由专利材料制成的调校棒,这种材料有为图像创建提供参考点的属性。This initial scan yields a picture that has a resolution of about 500 microns.初始扫描会得到一张分辨率为500微米的图片。That done, sections of the core 2-3cm long, whose porosity is of particular interest, are subject to further study.这些完成之后,将一些长度在2至3厘米间,其孔隙度有特殊研究价值的小岩石块做进一步研究。This involves scanning them in a special micro-CT machine, of a sort developed originally to look at computer chips.这包括将岩石核样本放入一台特殊的微CT机进行扫描—微CT机原是为了观察电脑芯片而研制的。The sample is placed on a turntable and rotated inside this microscanner.将小岩石核样本放置在微扫描器内部的转盘上并使其旋转,The result is a 3D image with a resolution of 40 microns.结果得到一个分辨率为40微米的三维图像。This allows sections requiring further study to be identified.这就使得需做进一步研究的小岩石块能够被标识。These sections are dissected, using a laser, into slices a millimetre or less thick, and then scanned again, either with the micro-CT or with a scanning electron microscope.采用激光将这些小岩石块切分成一毫米或不太厚的薄片,然后用微CT机或电子显微扫描镜对其再次扫描。That brings the resolution to half a micron, or 500 nanometres.这样便将图象分辨率提高到了0.5微米或500纳米。Finally, the image is cleaned up by a computer program and the 50-nanometre-resolution picture emerges.最后,将该图像进行计算机降噪去斑处理,得到一张50纳米分辨率的图片。This image, which shows the porosity of the rock, and the channels between the pores,然后将能够显示岩石孔隙度和岩石内部毛孔间通道的图像用计算机分析,is then subject to a computer analysis that reveals how easily hydrocarbons will flow through it under pressure—and thus the likely productivity of a well dug at that site.结果会显示在有压力情况下碳氢化合物在岩石块内部流动的容易程度—从而得知样品来源之处那口钻探井的可能产量。Whether digital rock physics will actually replace traditional methods is unclear.“数字岩石物理”技术是否能够取代传统方法,目前尚无定论。Sceptics, such as Anthony Kovscek of Stanford University, think the claims being made for it are exaggerated.许多人对此持怀疑态度,斯坦福大学的Anthony Kovscek就是其中之一,他认为该技术的声明有夸大成分。Though analysis of a rocks structure in this way will, in his opinion, be able to tell you that a strike is unlikely to yield a commercial return,在他看来,尽管采用这种方法得出的岩石结构分析结果能够告知人们哪个钻探点不可能产生商业回报,the reverse is not true.但其反面结论却未必正确。He does not believe that the technique can predict flow rates,他不相信这种技术能预测石油的流量,even from rock that contains a lot of hydrocarbons—and flow rates are crucial to an oil fields economics.即使对于含有大量碳氢化合物的岩石也无法预测—石油流量是油田经济中至关重要的指标。The new discipline of digital rock physics has, nevertheless, attracted considerable attention within the industry.但是“数字岩石物理”这门新学科在行业内引起了相当大的关注。Smaller oil companies are using the facilities of Ingrain, Numerical Rocks and Digitalcore.小型石油公司正在使用Ingrain、Numerical Rocks和Digitalcore的设备。Larger ones, such as BP, Chevron and Shell, are setting up their own digital-rock-physics laboratories.而大型石油公司—如BP、雪佛龙和壳牌正在创建自己的数字岩石物理实验室。As the supply of crude oil dwindles and the price thus rises, anything that makes the process of prospecting new wells cheaper is to be welcomed. This new technique may be such a thing.当原油供应下降并导致价格上升之时,任何能使新井勘探成本更低的技术都将受到欢迎。“数字岩石物理”可能就是满足此要求的新技术。 /201305/239868重庆360吸脂 内江手臂激光脱毛多少钱

乐山整容医院哪家最好重庆面部填充术多少钱 Is animal cloning for real? I want to have my cat cloned.动物真的可以克隆吗?我想克隆家里的猫。Well, animal cloning technology exists, but pet cloning isnt quitethere yet. And it may never be.动物克隆确实存在,但是,宠物克隆现在还没有。估计以后也不会有。Why not? I could think lots of people could want to have copiesof their pets.为什么不呢?我觉得有不少人想克隆宠物吧?Thats just a problem. A clone isnt a copy. Its a separate, individual organism.因为你得考虑这样一个问题:克隆并非复制。克隆是独立的生物个体。The only thingclone of Mr. Wolfs and Mr. Wolfs of themselves have in common is their genetic sequence.沃夫先生的克隆产物和生物体本身唯一的共同点在于基因序列。The only thing? Isnt that everything?只是基因序列吗?不是所有的都相同?Apparently not! As cloning technology has improved, more and more evidence has come out ofclones that dont look alike or act alike.当然不是!随着克隆科技的不断发展,越来越多的明显示克隆并非看起来一样或行为一样。For example, Ted Friend and Greg Archer, both at Texas Aamp; M, have cloned piglets.比如,德州农工大学的Ted Friend 和Greg Archer教授克隆了一批小猪。They report that there is just as much variation in appearance among the clones as among thenon-clones.报告显示在克隆猪和正常繁殖的猪并无二致,都存在生物变异。Some have bristly coats, others not; some have more teeth, some fewer.有的鬓毛较多,有的没有鬓毛。有的有的牙齿更多;有的牙齿更少。But wouldnt a clone of Mr. Wolf at least have its charming personality?克隆的宠物猫至少保留了讨人喜欢的个性吧?Maybe not. The worlds first cloned cat was made by Duane Kraemer, also at Texas A amp; M.也许不会哦!同是德州农工大学的Duane Kraemer研究出了世界上第一只克隆猫。Hereports that the clone has a different personality altogether than its clone mother-its much morefriendly, in fact.克隆猫的性情和原来那只猫的性情大不同—友善了不少。 201404/293153重庆第一人民医院整形怎样

重庆最好的隆鼻医院 Business商业报道Microsoft and the PC industry微软和PC行业Defenestrated即将被抛弃Steve Ballmer is a casualty of the personal computers rapid decline史蒂夫·鲍尔默是个人电脑产业迅速下滑的牺牲品。UNTIL August 23rd few people would have described Steve Ballmer as retiring.直到8月23日之前,也很少有人会将史蒂夫·鲍尔默与退休联系在一起。Microsofts chief executive has played both tiger and Tigger: snarling at Apples gadgets; and bouncing, with a whoop, onto conference stages to extol his companys wares.这个微软的首席执行官一直在同时扮演老虎和跳跳虎的角色:对苹果产品的小工具咆哮,在阶段会议上为颂扬他公司的产品而奋力呐喊。But retiring he is, within a year.但是,不到一年时间,他就选择了退休。Mr Ballmers departure is a surprise.鲍尔默先生的离去是一个惊喜。He had announced a reorganisation of the company only in July and had hoped to oversee much of the change.他仅在七月份就宣布了公司重组的消息,希望可以看到新的曙光。Some celebrated his going:他的离去也有一些值得庆祝的事:Microsofts share price went up by 7.3% on the day the news broke.消息传出的当天,微软的股价就上升了7.3%。Mr Ballmer has plenty of critics, although Microsofts revenues have trebled on his 13-year watch, to .8 billion in the year to June, and profits have grown similarly, to .9 billion.虽然在他经营的13年间微软的收入增加了两倍,在今年六月更是到达了778亿美元,利润也同样增加了21.9亿美元,但是鲍尔默先生仍然遭受了许多批评指责。The critics point at the rise of Apple and Google, and say Microsoft should have done better—or handed some of its billion of cash to shareholders.批评人士认为,在苹果和谷歌迅速崛起的时候,微软完全可以做的更好,或者可以交出77亿美元的现金给股东们。In an interview with the Seattle Times, Mr Ballmer denied that pressure from ValueAct, a fund with a small stake in the firm, helped push him out.在一次《西雅图时报》的采访中,鲍尔默先生否认了来自激进投资基金的压力,这是一个拥有少量股权但却助他出头的基金。Microsoft sits atop a pyramid of companies that prospered from the long boom in personal computers.微软长期以来,一直处于PC行业金字塔的顶端并保持繁荣。The vast majority of PCs run on Microsofts Windows operating system and are powered by Intels processors.绝大多数的个人电脑都在运行微软的操作系统,并采用英特尔处理器,They bear the brands of Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo and others, and nowadays are mostly made by Taiwanese contractors.他们承担的惠普,戴尔,联想和一些其他品牌,如今大多数是由台商承办的。The trouble is that people increasingly prefer to buy mobile devices, made by Apple or running Googles Android operating system.不过,麻烦的是,人们越来越喜欢购买由苹果或者谷歌安卓系统运行的移动设备,个人电脑的销量正在以两位数的速度迅速下降。Sales of PCs have been falling at double-digit rates. From the pyramids apex to its base, companies are desperate both to refresh the PC and reduce their reliance on it.从金字塔的顶端到底层,所有的公司都在拼命的刷新他们的个人电脑,减少对它的依赖,Few are having much success.不过极少能获得很大的成功。Frank Gillett of Forrester, a research firm, reckons that Windows share of the market for personal devices, once 95% or more, has dropped to around 30%.福里斯特研究公司的弗兰克·吉列特认为,Windows个人设备的市场份额一旦上升到95%以上,实际上PC行业整体就下降了30%左右。Microsoft responded belatedly with Windows 8, a new edition intended for touchscreen PCs and tablets launched last October,with variations for cheaper tablets and phones.微软迟来的回应说,将推出用于触摸屏电脑和平板电脑的Windows8,以应对更便宜的平板电脑和手机的变化。Applications lie behind oblong tiles designed for fingertips rather than icons for mouse-clicks.用指尖触及的长方形方块的应用,取代了鼠标的点击。Microsofts successful Xbox entertainment system was given the same look.微软成功的Xbox系统被赋予了相同的外观。The idea was that this uniform style would help to transfer Microsofts dominance of the desktop to mobile devices, and refresh the PC too.当时的想法是,统一的风格有助于将微软在桌面上的统治地位转移到移动设备,并刷新个人电脑。It has not happened yet.但这一切并没有发生,Few businesses were likely to hurry to buy Windows 8 anyway; some have yet to switch to its predecessor, Windows 7.因为很少由企业急着购买Windows 8,更有甚者还没有更新到Windows 7系统。Consumers have not taken to tiles on PC screens: a new version, Windows 8.1, due in October, will make it easier for them to stick with the old look.消费者并没有,在十月份推出的Windows 8.1系统中,会让他们更容易坚持使用旧外观。Only now is a wide choice of touch PCs and tablet-PC hybrids appearing.而现在正是一个触摸电脑与平板电脑并驾齐驱的多选择时代。Microsofts own tablet, the Surface, has been a flop, forcing it to make a 0mwrite-off in its latest results.微软自己的平板电脑,至少从表面上看,一直是一个失败,最后不得不以九亿美元核销其最新结果。Windows phones, mostly made by Nokia of Finland, are far behind iPhones and Android devices, with just 3.3% of the world market according to Gartner, another research firm.Windows的手机大多是由芬兰的诺基亚公司制造,远远落后于苹果系统和安卓系统。根据另一家研究公司加特纳的数据,他们只占有3.3%的世界市场,They have ousted BlackBerry from third place, but that is not saying much.被他们从第三位赶下来的黑莓,就更不必说了。Next to Microsoft at the apex, Intel has also done poorly in smartphones and tablets, though it is striving to catch up and in June unveiled a new chip that it hopes will bring new zip to PCs.仅次于顶端的微软,英特尔公司在智能手机和平板电脑上也做的不好,但它正在努力赶上并于六月份推出了一款新的芯片希望能给PC产业带来新的活力。Among the PC-makers, HP pondered quitting altogether in 2011, then sacked the chief executive who suggested it.在这些电脑制造商中,惠普选择在2011年停下来,然后解雇了提此建议的行政长官。Meg Whitman, his successor, chose to stay in, as well as pushing into services and software and shedding 27,000 jobs. She has plenty still to do: HPs latest results, on August 21st, sent a share-price rally into reverse.他的继任者,梅格·惠特曼选择了留下她还是有很多事情要做:八月二十一日,惠普推出的最新成果,造成了股价的涨势逆转。At Dell, which is scrapping for much the same ground, Michael Dell, the founder and chief executive, still hopes to win a battle to take the company private.而在戴尔,也是大同小异,创始人兼首席执行官迈克尔·戴尔 ,仍希望能赢得一场战斗,将公司私有化。Of the leading PC-makers, Lenovo has coped best. Its home market,China, is slowing but growing, and it is selling plenty of smartphones.在领先的个人电脑制造商中,联想应对的最好,在其国内市场—中国,正在缓慢但是持续的增长,并售出大量的智能手机。Despite its slow start in mobile, Microsoft remains hugely profitable.尽管在移动设备上进展缓慢,微软依然利润丰厚。Its easy to get focused only on Windows, says David Cearley of Gartner.将焦点集中在Windows上很容易。Cearley Gartner的大卫说道。The firm was quicker than its rivals to provide cloud services to big companies.该公司在为大公司提供云务上比其他竞争对手更快。Although Googles free word-processor and spsheet threaten its Office software, Microsoft still has most of its customers, to whom it can sell improved services online.虽然谷歌的免费文字处理和电子表格威胁其Office软件,微软仍然有大部分可以在线销售的客户。The direction Mr Ballmer has set makes a lot of sense, Mr Cearley says.鲍尔默先生已经设置的方向具有很大的意义,Had he set out sooner, he might have seen the journey through.他越早出发,越可以看到更远的旅程。 /201309/255333重庆西南医院官方网站铜梁区妇女儿童医院营业时间

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