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来源:美时讯    发布时间:2020年01月24日 19:02:02    编辑:admin         

The educational materials presented here were developed以下教育资讯由爱荷华州立大学by students and faculty of the department of food食物科学和人类营养学院的science and human nutrition at Iowa State University.师生共同研究产生Funding for this project was provided by grants from此项目由美国中西部癌症协会the American Cancer Society Midwest and the和兰斯,阿姆斯特朗基金会Lance Armstrong Foundation. The materials are提供资助,节目资讯旨在intended for educational use and are not meant to教育用途而非提供医疗建议provide medical advice. We welcome your feedback我们欢迎您对这些资讯提出about these materials. Please use the evaluation survey您的反馈,请点击主页上的link on the home page to provide your comments and评估调查链接来提供您的suggestions.与建议Healthy habits build healthy children.健康习惯造就健康儿童This presentation will cover food choices in children这个讲座涉及针对儿童的食物选择encouraging healthy habits and engaging children in倡导健康饮食习惯以及吸引儿童加入meal preparation. Throughout this presentation I will三餐准备,讲座自始至终我都会提到refer to a healthy diet. My definition will be健康饮食,我的定义是根据USDA(美国according to the USDAs guidelines of ;My Pyramid;.农业部)的;我的金字塔;指南而确定的My pyramid is a resource which advocates ways to;我的金字塔;是一个向大众提供promote dietary guidelines for the public. A healthy倡导膳食指南方式的资源,健康diet includes lots of fruit, vegetables, whole grains,饮食包括大量的水果,蔬菜,全谷物fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, lean meats,脱脂或低脂牛奶和奶产品,瘦肉poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. A healthy diet禽肉,鱼肉,豆类,蛋和坚果,健康饮食在is also low in saturated fats, trans-fats, cholesterol,饱和脂肪,反式脂肪,胆固醇sodium and added sugars. To explain more about钠和添加糖的含量上也很低,要更详细地解释the pyramid it is broken up into six different food这个金字塔,就要把它分解为六组不同食物groups which should be mixed into the diet everyday.每天须把它们混进饮食中去Serving sizes are not explicitly mentioned because备餐量并没有明确地加以解释,因为they are different for all ages. The food groups are对不同年龄的人是不一样的,这些食物组divided into sections of different widths to represent被分为宽度不同的部分,以此表示the food groups need to be consumed at different这些食物组需要以不同的比率得以消费ratios. The stair steps on the side remind us that一边的上台阶提醒着我们physical activity is a very important component of体育锻炼对于过健康生活而言也是一个非常living a healthy life as well and should be considered重要的组成部分,应该与食物组一起daily along with the food groups. So how do children每日进行,那么,孩子们如何学习learn to enjoy the foods they eat? Lets take a look.享用他们吃的食物呢?我们来看一看Naturally, children like foods that taste good to them.孩子们喜欢吃起来可口的食物,这理所当然Studies which have focused on which characteristics有研究聚焦于发现食物的哪些特点of food children prefer best have found that children是孩子们最喜爱的,结果是,孩子们lean towards energy dense foods. Energy dense foods are倾向于能量食品,能量密集食品是那些foods high in sugar, salt, and fats. A study which糖,盐和脂肪含量高的食品,一项研究examined the facial expressions of infants learned that观察了婴儿的面部表情,发现at birth infants prefer the basic taste of sweet best.婴儿出生时更喜欢基本的甜味This is mostly because of biological factors that这主要是生物因素造成的,因为mothers milk contains natural sugars and milk is母乳中含有天然糖分,而母乳是the first source of foods for infants. The study has婴儿食物的最初来源,研究还发现also found by introducing new flavors other than在婴儿六个月大时通过导入除了甜味以外的sweetness at six months of age an infants preference新味觉的方法,婴儿的喜好会can diverge away from sweetness towards other foods.从甜味发生偏离,转向其他食物From this study we can gain that by introducing new通过这项研究,我们可以知道通过向儿童foods to children can help increase food preferences导入新食物的方法,我们能够增加他们除了other than sweetness. Childrens food preferences are甜味以外的食物喜好,儿童的食物喜好also influenced by their parents or other influential同样也被他们的父母或是其他他们生活中people in their lives. A study focusing on childrens的重要人物所影响,一项研究儿童食物food environments and their eating habits found that环境和他们的吃饭习惯的研究发现a childs dietary habits and food preferences are儿童是通过他们所处的环境来发展出自己的developed through their surroundings.饮食习惯和食物喜好的201504/371256。

So the fast day isnt about total abstinence.;禁食日;不代表完全断食Its about meals that look like this.你仍然能享用这样一顿午餐Whats great about alternate day fasting而隔日禁食法中最棒便是is what happens on the alternate days.当禁食日隔天能干的事And then thats alternated with something we call the feed day,取而代之的第二天称为;进食日;which is where you can eat whatever you want.在这天里你想吃什么就能吃什么Absolutely whatever you want.你完全可以随心所欲So heres the pattern of alternate day fasting.所以这就是隔日禁食法的模式Fast day.禁食日Feed day.进食日Fast day.禁食日Feed day.进食日It certainly sounds easier than either prolonged fasting它听起来确实比持续性禁食or the daily calorie restriction I looked at earlier.或我看到的每日低热量饮食要容易But is it as effective?可它是否同样有效呢Well, Kristas currently doing a trial with overweight subjects克丽丝塔对超重人群进行测试which suggests it might be.说明这可能是有效的What we saw was that the alternate day fasting group我们发现隔日禁食组actually lost a bit more weight,减掉的体重更多些so about 5lb more after the 6-month period.在六个月后减掉大概两公斤多And they actually saw some pretty nice decreases同时他们的低密度脂蛋白胆固醇in LDL cholesterol,还有甘油三酯as well as triglycerides.确实降低了很多重点解释:1.happen on 偶然碰到;偶然发现例句:I happened on Comrade Wang in town yesterday.昨天我在市内偶然碰到王同志。2.a bit more 稍多的例句:The football team needs a bit more ginger in it.这足球队需要些活力。3.as well as 和…一样例句:He is a friend in word as well as in deed.他是个言行如一的朋友。 201510/406762。

Butylated Hydroxianisole or BHA is used as a preservative because it is an antioxidant丁基羟基茴香醚(BHA)主要用于防腐剂,因为它是一种抗氧化剂that stabilizes and preserves freshness, nutrition, flavour and colour in both animal and human foods.可以保持动物或人类食品的新鲜程度,营养物质,味道及色泽BHA is currently approved by the FDA as a food additive.目前该物质已被食药局批准为食物添加剂But BHA has been hypothesized to cause cancer.但它曾被怀疑会引起癌症But is also been hypothesized to be an anti carcinogen as well.也被怀疑是种抗癌物质So what should you believe?你会相信哪一点呢?Lets look into the research about this food additive and cancer.让我们深入观察一下关于这种添加剂和癌症的研究It has been shown to have cancer causing effects in mice when in given in large doses研究曾显示,如果给老鼠注入大量该物质会引起癌症but has never been proven to cause cancer in humans.但这种现象从未在人类身上发生The main area where the cancer was found in research with mice was in the fore stomach研究中老鼠患癌的主要部位是前胃which humans do not have.而人类并没有这个部位Additionally the doses that were given to the mice此外,为老鼠注入的丁基羟基茴香醚量were more than the FDA allows to be added in our food.比食药局规定的食物中此物质含量高On the flip side research has also shown that BHA can have anti cancer effects另一方面,研究发现该物质具有抗癌作用because it inhibits cell to cell communication and therefore can stop the sp of cancer cells.因为它阻断了细胞之间的信息传递,因此可以防止癌细胞扩散But as a carcinogen a review article published in 1999但是一篇于1999年发表的that looked at information from the international agency for research关注国际机构研究癌症信息的文章on cancer evaluated BHA and found evidence that it had carcinogenic effects in animals but not in humans.发现该物质在动物体内具有致癌作用,但在人体内则没有It was found that when given in large doses研究发现当大剂量注入该物质时cancer and tumours were found in the fore stomach of mice.老鼠的前胃会发现癌和肿瘤In this study doses of BHA were given in doses of 98 milligrams and 414 milligrams.这项研究分别向老鼠体内注入98和414毫克丁基羟基茴香醚When given at large doses it was found that the incidence of fore stomach cancer in mice was 34.6% in males and 29.4% in females.当注入大剂量时,34.6%的雄性老鼠前胃发现癌,而雌性老鼠仅为29.4%But when given in low doses mice were found to have no malignant cancer.但注入低剂量时老鼠体内没有发现恶性癌Another study mentioned a review article by Elmo et al. published in 1990,由Elmo et al于1990年发表的一篇文章提到另一项研究note that BHA as a carcinogen in Japanese house mouse shrews that do not have a fore stomach.认为该物质是致癌物该研究以没有前胃的日本家鼠鼩鼱为研究对象BHA was given to male and female shrews for 80 weeks and given amounts of 0.5%, 1% and 2% incorporated into the diet.分别向雄雌鼩鼱体内注入丁基羟基茴香醚长达80周且该物质占饮食比例分别为0.5%、1%和2%The shrews that received the high doses dies within the first 8 weeks due to gastro intestinal hemorrhaging,注入高剂量的鼩鼱于前八周就因肠胃出血而死亡the low and middle dose groups had increased cell dose in the lungs而注入中低量的鼩鼱肺部细胞增多but this did not contain a control group and was not confirmed and therefore can not be considered creditable.但该研究没有对照组也没有经过论,因此没有可信度There are multiple studies that also suggest BHA could be a possible anti carcinogen.还有很多研究显示丁基羟基茴香醚可能是种抗癌物质Studies show that BHA can inhibit carcinogenic effects of other chemicals when given in high doses or extremely small doses.研究显示,当注入高剂量甚至很少该物质时,体内其他化学物质的致癌物会被阻断In an article by Williams and Eantopus it was stated that these studies suggest thatWilliams和Eantopus合著的文章认为这些研究表明low doses of BHA inhibit carcinogenesis在体内出现DNA活性致癌物之前or the development of cancer when given prior to and during exposures to DNA reactive carcinogens.或期间低剂量的注入该物质可以抑制致癌作用或减缓癌发展Anti carcinogenic activity at low concentrations由于游离基的封闭活动has been suggested to be due to free radical trapping activity.可能存在低集中度的抗癌活动But when BHA was given in large amounts, greater than three percent in the diet但当大剂量注入该物质,如占饮食比例的3%以上时it was shown to inhibit carcinogenic effects when given before or during the cancer.在患癌之前和之时都可以抑制癌的发展Overall there needs to be more research done to support this anti carcinogenic conclusion.总之,需要更多的研究来撑该物质的抗癌作用It has been shown to have anti cancer effects when given in small or large amounts研究已显示无论大小剂量的注入该物质都可起到抗癌作用but the research is still inconclusive.但这些研究还不能下定论201602/427531。

Next we will talk about the two sections highlighting information about nutrients on the food label.下面我们要讨论一下食品标签上关于营养物质的两块显著信息In general you can think of the nutrient sections in two different parts.大体上你可以认为营养成分由两部分组成The first part which is highlighted in our example in yellow on the next slide,第一部分是下张课件例子中的黄色区域are the group of nutrients that you should limit.这部分是我们应该控制摄入的营养成分These nutrients are total fat,这些成分全部是脂肪which include saturated fat and trans fat, cholesterol and sodium.包括饱和脂肪,转化脂肪,胆固醇和钠In the united states most people consume adequate amounts or too much of these nutrients.大多数美国人过多食用这些营养物质And they are also linked to an increased risk of chronic diseases.它们还会增加慢性病的发病几率Such chronic diseases are heart disease high blood pressure and some cancers.如心脏病,高血压和癌症The other group of nutrients which are highlighted in blue on the next slide营养成分的另一部分就是下张课件中的蓝色区域are ones that you should be sure to get enough of.这些物质是我们必须充足获取的They are dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron.它们包括食用纤维,维生素A,维生素C,钙和铁Opposite to the first group,与上类物质相反this group of nutrients are ones that Americans tend to not get enough of.美国人对这些物质的食用有待加强So you should aim to consume adequate amounts.因此我们要注意注入足量的此类物质These nutrients can reduce risk of some diseases or conditions.它们能够减缓一些疾病的发病率和发病条件Examples are a lack of calcium that can lead to osteoporosis例如,缺钙会引起骨质疏松症and adequate fiber is linked to healthy bowel function.充足的维生素能够保健全的肠功能Now lets take a look at these nutrients on the food label.现在让我们看一下食品标签上的营养物Shown here in yellow total fat, saturated fat,这里黄色区域是脂肪总量,包括饱和脂肪trans fat, cholesterol and sodium are shown here with the amounts of each nutrient listed beside it.转化脂肪,胆固醇和钠,旁边分别列举了其含量Again you should aim to consume limited amounts of this group of nutrients.再次说明你应该有节制地食用这些物质The macaroni and cheese example has fairly large amounts of these nutrients in this section.例中的通心粉奶酪含有大量这些物质Highlighted in blue are the nutrients that you should aim to consume adequate amounts.蓝色区域是你应该食用足量的物质These are dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron.它们是食用纤维,维生素A,维生素C,钙和铁This example of macaroni and cheese is not a good source of dietary fiber,例子中的通心粉奶酪不能提供足量食用纤维as you can see there are zero grams of fiber in this product.你可以看到此产品中含有的纤维量是0克Understanding how to know if you are eating too much or too little of一旦你了解了每日摄入量百分比the nutrients mentioned is easier once you understand the percent daily value.你就能更容易的理解如何知道自己是否摄入过多或过少的上述物质了We will discuss the percent daily values just after the footnote section.我们在介绍完补充说明一栏后就会讨论每日摄入量百分比201603/430095。


But on that night,但那天晚上people all over the earth looked up at the night sky世界各地的人仰望夜空时and knew that there were two men up there,都知道月亮上正有两个人looking back at them.回望着他们I remember the night of the landing and I looked up from the parking lot我还记得登陆月球的那个晚上,我在停车场抬头仰望and there was the moon and you could see the little dark看到天上的月亮smudge over on the right side of the moon,和月球右侧的一抹黑影which is the Sea of Tranquillity.那就是宁静海And you know that there were two men,而我们知道两位登月者Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin at that time,阿姆斯壮和艾德林by that time, trying to sleep in their lunar module当时正试着在登月小艇中睡觉on the surface of that smudge that you can see from Houston.登月小艇就停在远从休士顿就能看到的那抹黑影上Over the next 3 years, 5 more missions landed on the moon.在其后的三年间,陆续完成了五次登月任务Each one was more ambitious than the last.每一次都比上一次更有野心Whereas Armstrong and Aldrin had only taken a few tentative steps阿姆斯壮和艾德林小心翼翼地from the lunar module,在登月小艇附近走了几步the astronauts on later missions travelled miles across the surface.其后任务的太空人在月球表面上长途跋涉好几里They spent days at a time on the moon,他们一口气在月球上停留好几天visiting different locations,探访不同区域collecting samples of rock and soil收集岩石和土壤样本and setting up scientific experiments.并进行科学实验Guess what we just found, I think we found what we came for.你猜我找到什么?我找到了我们此行的目的--Rock eh?结晶岩Yes sir.没错But down on earth, with each mission,但是人们对登月任务的兴趣the public interest was starting to wane.却大不如前By the time it came to Apollo 17 NASA even had to阿波罗17号升空时pay the American TV networks to cover the mission.航太总署还得花钱请美国电视台报导By the fourth or fifth time that we had gone to the moon到了第四、五次时it was probably was page 2 or 3 news.登陆月球大概成为第二版或第三版的新闻You know, it wasnt, it certainly wasnt headline.不再是头条There is...找到了,你们看…People were getting bored with going to the moon.人们开始觉得去月球很无聊Once youve seen astronauts collect rocks for a few times,看太空人收集岩石it ceases to fascinate.看了几次之后就没什么意思了Going to the moon had been done and there was a feeling登月任务圆满成功that it was now time to do other things.人们觉得现在该做些别的事情了Theres a state of apathy in the ed States now I guess,美国人越来越冷淡people just dont care one way or another.我觉得他们已经不关心了Im saying that its,我觉得we are spending too much money on the moon.我们为登陆月球花了太多钱I think they could use the time,他们可以把这些时间the energy and the money to better advantage here精力和金钱in the ed States.用在改善美国国内情况上Theres lots of room for improvement here.国内进步的空间还很大Rather than spend all that money exploring space国内有这么多人在挨饿when people are starving here,他们还大手笔地展开太空任务and that money could be put to very good不如把钱拿来use in improving life here.改善人民的生活When we finally got there,我们终于抵达月球后it turned out our moon didnt harbour life or even water.发现月球上没有生物,连水也没有It was not the home of the Gods or rampaging herds of bison.那里不是诸神的宫殿,也没有横冲直撞的野牛201504/372527。

After the accident, Michael had to go through a horrific experience那次意外后 迈克尔为了修复头皮to repair his scalp.吃了很多苦lt was a form of tissue expansion known as ballooning.是一种让皮肤组织膨胀的治疗This procedure is often used on the scalp这种治疗经常用在头皮上to treat burns, scarring.治疗灼伤与疤痕This is done by the surgeon由外科医师执行inserting a plastic balloon underneath the skin将一个塑料气囊插入皮肤下and, over a period of time, increasing the volume of the balloon,透过逐渐充气and therefore, stretching the skin above.来伸展上方的皮肤The surgeons,almost like drawing a curtain,外科医师 有点像是拉窗帘一般bring the normal tissue over that area of scalp将头皮上的皮肤掀开and fill in the scarred area.填补疤痕的部位l actually spoke to Dr Steven Hoefflin,我与迈克尔百事可乐事件后who did the first ballooning procedure on Michael after the Pepsi incident.初次帮他做这手术的 史提夫·郝富林医师谈过And he explained to me他向我解释Michael continued to do the ballooning procedure迈克尔后来一直持续与其他医师with different doctors, throughout his career.做这个手术201510/401681。

If your meddling mom is driving you crazy with her nose constantly in your business, take these steps to get her off your back once and for all.如果你爱管闲事的妈妈总是插手你的事情,让你快要抓狂了,采取下面的步骤,一劳永逸地让她还你自由。You Will Need你需要Emotional control情感控制Acknowledgment认可Sense of humor幽默感Specific example具体的例子Catchphrase名言警句Willingness to occasionally ask her advice愿意偶尔采纳她的建议Adroitness at changing the subject (optional)随时改变话题的机智(可选)Steps步骤STEP 1 Stay in control1.控制情绪Resist the urge to lash out at her every time she gives unwanted advice. Itll just reinforce the same old power-struggle pattern.抑制每当她给出你不想要的建议时向她大发脾气的冲动。这样只会强化家庭大战的模式。STEP 2 Acknowledge her advice2.认可她的建议Acknowledge her advice by saying ;thanks; or ;good to know.; Follow up by calmly telling her that all her unsolicited advice makes you feel like nothing you do is good enough -- ask for some credit.认可她的建议,说“谢谢”或者“太好了,我知道了。”随后冷静地告诉她,她主动提供的所有建议让你觉得自己做的任何事都不够好——请求她给你留点面子。STEP 3 Make a joke3.说个笑话Make a joke next time she butts in. If she wants you to do something youd rather not, give her a witty line that makes light of the situation.下次她干涉你的事情时,说个笑话。如果她想让你做你不想做的事情,借鉴现在的处境说个诙谐机智的笑话。STEP 4 Use an example4.举出具体的例子Use a specific example where a friend or family member criticized her to illustrate that no one likes unwanted advice.举出一个具体的例子,某个朋友或家人对她的批评,表明任何人都不喜欢她主动提供建议。STEP 5 Repeat a catchphrase5.重复名言警句Come up with a catchphrase and repeat it exactly every time she butts in. Shell then expect the phrase and possibly avoid saying anything at all.想一个名言警句,每次她插手你的事情你都重复一遍。以后她可能会料到你要说这句话,干脆什么都不说了。Become a master of changing the subject.要擅长改变话题。STEP 6 Ask her advice6.征求她的建议Ask her advice every now and then. If she feels needed and appreciated, maybe shell lighten up.偶尔征求一下她的建议。如果她觉得有需要或者受到尊重,或许会高兴起来。The term ;heliopter parent; describes a parent who hovers over their children and become too involved in their lives, especially at school.“直升机父母”一词用来描述总是盘旋在孩子头顶上方,过分干涉孩子的生活,尤其是学校生活的父母。视频听力译文由。 /201503/365262。