南川区治疗狐臭多少钱龙马乐园

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月29日 07:18:39
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Finance and Economics;Spain and the markets;The Spanish patient;财经;西班牙及市场;西班牙患者;A full bail-out of the euro areas fourth-largest economy is looming;对欧元区第四大经济体的全面纾困正在逼近;If Spain were a patient, the mood in the hospital ward would be tense. Every attempt by local specialists advised by renowned European consultants to treat the sickness brings no more than temporary relief. Even more worrying, the relapses after each dose are happening sooner and sooner. Spains chances of avoiding intensive care—a full bail-out—are receding to near vanishing-point.如果西班牙是一名患者,那么在医院病房里的气氛是非常紧张的。由欧洲著名顾问建议,并由当地专家所实施的为治疗疾病所做的每个努力都只带来了短暂的缓解。更令人担忧的是,每次药后病情的复发一次比一次提前。如此看来,西班牙想要避免重病特别护理——一次全面的纾困——的希望开始变得遥不可及。The symptoms of Spanish sickness are manifest in ten-year government bond yields touching 7.75% on July 25th; previous bail-outs of Greece, Ireland and Portugal occurred not long after rates had surpassed 7%. Even more perturbing, two-year yields also briefly went above 7%, in effect foreclosing the governments ability to borrow at anything but short maturities.西班牙的症状主要表现为10年期的政府债券收益率在7月25日达到了7.75%;而先前对希腊,爱尔兰和葡萄牙的的纾困正是在债券收益率超过了7%后不久发生的。更令人感到不安的是,2年期的收益率也曾在短时期内突破了7%,这就实际上排除了政府有能力发行长期债券的可能而只能发行短期债券。No isolation ward is possible in the financially integrated euro area and Spains sickness quickly infected other countries. The Italian ten-year bond yield went above 6.5%, its highest since January. European stockmarkets retreated and Italys fell to a euro-era low. Sentiment was further soured by a report from Moodys, a ratings agency, saying that Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands might lose their cherished triple-A status. The prognosis was based in part on fears about the public-debt burden that northern countries might have to assume if bail-outs sp.在金融一体化的欧元区是没有隔离病房的,于是西班牙的病情很快就感染了其它国家。意大利10年期的债券收益权超过了6.5%,为1月以来最高。欧洲股市回落,意大利股市降到了欧元区的最低点。一份来自穆迪公司——一家评级机构的报告说,德国、卢森堡和荷兰有可能会失去它们宝贵的AAA评级地位,这就使得股市更加敏感。这种预测部分是根据人们对于公共债务负担的恐惧——人们担心一旦纾困蔓延开来,北欧国家可能需要承担责任。The market funk was the more troubling since a Spanish government with a lot going for it had appeared to be getting a grip. Public debt is rising fast, but at 69% of GDP last year was far lower than Italys 120%—and less even than Germanys 81%. The budget deficit is high (8.9% of GDP in 2011), but only a week before the market panic Mariano Rajoy, the prime minister, announced more tough austerity measures. And on July 20th European finance ministers sanctioned the first tranche of a partial bail-out worth up to EURO100 billion (Dollor121 billion) for Spanish banks.由于仍需努力的西班牙政府似乎开始掌控局面,这种市场恐惧就更令人感到不安了。公共债务快速上升,但去年西班牙公共债务占GDP的69%这一比例远远低于意大利的120%——甚至还低于德国的81%。预算赤字居高不下(2011年占GDP的8.9%),但就在市场恐慌一周前,西班牙总理马里亚诺.拉霍伊还宣布了更多严厉的紧缩措施。7月20日,欧洲财政部长批准为西班牙提供价值1000亿欧元(1210亿美元)的第一批纾困资金。So why are investors in such a cold sweat about Spain? One reason is that Mr Rajoy flunked hard choices at the outset, notably the cleansing of the banks. Despite a low starting-point for public debt, deficit overshoots have revealed insufficient central control over the 17 regions that are responsible for a big chunk of spending. Investors fret that more regions may follow Valencia, which applied for aid on July 20th. They are in any case sceptical that Spain can meet its targets for cutting the deficit in the teeth of a recession that is harsher than expected.那为什么投资者对西班牙市场感到如此惶恐不安?原因之一是拉霍伊总理在一开始的艰难抉择中就失败了,尤其是在清理方面。尽管公共债务一开始很低,但赤字的快速上升表明了中央政府对17个地区的管理不足,这些地区占据了出的很大一部分。巴伦西亚于7月20日申请了救助,而投资者担心会有更多的地区跟随巴伦西亚的步伐。他们怀疑西班牙能否面对超出想象的经济衰退,达成削减赤字的目标。The biggest worry is Spains external debt. Spain ran hefty current-account deficits in the first decade of the euro. As a result, its liabilities to foreign investors exceeded the assets that its residents own abroad by 92% of GDP last year, among the highest in the euro area. The problem for Spain is that foreign capital has been fleeing over the past year. That has weakened the banks and the economy and left the Spanish government shunned by foreign investors for its own financing needs.人们最大的担忧是西班牙的外债。西班牙进入欧元区的第一个十年就背负了大量的往来账户赤字,其结果是去年西班牙的外债超过其居民在国外拥有的资产,其差额相当于GDP的92%,这位于欧元区前列。西班牙的问题是在过去的一年中,外国资本在不断外流,这就使得和经济情况不断恶化,并使得西班牙政府在融资方面吸引不了外国投资者。The European summit in late June offered a flicker of hope but it is guttering. Euro-area leaders agreed that the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), their new permanent rescue fund, would be able to inject funds directly into banks rather than via loans to the government. That perked markets up since it promised to sever the link between weak banks and weak sovereigns. But before long the deal looked less solid: the ESM cannot come into force until September, when Germanys constitutional court will rule on its legality. Assuming it passes that test, the ESM cannot be used for direct bank recapitalisation until a European supervisor is put in charge.六月底的欧洲峰会为人们带来了一丝希望,但这个希望却正在逐渐破灭。欧元区领导人同意欧洲稳定机制(ESM)—— 新的永久救助基金,可以直接为各注入资金而无需通过政府。这个消息让市场振奋不已,因为它承诺断开脆弱的和脆弱的国家之间的联系。但没过多久这个协议便看起来不那么可靠:欧洲稳定机制直到九月才生效,到时德国宪法法庭会对其合法性进行裁决。即使这个机制通过了考验,在欧洲监督机构成立之前,它依然不能直接用来对进行资金重组。Spain may yet be able to fend off a bail-out for some time. It has some cash reserves and can still borrow at short maturities. The euro area also has its temporary rescue fund, which will lend the Spanish government the initial sum of money for the banks. But even if Spain survives a hot summer, the markets are signalling that it will need a full bail-out later this year.西班牙可能仍可抵挡纾困计划一段时间,它还有一些现金并能发行短期债券。欧元区也有临时救助资金,它可以把首批贷款借给西班牙政府以对其进行重组。但即使西班牙能安然度过这个夏天,市场表明其在年底依然需要一次全面纾困。That would be a nightmare, and not just for Spain. The Spanish government must borrow EURO385 billion until the end of 2014 to cover its budget deficit and other needs such as bond redemptions, according to economists at Credit Suisse. Even if the IMF chips in a third as in previous bail-outs, European lenders would have to find EURO250 billion or so. They have aly committed EURO100 billion to rescuing Spanish banks, so for other emergencies they would have only EURO150 billion of the EURO500 billion now in their rescue kitties.这将是一场噩梦,不仅仅对于西班牙来说。瑞士信贷的经济学家们称,在2014年底之前,西班牙政府必须借入3850亿欧元来填补其预算赤字以及满足其它一些需要,如债务偿还。即使国际货币基金组织能和之前的纾困中一样提供三分之一救助资金,欧洲领导人也依然需要筹集2500亿欧元左右。他们已经承诺用1000亿欧元来拯救西班牙,那么一旦出现其它状况,5000亿欧元的救助资金中他们便只剩1500亿欧元来应对。The course of events is eerily similar to what happened a year ago. Then European leaders appeared to have secured their summer holidays with a “breakthrough” summit. But things soon fell apart. Nerves about Italy and Spain were calmed only when the European Central Bank (ECB) started buying their bonds. The central bank was never keen on this and it has not been buying bonds for several months. Even if the ECB were to resume purchases they might be less effective than before, because its refusal to share in the pain of the Greek debt restructuring in March frightened bondholders elsewhere.事件的发展过程和去年的极为诡异地相似。欧洲领导人似乎以“突破性”的峰会保住了他们的暑期,但事情很快又分崩离析。只有在欧洲中央开始购买意大利和西班牙的债券后人们的紧张情绪才得以缓解。中央从未对此如此热情并且已多月未购买债券。但即使欧洲中央重新开始购买债券,效果也大不如从前了,因为3月份希腊债务进行重组时,欧洲中央拒绝承担其债务,这让其它国家的许多债券持有人感到恐慌。The awkward truth is that the Spanish government is not alone in flunking hard choices. The plight of Spain and the danger of its sickness sping to Italy call for a decisive countermove by Germany and the ECB. One being discussed would be to give the ESM a banking licence, which would magnify its resources by allowing it to borrow from the central bank. The graver the euro crisis gets, the bigger the response has to be—and the harder it is to sell to sceptical northern electorates.令人尴尬的事实是,西班牙政府并不是唯一一个在艰难抉择中不及格的政府,西班牙的困境及病情已扩散到意大利,这就需要德国和欧洲中央采取果断应对措施。已经讨论过的措施之一是给欧洲稳定机制发一个执照,允许它从中央贷款,从而扩大其资源。欧元危机一旦变得更加严重,所需做出的回应也更大—— 想要说持怀疑态度的北欧选民也就更加困难。 /201301/222738

  Brazils history has been expressed through its national passion for music.巴西的历史已经表达了这个国家对音乐的热情。Samba, the countrys dominant musical style, was used by politicians in the 30s in an attempt to create unity and a sense of national identity in this vast multiracial state.桑巴这一全国主要的音乐形式,在30年代被政客使用以在这个巨大的多民族国家试图创造团结和民族身份的感觉。Regional musicians fought back, determined to promote a more down-to-earth image of Brazil.而传统地区的音乐家们奋起反击,决心促成巴西一种更为实际的形象。And in the 50s, Bosnova gave Brazil a new sophisticated internatinal identity.在50年代,巴萨诺瓦赋予了巴西一种新的复杂的国际身份。But in the 60s, everything changed.但在60年代,一切都为之改变。In a era of repression, music becomes a battleground in the new struggle to determine the identify of Brazil.这是一个压迫的时代,音乐在新的难以确定巴西身份中成为一个战场。1964 was a strange year for Brazilian music.1964年对巴西音乐而言是奇怪的一年。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201301/222968

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  Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Harry Belafontes autobiography 亨瑞.贝拉方特式自传Twentieth-century lion20世纪雄狮My Song: A Memoir of Art, Race and Defiance. By Harry Belafonte.《吾之歌:艺术、种族、反抗回忆录》作者:亨瑞.贝拉方特 It all began with a set of Venetian blinds. In 1946 a couple in a Manhattan apartment building asked their janitor, a biracial Jamaican New Yorker newly returned from naval service in the second world war, to install a set in their flat. The task completed, they gave him two theatre tickets as payment. The janitor, having no money for the dinner that a proper date would have included, went on his own to see “Home is the Hunter”, a play about black servicemen returning to America after the war. He was enraptured.故事还要从一扇百叶窗说起。1946年有一对夫妻住在曼哈顿一栋公寓楼里,公寓看门人,一个有着牙买加血统的纽约小伙子,刚从二战的海军役中归来。一天这对夫妇请他帮忙安装一扇百叶窗,当小伙子任务完成后,他们给了他两张戏院的门票作为酬谢。考虑到付不起一次体面的约会必要的晚餐钱,看门人独自去看了《家是猎人》(Home is the hunter)。这部戏讲了一名黑人军人战后回美国的故事,小伙子看得入了迷。The tenants, Clarice Taylor and Maxwell Glanville, performed in the play, which was put on by the American Negro Theatre (ANT). The janitor was, of course, Harry Belafonte.这部戏在美国黑人剧院(the American Negro Theatre ,ANT)上演,这对房客夫妻,Clarice Taylor 和 Maxwell Glanville,也参与了演出。这个看门人,当然就是故事的主人公亨瑞.贝拉方特(Harry Belafonte)。In short order Mr Belafonte also found his way into the ANT, where he not only acted but made “my first friend in life”, another poor, hustling West Indian named Sidney Poitier. The two of them hatched get-rich-quick schemes—Mr Poitier wanted to market an extract of Caribbean conch as an aphrodisiac—and they shared theatre tickets: they could only afford a single ticket between them, so one would attend before the interval and one after, then each would fill the other in. Mr Poitier got his break first: he took Mr Belafontes place in a play that the latter, still employed as a janitor, missed because he had to collect his tenants rubbish. It took Mr Belafonte several more years of struggling, and he gained fame not as an actor, for which he had trained, but as a singer, for which he had not, filling time during the interval at Lester Youngs concerts, where his first backup band included Max Roach and Charlie Parker.Belafonte先生迅速地找到了进入ANT的方法,在那里他不仅练习表演,还交到了人生中第一个朋友Sidney Poitier,也是一个贫穷的拼命赚钱的小伙子,来自西印度群岛。两人一起策划出“快速来钱的计划”——Poitier先生想贩卖一种加勒比贝壳的汁液做成的催情剂——还一起分享戏院门票:两人只负担的起一张门票钱,所以往往一人观看上半场,另一人观看下半场,然后互相帮对方把整部戏串起来。Poitier先一步时来运转了:他在一部戏里替代Belafonte的角色,此时还在做看门人的Belafonte正在清理房客的垃圾,无奈错失良机。这使Belafonte花了更多年时间努力挣扎,终于赢得了名望,却不是作为一名专业的演员,而是一位业余的歌手。他在演出的幕间休息时去听Lester Young的演唱会打发时间,在那里遇到了他第一个后备乐队(the Charlie Parker band,译者注)的成员Max Roach 和 Charlie Parker。Looming over both this book and its subjects life are two ghosts: Millie, his formidable, perpetually dissatisfied mother; and Paul Robeson, whose combination of entertainment and political activism forged a path that Mr Belafonte would follow. But whereas Robesons activism ran headlong into early cold-war paranoia, blacklists and McCarthyism, Mr Belafonte was luckier: his career rose more or less in tandem with the American civil-rights movement.在书中及主人公的生活中投下阴霾的鬼影,是Millie,令他畏惧的永远不满足的母亲;以及Paul Robeson,以政治激进主义为乐,并为Belafonte打造了一条政治道路。然而,尽管Robeson的激进主义使他盲目崇尚早期冷战偏执、黑名单、以及麦卡锡主义,Belafonte则更幸运:他事业的成就或多或少与他参与美国人权运动有关。Martin Luther King junior sought him out in 1956, just a few months after rising to fame during the Montgomery bus boycott. King was then 26, and a preacher at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, while Mr Belafonte was 28 and newly crowned “Americas Negro matinée idol”. Mr Belafonte was sceptical of both religion and non-violence (“I wasnt nonviolent by nature,” he explains, “or if I was, growing up on Harlems streets had knocked it out of me”), but was won over by Kings humility. There is an especially touching scene from nine years later in which, following a celebrity-studded civil-rights fund-raiser in Paris, King, then a Nobel peace-prize winner, serves food to the assembled stars as “an exercise in humility, an act of abject gratitude to all these stars for coming out for him.” In a book that is riddled with many of the usual faults of celebrity autobiography—name-dropping, score-settling, preening and a rather ungallant treatment of his first wife and some of his children—Mr Belafontes portrayal of King stands out for its unfussy warmth and unhagiographical affection.1956年,在蒙哥马利市(Montgomery)公车抵制运动后的几个月,在运动中声名鹊起的马丁路德金(Martin Luther King junior) 找到Belafonte。当时,26岁的King是蒙哥马利市Dexter Avenue Baptist Church 的传教士,28岁的Belafonte则是新晋的“美国黑人白天音乐会偶像”。Belafonte对宗教和非暴力皆持怀疑态度(“我天生就不是非暴力”他解释说,“就算我本性如此,在Harlem大街(纽约黑人住宅区,译者注)的成长经历也会使我脱离这种本性。”),但他被King的谦逊打动了。最触动人心的一幕发生在九年后,在巴黎举办的一场名人云集的民权基金募集会后,已经获得诺贝尔奖的King在就餐时为那些名人务,作为“谦虚的表现,以及向为他而来的明星们表达的一点感激”。在这一本漏洞百出的书里,充满着通常明星自传中常有的缺点——自抬身价,利益相争,自我夸耀,以及甚至是无理的态度对待他的第一任妻子和他的某几个孩子——而Belafonte对King的这段描写,因为其平和的温暖以及不歌功颂德的感情流露而显得尤为突出。After the 1960s, “My Song” goes downhill quickly, but that is hardly a surprise: maintaining fame is never as interesting as achieving it. The book is also too long. Mr Belafontes ramblings about business deals that went sour and his agonising over the extraordinary privileges his children enjoyed grow tedious. And then there is his political judgment. Standing with Martin Luther King junior to fight injustice and oppression is quite different from standing with practised political oppressors such as Hugo Chávez and Fidel Castro. Still, Mr Belafonte does have a remarkable song to sing. Given its bth, and the welcome disappearance of the segregated world in which it began, such a song will not be sung again.20世纪60年代后,很快Belafonte的事业开始走下坡路。但这丝毫不令人感到意外:守城永远没有攻城有意思。Belafonte的这本自传也长的让人生厌:Belafonte漫谈他不太顺利生意,Belafonte烦恼他家小孩享受特权,这些描写冗长又乏味。接着是他的政治判断:持Martin Luther King junior反对不公正和压迫,与持老练的政治压迫者,例如Hugo Chávez 和 Fidel Castro,是不尽相同的。鉴于年代的局限性,以及当时种族隔离的世界顺应人心地消失,Belafonte的这首生命之歌,将不会再被奏响。 201208/194958

  Dear Annie: Today I mourn the loss of a dear friend. She was vibrant, energetic and full of life, but on a crisp autumn afternoon, she committed suicide.亲爱的安妮:今天我要悼念一位亲密的朋友。她曾是一位热情活泼,精力充沛,生机勃勃的女生,然而在一个萧瑟的秋天的下午,她自杀了。I do not know what transpired in the final hours of her life, but I do know she had been under a tremendous amount of stress. I have been in the health care profession for many years and am ashamed to say I missed the warning signs.我不知道在她生命的最后时刻发生了什么,但我知道她一直都承受着巨大的压力。我从事医疗保健行业多年,但羞愧的是我竟然忽略了这个警讯。I ask your ers to take the time to really listen to others and be aware of the warning signs of depression.—Michelle in Greensboro, N.C.恳请读者们花点时间去倾听别人,及时发现忧郁症的征兆。——北卡罗来纳州格林斯伯勒的米歇尔。Dear Michelle: Our condolences on your terrible loss. According to the National Institutes of Health, symptoms of depression include: persistent sad or anxious feelings; feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism; feelings of guilt, worthlessness and/or helplessness; irritability, restlessness; loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable; fatigue and decreased energy; difficulty concentrating and making decisions; insomnia, early-morning wakefulness or excessive sleeping; overeating or appetite loss; thoughts of suicide; persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment.亲爱的米歇尔:对于你痛失爱友,我们表示深切的慰问。国家卫生部公布抑郁症包括以下症状:长期感到悲伤和焦虑;感到绝望,厌世;有负罪感,否定自我的价值;坐立不安;对日常生活缺乏兴趣,丧失愉快感;整日无精打采,精力下降;无法集中注意力,反应迟钝;失眠,早醒或睡眠过度;暴饮暴食或食欲不振;产生自杀的念头;持续性疼痛,头疼,痉挛或消化不振,经治疗依然不见好转。It is easy to miss the signs if you arent looking because your friend or family member seems fine, but depression increases during the winter months. Please tell your loved ones how much they mean to you.如果不注意观察,很容易错失这些迹象,因为表面看来你的朋友或家人似乎都很健康。而且抑郁症在冬季会更加严重。请告诉你爱的人,他们对你来说有多重要。本文译文属201206/187356Obituary;Tony Judt;讣告;托尼·朱蒂;Tony Judt, historian and intellectual, died on August 6th, aged 62;历史学家、学者,托尼朱蒂于8月6日过世,享年62岁;Quizical, erudite and clear-sighted, Tony Judt never let matters rest. He worried at his own beliefs—Zionist, Francophile, socialist and Euro-federalist—until they fell apart and reformed under the pressure of his restless, meticulous intellect. Few people in the Anglo-Saxon world can call themselves “intellectuals”, continental-style, without feeling (and sounding) a little odd. But in Mr Judts case the word deserved a capital “I”.明智、好学,时刻秉承着探索精神,托尼朱蒂从来没有停止过探索的步伐。他曾一度担心自己的信仰-持犹太主义、亲信法国以及欧洲联邦主义-直到这些信仰在他那无休止的、谨慎细微的学术精神的促使下,很好地分离并重组起来,他才不再担心。很少有人能在盎格鲁-撒克逊的世界里大胆地自称“学者”,而不感到名不副实,但到了朱蒂先生这里,没有人再比“我”更合适了。In the world of brain and pen, his main trade was as a historian: he plunged into that at Cambridge in the 1960s, and stayed with it even when immobilised by the wasting disease that cost him his life. His was no narrow historicism: he scorned the idea that the past was a guide to the future. But study of it could help avoid making the same mistakes twice.在智慧与笔尖的世界里,成为一个历史学家成为朱蒂先生的主要人生轨迹:他于19世纪60年代考进剑桥大学便开始从事这个行业,直到那最终夺走自己生命的恶疾让他无法动弹,他都从未离开过历史学。他所研究的并非狭隘的历史主义:他蔑视那些认为历史可以引领未来的观念。但他认为学习历史可以避免在同一个地方跌倒两次。Though he worked in America from 1987, his intellectual centre of gravity was Europe; the defining event in his world view was the second world war, and Hitlers Holocaust. The aftermath of those catastrophes was the theme of “Postwar” (2005), a 1,000-page tome that dealt with the 44 years between the end of the main fighting and the collapse of the Soviet totalitarian empire that survived it. It was a book more bought than . But even skimmers got the message: the European Union was a vitally important experiment, an attempt to transcend the ideological, nationalist and ethnic schisms that had cursed the continent. Prosperity, modernisation and peace, plus a judicious dose of amnesia, would lay the ghosts to rest.虽然朱蒂先生从1987年开始在美国工作,但他的学术中心依旧落在了欧洲;在他的世界观里,第二次世界大战以及希特勒的恐怖主义才算是大事件。这一系列的灾难所造成的后果便形成了一本主题为“战后欧洲史”(2005年出版)的书,这本长达1000页的巨著阐述了从主要战争的结束到苏维埃集权主义倒塌的这44年。大多数购买此书的人都没有读过。但只要是粗略读过此书的人都能得到这样的信息:欧盟曾是一个相当重要的实验,这个实验企图超越那些咒骂社会的理想民族主义者和民族分裂者。朱蒂先生认为繁荣,现代化以及和平,再加上少许明断的淡忘,这些便能安顿魔鬼,而更何况民众呢。But Mr Judt was no sentimental Europhile. His deep connections with the Czechoslovak opposition under communism gave him rare binocular vision, and an edginess towards those who focused only on the luckier western half of the continent. He detested the shallowness and artificial obscurity of European-born intellectual fashions such as post-modernism and structuralism. In politics, he bemoaned what he saw as the degeneration of the EU into a racket run by an elite class of administrators for the benefit of its richest citizens. Admittedly, the Eurocracys enlightened despotism was better than the other kind. But the cult of efficiency was no substitute for democracy and justice.但是朱蒂先生并非一个感性的亲欧盟主义者。他深入地关注斯洛伐克人在共产主义下的反抗行为,这一点使得他能细微地、犀利地洞察那些只关心那些幸运的富饶西方大陆的人。他讨厌那些浅薄的,诸如前现代化、建筑学等晦涩的欧洲土生土长的学术潮流。在政治方面,朱蒂先生认为欧盟已经堕落成一个由高层精英所操控的非法局面,而这些非法勾当全是为了那些最富有的公民的。他承认,欧洲开明的统治者比起其他的好很多。然而,但是民主和公平是不能用对效率的追求来代替的。Mr Judts deepest knowledge was of France, and particularly its post-war intellectual history, which he regarded with a mixture of fascination and disgust. “Past Imperfect”, published in 1992, was the definitive book about the self-indulgence and wilful self-delusion of the French brainboxes who failed to see that Stalin was a monster.朱蒂先生最深远的研究莫过于对法国的历史的学习,尤其是第二次世界大战之前的法国学术历史,他认为这段历史正是法国美好与丑恶并存的时期。一本名为“过去的瑕疵”的书在1992年出版,该书的最终版本正是关于那些法国统治者沉溺在对自我的放纵和自我的妄想中,并没有察觉到斯大林是个恶魔。His evisceration of the phoney and creepy was best displayed in his journalism, often in his natural home of the New York Review of Books. A savage collection of essays, “Reappraisals”, published in 2008, skewered among others Louis Althusser, a mad Marxist wife-killer with a cult philosophical following, and Eric Hobsbawm, a distinguished British historian with unrepentant pro-Soviet views. George Bush fared little better: Mr Judt was a trenchant critic of his policies in Iraq and the Middle East.朱蒂先生对虚假和骇人听闻的事情的反驳的文章常常出现在他的报刊中,但更加经常出现在他那个名为“纽约书评”的简单文集中,“重新评价”于2008年出版,在同类杂志中独树一帜,文中讲述了路易斯卢梭,一个疯狂的马克思主义者,对哲学有着疯狂的崇拜,杀死了自己的妻子,~~,一个独一无二的英国历史学家,却怀揣着不可悔改的前苏联观念。就连乔治布什总统都未得到另眼相待,朱蒂先生曾对他的伊拉克于中的哦个政策提出了严厉批评。In hot water水深火热He was fearless in his fights. When he found the pro-Israel lobby in America too strong, and thought Israels democratic credentials were weakening, he said so. That got him into the hottest water of his career. It started with an essay in the NYRB in 2003 stating that the peace process was “finished”; that the Jewish state was an “anachronism”; and that legitimate criticism of Israel was being silenced by bogus charges of anti-Semitism.他从未畏惧战斗。当他发现在美国的前以色列团体活动过于激烈时,他意识到以色列的民主信任度正在下降,并且也这样发表了自己的意见这一点使得他陷入水深火热当中。这一切源自他在2003年NYRB杂志上发表的一篇文章,文中宣称,和平的过程已经“结束”;犹太人建立自己的国家只是个“时代的错误”;并且对以色列合法批判声音被反犹太主义的谣言所淹没了。Nobody could accuse him of letting fly from a position of ignorance. He had been an ardent teenage Zionist, working as an interpreter during the six-day war of 1967. But to many his critique was exaggerated. Given the intense publicity he attracted, it was hard to argue, as he did, that debate was habitually squelched. The notion that Israel had no friends outside America, or could be “the” (his italics) threat to world peace, struck even some of his friends as extreme. Lectures were cancelled and the New Republic, a longstanding ally, removed him from its masthead.没有人能够抓到他懈怠的把柄,朱蒂先生曾经是一个热情而年轻的犹太主义者,曾在1967年的六日之战中担任翻译员的职务。但是对大多数人来说过于激进,当遇上令他着迷的紧张政治事件时,个人的观点往往很难得到承认,正如他做的那样,他的辩驳被很自然地掩埋了。他的一些关于以色列除美国外没有朋友或以色列对世界和平会造成什么威胁的观点,都极大地震撼了他的身边的朋友们。他的课程被删除,”新出版”——一个长期的合作伙伴也将他的名字从报头删除。A severe self-critic, he dealt poorly with sniping from others. This East End boy did not wear his learning, or his polyglottal talents, lightly. He tended to dismiss adversaries as fools, rather than as merely mistaken, or half-right. As the head of a richly endowed faculty at New York University, his contempt for the poverty of British universities could sound gratingly complacent. He could fund-raise. So should they.他对别人的恶意中伤却嗤之以鼻,却是一位严厉的自我批评者。这位来自东部边上的男孩从来不轻易炫耀他的学识与多才多艺的天赋,他宁愿将自己的对手看成是一个个的傻子也不愿意将他们当成只是有一点点的学术过失或对学术方面是一知半解的人。作为纽约大学大额捐资教员中的领头人,他对英国大学普遍财政窘迫的轻蔑听起来可能成了刺耳的沾沾自喜。认为既然自己可以筹集资金,他们也应该可以。His final ordeal might have inspired great self-pity, though he displayed no hint of it. Just under a year ago, he appeared at a public lecture in a wheelchair to announce that he was suffering from a variant of motor-neurone disease, in which the body succumbs to inexorable paralysis: like being imprisoned in a shrinking cell, he said. But he wrote about that too, in poignant, crystalline vignettes about his upbringing and travels.虽然朱蒂先生从未提及,但是临终前的病痛肯定引起他的极大自哀,就在一年前,他出现在公共演讲庭,坐在轮椅上告诉别人,自己现如今正被不同种类的动态神经细胞病变所折磨,这是一种将身体蹂躏成麻痹状态的病:感觉像困兽般被囚禁在一个不断缩小的牢笼中,他坦言到。但他也同样这样写过这些,就写在那些关于教训和人生旅行的辛酸和水晶般的小拼图中。He was “raised on words” though by the end his vocal muscle, “for 60 years my reliable alter ego” failed him: “vowel sounds and sibilant consonants slide out of my mouth, shapeless and inchoate”. He minded that, while insisting that “the view from inside is as rich as ever”.尽管他临终时坦言“这60年中我不断怀疑自我“.他却是“立足于学术信仰”,接着便是一段呜咽,然后他接着说“从我嘴里说出来的元音和辅音发出吱吱的声响,他们都那么得无形而且没有回音“。他沉默了一会,然后坚定地说到”只有源自心灵深处的声音才会永恒“ /201211/207160

  Imagine a situation where a person has needlessly been injured by another. The injured person is naturally hoping for some help. Instead, the cruel one who injured that person starts shouting terrible, insulting words. Thus, the victim has now been injured both physically and emotionally. It is a kind of double injury, making an aly bad situation become worse.想象一下,如果一个人毫无理由地被另一个人弄伤了。这个受伤的人自然希望得到一些帮助。但是恰恰相反,这个冷漠的人还向这个受伤的人大声恐吓,说一些侮辱性的话。结果,受害人身体上和心理上都受到了伤害。这是一种双重伤害,使本已糟糕的情况变得更糟。Now, to use this expression as an idiom, there has to be a situation in which something bad caused by another person becomes worse because of them. There need not be any actual physical injury, and no one may actually be speaking insulting words. However, it is clear someone feels injured in some way, and that injury is being increased, not lessened. For example, if a friend breaks your favorite dish, that is a kind of first injury. If that friend then criticizes you for having cheap, easily broken dishes, that is adding insult to injury.这种表达方式作为一个成语来使用,是指某人在做出糟糕的事后把情况弄得更糟。在这种情况下,不一定造成什么身体伤害,也不一定有什么侮辱性的语言。但是,的确有人因某种方式受到了伤害,而且伤害非但没有减少而且还加重了。例如,如果有朋友打翻了你最爱的碗碟,你会感到伤心。但是如果那个朋友接着讽刺你专买那些便宜的和容易破碎的碗碟,这对你而言可就是雪上加霜了。201203/176156梦可以预知未来?D: Lots of people have had dreams that seem to foretell the future. Some psychologists attribute this to ;retrieval cues;.许多人都做过一些好像可以预知未来的梦。心理学家把这种现象归因于“提取线索”。Y: Retrieval cues?提取线索?D: A retrieval cue is a coincidence in the real world that triggers a dream memory which otherwise would have gone unnoticed. For example, did you know you dreamed about a little dog before the real dog showed up?提取是一种巧合:现生活中的某个场景让你回忆起一个不被注意梦境。比如,你知道你梦到的那只小出现在真实的之前吗?Y: Oh, yes, I was thinking about it all morning.是的。我整个早上都在想这个梦。D: Really?真的吗?Y: Welll, I think so.我想是吧。D: Maybe, or maybe the real event triggered a recollection of a dream, which not seems like it must have been in your thoughts all along. By the way did you have any other dreams last night that didnt come true?也许吧,有或许是真实事件让你回忆起某个梦境,而这个梦境不一定一直都在你的脑海中。顺便问一下,你昨天晚上还做了其它没有实现的梦吗?Y: Hmm, I dont remember what other else I dreamed.嗯,其他做过的梦都不记得了。D: Why not? Some studies suggest we have literally hundreds of dreams each night.为什么不记得了呢?有研究称我们每天晚上要做数百个梦。Y: Ok, I get the point. Maybe this dreaming the future stuff is more like picking and choosing dreams when they happen to fit. 好,我知道了。也许梦见未来这种事更像是从成千上百个梦的中挑选一个碰巧合适情景的。D: Coincidences are bound to come up. And if the coincidence acts as retrieval cue, the sense that you predicted something can be pretty convincing… even if its just a dream.所以,巧合就发生了。如果巧合作为提取线索,你能预测未来就相当有说力,尽管那只是一个梦。 /201211/207010

  Science and Technology The fight against AIDS HIVs slow retreat科技 与艾滋病之战 艾滋病的缓慢退却One of the worlds worst plagues is giving ground抗击艾滋病:显现曙光THE timing of the popes much-discussed change of position on the use of condoms to prevent the sp of HIV (he will now allow prostitutes to use them without fear of hellfire) was surely no coincidence. He made it on November 21st—ten days before World AIDS Day and two before UNAIDS, the ed Nations body charged with combating the epidemic, released its latest report on the state of the battle.近期罗马教皇改变了其对于使用避套以防止艾滋病传播的立场(称男妓可以使用避套,而不必惧怕地狱之火的惩罚),引来一片议论。这个时间绝非巧合。他是本月21日向外界宣布的——恰逢世界艾滋病日前十天,也是在两天后,负责抗击艾滋病的联合国机构——联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAIDS)发布了其最新的艾滋病防治工作报告。That report carries good news. Though some 33m people are infected, the rate of new infections is falling—down from 3.1m a year a decade ago to 2.6m in . Moreover, as the map shows, the figure is falling fastest in many of the most heavily infected countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and South and South-East Asia.这份报告带来了好消息。纵使艾滋病毒感染人数已达3300万,但新增感染者的速度正在放慢——从十年前的每年感染310万人降至年的260万人。此外,从这张地图上可以看出,正是那些感染最严重的国家新增感染者的速度下降最快,尤其是撒哈拉以南的非洲国家以及南亚、东南亚国家。The reason is a combination of behavioural change (people are losing their virginity later, are being less promiscuous and are using condoms more), a big reduction in mother-to-child transmission at birth and during breast-feeding, and the roll-out of drug treatment for those aly infected.此中原因是多方面的:包括性行为方式的改变(初次性行为年龄的推迟,滥交的减少以及越来越多地使用安全套),母婴分娩传播与哺乳传播的大幅减少,以及已感染者对毒品的戒除。Besides prolonging life, anti-HIV drugs make those taking them less likely to pass the virus on. More than 5m people in poor and middle-income countries are now on such drugs, though Michel Sidibe, the head of UNAIDS, says another 10m could benefit. (The remainder of those infected are not yet ill enough for drugs to do them good.) The problem, as always, is money. Dr Sidibe reckons the fight needs about billion a year to be fully effective. At the moment, the sum spent is around billion. Not a bad fraction of the desideratum, but one that will be hard to sustain in the face of the worlds economic difficulties.抗艾滋药物除了可以延长生命,还可降低用者将病毒向他人传播的几率。超过500万来自贫困或中等收入国家的艾滋病患者正在用这种药物,即使这样,据联合国艾滋病规划署的负责人Michel?Sidibe说,仍有超过1000万人需要这种药物。(这些人已感染病毒但还未药,因为症状还不足以使药物发挥作用。)资金不足始终是个问题。Sidibe士认为,抗击艾滋病每年大约需250亿美元方可全力维持。但现在最高的年出只有约170亿美元。与总需求相比这还不算太糟,但在全球经济面临困境的当下,想维持这一水平却又是个难题。 /201301/220609

  

  In his first orchestral work, Tchaikovsky had demonstrated skill and some originality in his handling of the orchestra.在他的第一首管弦乐作品中,柴可夫斯基展示出在驾驭乐团上的技能和一些创意。But more significantly he had shown an ability to capture the motivating forces of the drama.但更重要的是他已经展现出可以捕捉戏剧最打动人心的地方的能力。But none of this was seen at the time.但这一切都没有被发现。The piece incurred the intense displeasure of his teacher, Anton Rubinstein, for going far beyond what was expected from a second-year student and Rubinstein insisted that a performance was quite impossible.这部分引起了他的老师安东·鲁宾斯坦的强烈不满,因为这远远超出一个二年级学生的预期而且鲁宾斯坦坚持这样的演出是不可能的。The work was never published or even played during Tchaivoskys lifetime.这部作品从未出版或甚至在柴科夫斯基的一生中也从未演奏。With its virtues unrecognized and its daring condemned, the Storm, was an inauspicious start for a young man who had come late to music and whose talent had aly been described as quite unexceptional.有着未被认知的优点和未被谴责的大胆,风暴这部作品对于一个很晚才涉足音乐界并且已经被描述为非常普通的年轻人是一个不祥的开始。But worse was to follow.但更糟的事又接踵而至。For his graduation exercise, Tchaikovsky was given the task concerting Schillers Ode to Joy.对于他的毕业作业,柴可夫斯基被要求表演席勒的《欢乐颂》。Time was limited, and the subject did not touch his imagination.时间有限,而且主题和他的想象力无关。注:听力文本来源于普特 201209/201609

  

  The bad weather is about to hit me. Ive got minutes until the deluge begin. Even though Im not staying out here tonight, Ill show you how the Aborigines would build a shelter against this sort of rain. Ok. What I can do here is build a bit of a bed straight across from here, one brace here, one onto this edge. And the worst thing you can do when its a torrential thunderstorm is just be on the ground because all of this can just turn to water. So the first thing is I need a platform.恶劣天气很快就会来临。发洪水前我还有几分钟的时间。尽管今晚我不打算在这里过夜,但是我还是会向你们展示土著们是如何搭建庇护所来遮挡风暴。好的,在这里我能做的就是在这儿搭建一张床,直接穿过这里。一头在这,另一头在这个突出部分上。在一场暴雨中你最失策的做法就是睡在地上,因为所有地面上都会积满水。当务之急就是搭建一个平台。 The native Australians use whatever is at hand to do this. Sticks for the framework, ivy for the cordage, and bunches of leaves make perfect roofing and bedding. God, hear that? And this is getting closer as well, this lightning. And thats where the 100 percent humidity has gone straight up into the air and now its pouring down. And this is a wet season, Kimberley, northern Australia.当地土著会就地取材来搭建庇护所。他们用树枝做框架,常青藤做绳索,树叶拿来做屋顶和床垫最合适不过了。天呐,听到了吗?暴雨越来越近了。而且还有闪电,百分之百的湿气直接上升至空中,现在又开始倾盆而下。这就是澳大利亚北部金伯利这一带的雨季。Thats why I was building a bed. This five minutes ago was completely dry. And look, now a foot of water. And you know, the amazing thing is tomorrow it will be all bone dry again by lunchtime. Look at that. you see that? Just pouring off this sandy outcrop.这就是为什么我要搭一张床了。五分钟前这里完全干燥。现在已经积了30厘米深的水。而且最奇妙的是,到明天午饭的时候,这一切又会变得完全干燥。不过,瞧那边,看见了吗?雨水正从那些砂质岩层上倾泻下来。It might well just stop raining in five minutes time. So I wanna fill this up. This is just like manna from heaven. So nice. Come on, rain! Im hydrated. Again, Ive even had a bit of a wash. But being drenched in the night is no fun. So make sure you build your shelter before the sun goes down. But a much bigger danger out here is lightning. And in Australia, lightning strikes are responsible for ten deaths a year. And this storm is getting closer.也许再过五分钟大雨就要停了,今天到目前为止,我喝的还是只有自己的小便。所以我要把它灌满。这就像是从天而将的仙浆。真是太棒了,来吧,下吧!我喝足了水,而且还冲了个澡。如果到晚上身上还是湿的话就不好玩了。所以要确保在太阳下山之前把床搭建好。但是我真正担心的是闪电。在澳大利亚,每年有十人被闪电击中丧生。现在风暴越来越近了。201206/187068

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