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I know you wont believe this, but I really did that.我知道你不会相信这个,但是我真的是那样做的。It took me 50, 53 minutes.我花了50,53分钟。Thats eight minutes more than Vincent.那是比文森特多的八分钟。And he used to do it twice a day, strolling to work, strolling back.而他过去常常一天做两次,漫步去工作,之后散步回来。He worked just there, at Goupils which is a noodle restaurant now.他就在那里工作, 现在那里是一家面馆。He used to selling prints and earning 90 pounds a year.他过去常常销售印刷品,而每年的年薪能够达到90英镑。Its actually a very good salary in those days about the average payment for a laborer.这在那些日子里大约对于平均付的劳动者来说实际上是一笔非常不错的薪水。The wandering minstrel, I我这个流浪的歌手。A thing of shreds一件事的碎片And patches和补丁Van Goghs favorite English writer was Dickens.梵高最喜欢的英国作家是狄更斯。He most of the novels, and then re them.他最常读的就是他的小说,然后重读它们。He was always ing Dickens in his letters, gobbling up Dickens sympathy for the London poor, all those blighted Oliver Twists scrounging in the streets.他总是在他的信中引用狄更斯,狄更斯同情伦敦贫民,所有的那些奥利弗在街上乞讨的波折。Dickens opened Vincents eyes to modern human misery.狄更斯为文森特打开了对于现代人类苦难的双眼。Dickens died in 1870, just before Vincent got here.狄更斯死于1870年,就在文森特到达这里前。注:听力文本来源于普特201207/189611Science and Technology Palaeontology Splay-footed, not flat-footed科技 古生物学 不是扁平足而是八字足A new fossil shows that evolution does not always mean change新发现的化石显示,进化并不总意味着变化WHEN a coelacanth, a type of lobe-finned fish once considered the missing link between fish and amphibians, was found off the coast of South Africa in 1938, it came as a shock to palaeontologists. Until then, the most recent traces of such a creature had been in rocks dating from the last days of the dinosaurs, 65m years ago. It was, in its way, as surprising as if a live Tyrannosaurus had been found hiding in an obscure part of Montana. Now the same experience is hitting palaeontologists again—but this time in reverse. Instead of finding a ;living fossil; identical to an ancient beast, they have found a real fossil identical to a modern one.1938年当一种空棘鱼目鱼类---曾被认为是一种消失的连接鱼类和两栖动物的物种在南非海岸被发现时,古生物学家们为之一惊。至到当时,这种生物最新的踪迹只出现在可以追溯到距今六千五百万年前恐龙时代末期的化石中。其惊人程度就如同在蒙大拿的某个阴暗地方发现了一只躲藏于其中的活体霸王龙。如今,同样的事件再次让古生物学家们感到震惊---但是这次恰恰相反,他们不是发现了一个与远古生物雷同的;活化石;,而是发现了一个与现代生物一致的真化石。The fossil in question, a 100m-year-old specimen from north-east Brazil, belongs to the genus Schizodactylus. These are large, carnivorous, cricket-like insects whose feet splay out wildly in different directions. Modern Schizodactylus use their feet like snowshoes, to help them remain stable as they travel over sandy terrain in search of prey.这里所讨论的化石中的生物是一个来自巴西东北部距今一亿年前的物种,属于Schizodactylus昆虫科。它们是一些大型,蟋蟀状食肉昆虫,其足向不同方向伸展。当现代Schizodactylus科昆虫在沙地中搜寻猎物时,其足有如雪鞋可以帮助它们保持稳定。If the new fossil—whose discovery has just been published in ZooKeys by Sam Heads of the Illinois Natural History Survey and Léa Leuzinger of the University of Fribourg, in Switzerland—were merely similar to modern splay-footed insects, the find would not be particularly surprising: it simply demonstrates a phenomenon called evolutionary stasis, in which a specific type of body form hangs around for a long time. What is surprising is just how static Schizodactylus has been.如果该新发现的化石---它的发掘已经被来自伊利诺亚州自然历史调查所的山姆.海兹以及来自瑞士夫里堡大学的雷.卢辛格发表在了《Zookeys》杂志上---仅仅是与现代八字足昆虫相似,那么这一发现也没有什么大惊小怪的:因为这只显示了一种叫做;进化停止;的现象,其间某一特定体态在相当长一段时间内保持不变。然而让人感到惊奇的是Schizodactylus科昆虫的进化尽然是如此得缓慢。Evolutionary stasis is fairly common at the higher levels of the Linnaean system of biological classification (class, order and family). Natural selection hits on a good design. That design is then adopted in slightly different forms by species after species. The shelled bodies of turtles, for example, evolved between 250m and 200m years ago, while the body plans of scorpions have been around for more than 400m years. That does not mean, however, that a zoologist would mistake a 200m-year-old turtle or a 400m-year-old scorpion for any species now alive.进化停止在生物分类法(如纲,目和科的分类)的林奈分类体系中的高级别生物里比较常见。当自然选择挑中了一个理想的设计后,一个接一个的物种便以略微不同的形式采纳这种设计。举个例子,海龟的甲状躯壳约在2亿5千万年前至2亿年前就已经进化完成,相比之下蝎子的身体构制更是在4亿多年内都未有大的变化。然而,这并不意味着一位动物学家可以将一只2亿年前的海龟或是一只4亿年前的蝎子与现在对应的活体物种混为一谈。What is remarkable about the new find is that it is so similar to modern animals that it can be assigned to an existing genus—the lowest level of Linnaean classification above a species—rather than just to some higher taxonomic group. That is rare indeed. Even the modern coelacanth, on closer examination, had to be put in a different genus from any known fossil.而这一新发现令人关注的地方在于化石中的物种与现代对应物种是如此得相似以至于它可以被当作是现代物种的某一现存种类---种类是林奈物种分类法中最低的一级,而不是更高级别的种群。这的确很罕见。经过进一步检验,(我们发现)就算是(当时在南非海岸发现的)现代空棘鱼的种类也有别于任何已知化石中的空棘鱼的种类。Clearly the body plan of Schizodactylus is not merely good, but optimal, at least for the environment the animal lives in. Alas for Schizodactylus, the sandy deserts it prefers have retreated from north-eastern Brazil and its optimality there has vanished. But its discovery shows better what this part of the world was like 100m years ago—and also illustrates an important point about evolution that is often forgotten in biologists understandable focus on the development of novelty. The first rule of natural selection is: ;If it aint broke, dont fix it.;显然,Schizodactylus科昆虫拥有的的身体构制不仅令人满意,而且是最佳的,至少是为了其所生存的环境而生。而让Schizodactylus科昆虫感到悲哀的是其所青睐的沙漠在巴西已经消退而它们的最佳身体构制也随之消失。但是该化石的发现更好地展示了世界的这一地区在1亿年前是个什么摸样---同时也阐明了有关进化的一点重要内容,一个经常在生物学家对于发展的推陈出新所持有的一种可理解的关注中而被遗忘的一点内容。自然选择的第一条规则就是:;未损勿修。; /201301/219922This is Fry Louis de Leon, one of the great intellectuals in the university’s history.这就是弗雷·路易斯·德·莱昂, 在该大学的历史中一位伟大的知识分子之一。He was a revered theologian, whose progressive scholarship and religious poetry were part of the mystical tradition of El Greco and Saint Teresa.他是一位受人尊敬的神学家,他对学术的进取及宗教诗歌部分成为了神秘传统的埃尔·格列柯和圣特蕾莎修女的一部分。And this is his lecture theater, just as it was when he taught here in the mid 1500.而这是他的阶梯教室,就像在1500年代中期他在这里教书时候一样。This is where he expounded his own unique vision of faith, intense, questioning, a deep personal engagement with the bible.这就是他对《圣经》阐述了自己的独特视觉信仰,强烈质疑,一种深深的个人参与的地方。It was while he was lecturing in this very room that Fry Louis came to the attention of the Spanish inquisition.当他在这间屋子里讲课, 弗雷·路易斯引起了西班牙宗教法庭的注意。His crime had been to produce his own translation of one of the most erotic passages in the whole bible, the Song of Songs.他的罪行源于自己翻译的整部《圣经》中最情色的段落。Now this dangerous text was being sold and circulated in the street just outside this building.现在这一危险的文本正在这个建筑街外出售及流通。That had to be stopped and it had to be stopped immediately.这必须停止,必须立即停止。So on the 27th of March, 1572, the officers of the inquisition stormed into this room, Fry Louis was lecturing up there.所以在1572年3月27日,审讯警察冲进这个房间时弗雷·路易斯正在上面讲课。They arrested him. The dragged him away and then prisoned him for five years.他们逮捕了他。把他拖走了,然后关了他五年。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201301/222936

Motional Induction电磁感应Last time, we talked about ;motional induction,; a phenomenon by which the ocean generates a magnetic field.上次,我们提到过动生电磁感应:海洋产生磁场的一种现象。It works like this: earth has its own magnetic field. The ocean has plenty of charged atoms in it, in the form of dissolved salt. These atoms are in motion because the ocean flows.地球有自己的磁场,海洋有无数溶解盐形式的带电原子,随着海洋运动而运动。Charged atoms moving through a magnetic field will induce an electric current. And an electric current will, in turn, create another magnetic field. The ocean should generate its own magnetic field.在磁场中运动的带电原子会引起电流,而电流反过来又回形成另一个磁场。这样海洋应该就形成了自己的磁场。You said should. How could we know this ;motional induction; is happening?你说“应该”,我们怎么知道这种动生电磁感应确有其事?Direct evidence came in 2003 from scientists working at the University of Washington and a research institute in Potsdam, Germany. These researchers used a magnetometer on board an orbiting satellite.直到2003年,华盛顿大学和德国波兹坦的某研究学院研究人员将磁力计放在轨道卫星上,实海洋的磁场真是存在。First, they figured out what the magnetic field of the planet should be. After subtracting this figure, they found there was still some leftover magnetic field.最初,磁力计上的数据让科学家以为是地球磁场作用的。而后,他们发现除去这个因素后,仍然有磁场存在。Next, the team made a computer model of what kind of magnetic field the ocean should generate through motional induction. Sure enough, their prediction matched the excess magnetic field measured by the satellite.研究人员又电脑模拟在动生电磁感应让海洋产生哪种磁场,当然,科学家的推论和卫星上测出的“另一个”磁场吻合。The satellite also found that magneticintensity over the oceans peaked every twelve and a half hours, but not over the land. Can you guess why?卫星还发现,海洋磁场每隔12个半小时就会出现高峰,但是地球磁场不受影响。你能猜到原因吗?Every twelve hours... Oh,I get it—tides!每隔12个半小时?我知道了!是潮汐。Exactly right! The tides rise and fall every twelve and half hours, just as that extra magnetic energy swells and diminishes. This is very strong evidence that motional induction is real... and the ocean has its own magnetism.完全正确!潮汐每隔12个半小时潮起潮落,正好和“另一个”磁场高低峰吻合。这正是磁场感应存在的真凭实据,海洋确实有自己独特的磁力。 /201210/202824

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