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The term “Pell Grant” becomes very familiar to millions of college-age students and their families every year. Pell Grants assist undergraduate low- and middle-income college students with tuition assistance grants that do not have to be repaid. In addition, the program encourages low-income adults to return to school and in doing so, promotes life-long learning.;佩尔资助计划;这个术语每年都被数百万大学生和他们的家人所熟知。“佩尔资助计划”无偿为低收入或中等收入家庭出身的在校大学生提供学费补助。此外这项计划还鼓励低收入成年人重返校园,此举促进了终身学习的观念。The primary sponsor of the Pell Grant program was Rhode Island Senator, Claiborne Pell, who served in the Senate for 36 years. Himself — the product of the nations finest private schools— Senator Pell took a particular interest the problems that many low-and middle-income students were having in affording college.“佩尔资助计划”的主要赞助人是罗德岛的参议员克莱本·佩尔,他在参议院就职了36年。佩尔本人创办了美国最好的私立学校,并特别关注那些上学困难的低收入和中等收入家庭的大学生。As the Baby-Boom Generation entered college in the late 1960s, the college population swelled—straining college-based financial aid. Eliminating these barriers became an important priority for Claiborne Pell. His concerns were addressed by amendments in 1972 to the Higher Education Act. Originially known as Basic Educational Opportunity Grants, Congress renamed them Pell Grants in 1980, to honor the efforts of Claiborne Pell in creating them. Assisting one in every four undergraduates, the Pell Grant Program is now the federal governments largest grant program.20世纪60年代晚期,婴儿潮一代进入大学校园,大学生人数激增,以学院为主的经济援助一下子紧张起来。克莱本·佩尔把消除这个矛盾当作最重要的、该优先考虑的事项。在1972年的《高等教育法案》的修正案中,他的担忧得到解决。这项计划的前身是“基本教育机会助学金”,在1980年国会将其改名为“佩尔资助计划”,以纪念克莱本·佩尔所作出的贡献。“佩尔资助计划”资助了四分之一的大学生,现成为美国联邦政府最大的资助计划。原文译文属!201211/210281。

Books and Arts; Book Review;The constant gardener;The future of wilderness文艺;书评;永恒的守护者;荒野的未来;Rambunctious Garden: Saving Nature in a Post-Wild World. By Emma Marris.书名:《喧闹的花园:在人类统领的世界里保护自然》 作者:艾玛·马里斯。When the Scottish-born American naturalist, John Muir, encountered a pristine wilderness where the soaring mountains touched the open sky, birds sang in the pine trees and fish spawned in the free-flowing rivers, he was determined to protect it from over-exploitation by the settlers who succeeded the native American presence. Muir fought to ensure that the Yosemite Valley in California became a national park, and he succeeded in 1890. The concept of preserving nature from mans interference proved both powerful and enduring: almost a century later the Wilderness Act of 1964 empowered states to designate protected land. In “Rambunctious Garden” Emma Marris outlines why the concept of wilderness is flawed.当年,苏格兰裔的美国自然主义者约翰·缪尔邂逅了一片原生态荒原。那里的山峰高高耸立,直入云霄,松林间鸟儿浅唱低吟,溪流里鱼儿繁衍生息,见此美好景象,他下定决心要保护那片土地,以免其遭到继原住民之后占据此地的移民过度开发。为了让它——加利福利亚优胜美地山谷成为国家公园,他不懈努力,终于在1890年申请成功。保护自然免受人类行为干扰这一观念影响深远:几乎一个世纪以后的1964年,荒野法案面世,授权美国各州指定土地加以保护。在《喧闹的花园》一书中,艾玛·马里斯却阐述了为什么这个关于荒野的观点是有缺陷的。The journey begins in Hawaii, where biologists are toiling to remove species that have been introduced to the islands over the centuries since James Cooks party landed there in 1778. Invaders such as purple-flowered Asian melastome and strawberry guava threaten to overrun delicate Hawaiian natives such as thornless roses and delicate tree ferns. Yet even if all the invaders were removed, it would only return the islands to the state into which the Polynesians, who inhabited them for at least 1,000 years before Cooks arrival, had shaped them.作者从夏威夷下笔,1778年詹姆斯·库克带领的探险队登上夏威夷群岛,此后数百年间外来物种被移植到了此岛,生物学家们为移除它们费尽了心思。包括亚洲紫色野牡丹和草莓番石榴在内的外来物种肆意繁殖,威胁了脆弱的本地物种,如无刺玫瑰和树厥的生长。然而即使将这些外来物种清除殆尽,夏威夷群岛也只能退回到波利维亚人定居时期,库克船长到来之前,他们已在此地生存了上千年。Even theoretically, returning Hawaii to a prehuman existence would be impossible. Ecosystems change over time, with or without the involvement of mankind, so no one can tell what Hawaii “should” look like. And mankinds influence on his environment is now such that he has changed the composition of the atmosphere over the past few centuries, so the effects of humanity can never be completely removed.即使是从理论上来说,将夏威夷岛还原成有人类居住之前的状态也是不可能的。不管有没有人类的影响,生态系统都会随时间演变,因此没有人可以说出夏威夷“应该”是什么样的。人类对其所处环境的影响是如此巨大,几个世纪以来连大气层的构成都发生了改变,因此人类的影响永远也无法消除。Ms Marris traces the emergence of a “wilderness cult” that she believes affects efforts to restore habitats to a previous form. She argues that early American environmentalists, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, have been mis as its champions. Although Emerson described “essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf”, he also wrote of the “perfect exhilaration” of “crossing a bare common, in snow puddles at twilight, under a clouded sky”. And when Thoreau became determined to get away from it all in 1845, he retired to Walden Pond, a mere mile-and-a-half away from the nearest village. Preserving nature, Ms Marris writes, is a relatively recent preoccupation.马里斯女士在书中追溯了“荒野崇拜”的起源,并称正是这种崇拜激发了复原居住地的行动。她认为,拉尔夫·瓦尔多·爱默生和亨利·大卫·梭罗等早期美国环境保护论者都被误读为了荒野崇拜的信奉者。虽然爱默生曾描绘过“不受人类纷扰的自然精髓:空间、大气、河流、树叶”,他也刻画过“黄昏时分,在缀满云朵的天空下,行走于坑洼的雪地上,穿越一片荒原”的“无上欣喜”。而当1845年梭罗坚决要离世隐居时,他选择了瓦尔登湖,一个离周边最近的村落仅有一英里半的地方。马里斯女士写道,保护自然,相对而言是近代的紧急要务。Perhaps, but it has a longer history than the author fully acknowledges. A struggle between those who would remove man from a landscape and those who think we should actively manage the environment has existed since at least the 1930s. When the first global environmental organisation was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature: the organisation renamed itself in 1956, replacing “protection” with “conservation” in its title, because its members had grasped that people play an important role in shaping the natural world.也许保护自然这一观念的产生比作者所认识到的还要早。早在上世纪三十年代或者更早时,就有人争辩应该对风景区进行隔离保护还是采取积极措施规划保护这个问题。1948年全球第一个环境组织成立了,当时名为国际自然保卫联盟(International Union for the Protection of Nature),1956年该组织更名,将名字中的“保卫”替换成了“保护”,因为联盟成员领会到了人类在自然世界的发展中所扮演角色的重要性。Ms Marriss book is an insightful analysis of the thinking that informs nature conservation. The author outlines the concepts of “re-wilding” habitats by introducing species that have been lost, of the “assisted migration” carried out by foresters who prepare for climate change by planting trees at the current limits of their ranges (and, indeed, the gardeners who transplant cuttings and seedlings from one part of the planet to another). She describes how ecosystems can be designed: nesting birds can be encouraged to breed on a site by manipulating it to suit them, for example. And nature can flourish in areas that are not wild, such as city roof-gardens.马里斯这本著作为保护自然背后的思考提供了一份卓有见地的分析。作者通过介绍那些已经灭绝的物种引出了“原始化”栖息地的观念,还提到了“辅助性迁移”的观念,比如林务员为应对气候变化栽种树木以促进当地林木多样性(当然,还有园艺家们做出的努力,他们通过扦插移植和幼苗移植将一处的植物带向地球另一端的某处)。她还描述了设计生态系统的方法:比如改造一块地方的环境,使之能吸引筑巢的鸟儿在那里孵化幼鸟。还有,非原生态的环境中也可以充满勃勃生机,比如城市里的屋顶花园。There are many reasons to value the natural world. Some people want to prevent certain species from becoming extinct, others to ensure the diversity of an ecosystem, to make use of clean air and water or to revel in the beauty of a landscape. Happily for both mankind and the natural world, Ms Marris concludes, many such causes can be aligned.珍惜自然环境的动因有很多。有些人是为了防止某个物种灭亡,还有些人是为了确保生态系统的多样性,或者为了能呼吸到清洁空气,喝到清洁水,抑或是为了充分享受自然美景。马里斯女士总结道,令人高兴的是,不管是对人类还是对自然环境,许多此类的动因是殊途同归的。 /201210/205405。

E. T. Phoned. Now What?外星人来电Suppose one day scientists pick up a transmission they think is generated by aliens. Now what? Do we build a landing strip and break out the welcome wagon?假如有一天,科学家收到到外星人发来的信号该怎么办呢?我们有建造飞碟起落跑道来欢迎它们吗?Well here’s the thing about picking up alien broadcasts. The receivers scientists are currently using to listen to space noise are designed to find constant signals, or signals that are pulsing at regular intervals. But any message carried by these signals would probably be lost because the receivers can’t pick up the modulation, or rapid variations, in the base signal. The SETI institute, which searches for extra terrestrial life, has compared picking up a signal’s modulation to picking up the sound of a flute when it’s masked by the noise of a waterfall.关于接收到外来广播的事情是这样的。科学家接者收目前会听航天噪音,然后找出不变信号或者找出那些常规跳动的信号。但是任何携带信息的信号都可能丢失,因为接收者在信号基地不能收集到变调或快速变化的信号。对外星智能的探索研究院,专门寻找外星生物。它他们对接受到信号的变调和被瀑布声掩盖的笛声做了比较。Luckily, scientists would still have enough data to pinpoint where in the sky the transmission is coming from. And any slow changes in the broadcast frequency would reveal information about the rotation and movement of the aliens’ planets.幸运的是,科学家们有足够的数据来确定信号广播的位置。广播频率的细微变化都会揭露外星人星球的旋转和运动情况。Okay, but how will we know if they are friendly? Well, If we ever do detect a transmission, this would be huge news. The government would definitely allocate funds to building larger instruments capable of picking up signal modulations. However, even once scientists are able to measure the modulation, it isn’t certain that we’ll be able to understand the message. I guess everyone’s hoping that if the aliens are anything like us, they’ll send simple pictures and easy-to-decode messages.我们怎样才知道那些是友好的信号呢?如果我们发现了外来广播,那就是很大新闻了。政府一定会拨款建造更大的仪器,能够接受信号变调。不管怎样,即使科学家能够测量变调,也不能确定我们能明白这些信息。我想每个人都希望外星人与我们多少有点相似之处,会发简单的图画和容易解码的信息。 /201303/228408。

The Importance of Hand Washing洗手很重要In a recent study of people passing through major U.S. airports, it turned out that about thirty percent werent washing their hands after using the bathroom.近日,一项调查发现,30%美国主要机场出入的乘客们表示便后不洗手。These people who dont wash their hands dont just keep them in their pockets. They walk around shaking other peoples hands, holding babies, and handling food and doorknobs.而这些乘客不会老实地双手插袋,和其他人握手,抱抱小孩,处理食物,开关门……So basically, these folks are running around exposing the fastidious hand washers among us to infections that can range from the pesky common cold to SARS, which can be fatal. After all, many infections are transmitted through hand-to-hand contact.基本上,就是因为这些人不洗手,成为了疾病的媒介,从麻烦的感冒到可以致命的传染性非典型肺炎SARS。毕竟不少疾病都是握手接触传播的。Whats interesting is that people tend to exaggerate when theyre asked about hand-washing. In surveys, ninety-five percent of people claim to wash their hands every time, when the actual observed percentage is much lower.有趣的是受访者还会“夸大其词”。研究表示,95%的人声称每次都会洗手;而观察到的数据却小得多。So think about the fact that only around seventy-five percent of people claim to wash their hands after sneezing or coughing!想想事实上,有大概75%的人声称会在打喷嚏后洗手。The actual number is there much lower, too. Um?那么,事实上的洗手的人微乎其微了。Probably. On the bright side, since the SARS outbreak in Toronto, hand-washing rates at the airport have been near to one hundred percent. So all it takes to get people scrubbingdiligently is a major epidemic.极有可能,但是值得庆幸的是,在SARS在多伦多爆发后,机场洗手率高达百分之百。所以全民“勤奋”地洗手全靠“传染病”了。 /201211/209803。

Business.商业。Steelmaking in France.法国的钢铁制造。Cross over Lorraine.聚焦洛林。The closure of a steelmaking plant annoys the new president.钢铁厂的关闭令新总统烦恼。AMONG the first visitors to the Elysee Palace after Francois Hollandes victory in the French presidential election last month were trade-union leaders from ArcelorMittals steel factory at Florange, in Lorraine. The region is the crucible of Frances traditional heavy industry: people have been making iron in Lorraine for more than 300 years. But the blast-furnace fires started to go out last year when recession slashed demand for steel and forced ArcelorMittal, the worlds biggest steelmaker by some distance, to start closing its least efficient plants. By October both Floranges furnaces had been snuffed out, supposedly for a year. Last month the company said they would stay cool for another six months.Francois Hollande上个月赢得法国总统选举后爱丽舍宫的第一批访客中就有来自洛林Florange地区ArcelorMittal钢铁厂的工会领袖。此地是法国传统重工业的熔炉:人们在洛林炼铁已超过300年。但是当去年的衰退严重削弱了钢铁的需求时,高炉的炉火开始熄灭,几乎是世界最大的钢铁厂ArcelorMittal被迫开始关闭它效率不高的工厂。10月份时Florange的高炉已经停产,估计持续一年。上个月公司说他们将再停炉6个月。The unions fear that they will never be fired up again and that steelmaking on a symbolic site will come to an end. After the union leaders visit Mr Hollande asked Arnaud de Montebourg, the minister for productivity, to get an expert to review the prospects for Florange and to request the governments of Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain to ;act together vis-a-vis ArcelorMittal;-whatever that means.工会担心公司再也不会恢复生产,具有象征意义的钢铁制造区将终结。与工会领袖会晤后,Hollande先生要求生产部长Arnaud de Montebourg 找一个专家评估Florange的前景,同时要求比利时,德国,卢森堡和西班牙;共同行动vis-a-vis ArcelorMittal;-不管那意味着什么。Union fears are probably well founded: ArcelorMittal has labelled Florange and its plants at Liege, in Belgium, ;non-core;. The company has aly started the cumbersome, two-year process needed under Belgian labour law to close Liege permanently. Although it describes the Florange shutdown as temporary, it plainly wants to close that plant for good too, although it is loth to say so in public.工会的担心可能成真:ArcelorMittal已经把Florange和它在比利时Liege的工厂标记为;非核心;。公司已经开始周转不灵,按比利时劳动法永久关闭Liege需要2年时间。尽管Florange的关闭被说成是暂时的,但很明显公司也想永久关闭该工厂,只是它不愿公开这么说。With overcapacity in Europe and consolidation worldwide, only modern, coastal steelworks can compete. Older, inland sites, originally built atop iron-ore mines, are now seeing the world pass them by. Pressure to close less efficient plants has increased since Arcelor and Corus, both European firms, were merged into the global Mittal and Tata empires in the past five years and since recession put an end to a steel boom.随着欧洲生产过剩和世界范围内的兼并,只有现代化的,位于海边的钢材有竞争力。较老的,位于内陆的,起初建在铁矿附近的钢厂现在已经落伍了。自从两家欧洲公司Arcelor和Corus在过去5年被global Mittal和Tata帝国合并,自从衰退结束了钢铁业的繁荣,关闭效率低下的工厂的压力增加了。But the Florange site has more than just blast furnaces: they employ only about 500 workers out of a total of 2,700. The rest are in rolling mills that prepare finished steel for the car and construction industries or in research and development. With the blast furnaces shut, steel slabs are shipped inland from the companys coastal furnaces at Dunkirk. But that in turn is less efficient than doing everything at integrated coastal sites, such as Dunkirk, which import ore at one end and roll out finished steel at the other. So the fear is that in the long term even the rolling mills at Florange are doomed.但是Florange不仅仅有高炉:高炉只雇佣了总数2700人中的500人。其余的人轧钢厂工作,轧钢厂生产用于汽车,建筑工业的精炼钢,其中一部分人从事研发工作。高炉被关闭后,钢厚板由公司位于敦刻尔克的海边钢厂运到内陆来。但是那样做与把所有工作都集中于沿海地区相比低效,比如在敦刻尔克,一端输入铁矿石,另一端产出精炼钢。因此令人担心的是长期而言Florange轧钢厂的关闭是不可避免的。Since the first blast furnace closed last summer the workers have been mounting periodic protests in Florange and (occasionally) in Paris. The accession of Mr Hollandes Socialist government has brought them powerful friends, or at least demonstrative ones: Aurelie Filippetti, the minister of culture, turned up outside the mill to toast the protesters with champagne.自从去年夏天第一座高炉关闭以来,工人们定期在Florange和巴黎(偶尔)举行抗议。Hollande先生的社会党政府的上任使他们有了强大的朋友,或至少表明了这一点:文化部长Aurelie Filippetti出现在工厂外用香槟向抗议者敬酒。Meanwhile, ArcelorMittal says it has had no contact with the Elysee Palace. The company, which has its headquarters in London and Luxembourg, employs 300,000 people-20,000 in France, where it is a leading foreign investor. Its foreign ownership may be one reason why it is under fire from the new government, but French firms could also be shot at, once this months parliamentary elections are out of the way. PSA Peugeot-Citr?en, Air France-KLM and Carrefour are on a long list of firms said by unions to be preparing to announce mass redundancies.同时,ArcelorMittal表明他没有接触爱丽舍宫。公司分别在伦敦及卢森堡拥有总部,共雇用了300,000人---20,000人在法国,对法国是个重要的投资者。它的外国投资者身份可能是它被新上台的政府攻击的一个原因,但是一旦这个月的议会选举出现异常,法国公司同样可能被攻击。PSA Peugeot-Citr?en, Air France-KLM和Carrefour公司都在工会传出的准备进行大规模裁员的一长列的公司清单中。 /201209/201431。