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池州市九华医院上班时间东至县妇幼保健院位置An unusual method for producing antibiotics may help to solve an urgent global problem: the rise in infections that resist treatment with commonly used drugs, and the lack of new antibiotics to replace ones that no longer work.耐受常用药物治疗的感染日渐增多,却缺乏新型抗生素来替代那些不再有效的药物,这已成为全球亟待解决的问题。一种生产抗生素的特殊方法或可对此有所助益。The method, which extracts drugs from bacteria that live in dirt, has yielded a powerful new antibiotic, researchers reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday. The new drug, teixobactin, was tested in mice and easily cured severe infections, with no side effects.研究人员在周三的《自然》(Nature)杂志上报道,这种从生活在泥土里的细菌中提取药物的方法生产出了一种新的强力抗生素。在小鼠试验中,这种新药——teixobactin可以轻松治愈严重感染,且没有出现副作用。Better still, the researchers said, the drug works in a way that makes it very unlikely that bacteria will become resistant to it. And the method developed to produce the drug has the potential to unlock a trove of natural compounds to fight infections and cancer — molecules that were previously beyond scientists’ reach because the microbes that produce them could not be grown in the laboratory.更妙的是,研究人员称,这种药物具有独特的作用机理,使其几乎不会引起细菌耐药性。而且,这种生产药物的方法或许还能成为一把钥匙,打开蕴藏着可抵抗感染和癌症的天然化合物大宝藏——要知道,在此之前,由于能产生这些化合物的微生物不能在实验室中生长,科学家们对它们一直只能望而兴叹。Teixobactin has not yet been tested in humans, so its safety and effectiveness are not known. Studies in people will not begin for about two years, according to Kim Lewis, the senior author of the article and director of the Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University in Boston. Those studies will take several years, so even if the drug passes all the required tests, it still will not be available for five or six years, he said during a telephone news conference on Tuesday. If it is approved, he said, it will probably have to be injected, not taken by mouth.Teixobactin尚未接受过人体试验,因此它的安全性和有效性尚属未知。该文章的责任作者,美国东北大学抗微生物药物发现中心(Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University,位于波士顿)主任基姆·刘易斯(Kim Lewis)称,要展开人体研究大概还需要两年左右。他还在上周二的电话新闻发布会上说,这些研究将花费数年时间,所以即使该药物通过了所有必需的测试,也还需要五六年的时间才能面世。如果能通过审批,他说,该药物很可能采用注射给药,而非口。Experts not involved with the research said the technique for isolating the drug had great potential. They also said teixobactin looked promising, but expressed caution because it has not yet been tested in humans.几位未参与该研究的专家表示,这种用于分离药物的技术具有巨大的潜力。他们还说,teixobactin看起来前途无量,但因为毕竟它尚未经过人体试验,他们也都表现出了谨慎的态度。Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University, called the research “ingenious” and said “We’re in desperate need of some good antibiotic news.”范德堡大学(Vanderbilt University)的传染病专家威廉·沙夫纳(William Schaffner)士称这项研究“新颖独特”,并表示“我们迫切需要一些有关抗生素的好消息”。Regarding teixobactin, he said: “It’s at the test-tube and the mouse level, and mice are not men or women, and so moving beyond that is a large step, and many compounds have failed.” He added, “Toxicity is often the Achilles’ heel of drugs.”至于teixobactin,他认为:“它尚且处于实验室和小鼠试验水平,而小鼠距离人类还有很远的距离,许多化合物都没能成功跨越这一大步。”他又补充道:“毒性往往是药物的‘阿喀琉斯之踵’(译注:指致命弱点)。”Dr. David A. Relman, a professor of medicine at Stanford, said by email, “It illustrates the amazing wealth and diversity of as-yet-unrecognized, potent, biologically-active compounds made by the microbial world — some of which may have real clinical value.”斯坦福大学(Stanford)的医科教授大卫·A·瑞尔曼(David A. Relman)士在一封电子邮件中写道:“该研究揭示,微生物界可生产出丰富多样的、我们尚未认识、且具有生物活性的强效化合物——其中的一些可能具有实际临床价值。”Drug-resistant bacteria infect at least 2 million people a year in the ed States and kill 23,000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The World Health Organization warned last year that such infections were occurring all over the world, and that drug resistant strains of many diseases were emerging faster than new antibiotics could be made to fight them. Compounding the problem is the fact that many drug companies backed away from trying to develop new antibiotics in favor of other, more profitable, types of drugs.据美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的数据显示,在美国,每年至少有200万人感染耐药菌,其中23000人因此死亡。世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)警告说,去年,此类感染在世界各地都有发生,许多疾病的耐药菌株正在以比能克制它们的新抗生素更快的速度不断出现。众多制药公司纷纷放弃研制新的抗生素,将研发重点转向了更有利可图的其他类型的药物,使得这一问题进一步地复杂化了。The new research is based on the premise that everything on earth — plants, soil, people, animals — is teeming with microbes that compete fiercely to survive. Trying to keep one another in check, the microbes secrete biological weapons: antibiotics.这项新研究建立在一个前提之上,即:地球上的一切——植物、土壤、人、动物——都充斥着在激烈的竞争中求生存的微生物。为了牢牢抑制住自己的竞争对手,微生物们分泌出了生物武器:抗生素。“The way bacteria multiply, if there weren’t natural mechanisms to limit their growth, they would have covered the planet and eaten us all eons ago,” Dr. Schaffner said.沙夫纳士指出:“按照细菌那种繁殖方式,要是没有一种自然机制来限制它们的增长,早在亿万年前它们就会覆盖整个地球,把我们全都吃干抹净了。”Scientists and drug companies have for decades exploited the microbes’ natural arsenal, often by mining soil samples, and discovered lifesaving antibiotics like penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, as well as some powerful chemotherapy drugs for cancer. But disease-causing organisms have become resistant to many existing drugs, and there has been a major obstacle to finding replacements, Dr. Lewis said: About 99 percent of the microbial species in the environment are bacteria that do not grow under usual laboratory conditions.数十年来,科学家们和制药公司都在利用微生物这座天然兵工厂(这些微生物通常是从土壤样本中发掘筛选而来),并发现了青霉素、链霉素、四环素等多种拯救了无数生命的抗生素,以及一些可用于治疗癌症的强力化疗药物。然而,致病微生物开始对多种现有药物产生耐药性,要寻找替代性药物,却存在一个重大障碍,刘易斯士解释道:自然环境中约99%的微生物物种都无法在普通的实验室条件下生长。Dr. Lewis and his colleagues found a way to grow them. The process involves diluting a soil sample — the one that yielded teixobactin came from “a grassy field in Maine” — and placing it on specialized equipment Then, the secret to success is putting the equipment into a box full of the same soil that the sample came from.刘易斯士和他的同事们发现了一种可以培养这些微生物的方法。具体程序包括稀释土壤样本(生产出teixobactin的土壤样本来自“缅因州的一片草地”),并将其放在专门的设备上。然后,就是成功的秘诀:将该设备放进满满一盒与样本来源相同的土壤当中。“Essentially, we’re tricking the bacteria,” Dr. Lewis said. Back in their native dirt, they divide and grow into colonies. Once the colonies form, Dr. Lewis said, the bacteria are “domesticated,” and researchers can scoop them up and start growing them in petri dishes in the laboratory.“从本质上讲,我们是在糊弄那些细菌,”刘易斯士说,让它们以为自己回到了家乡的泥土中,于是就可以自然而然地分裂,生长成菌落。一旦形成菌落,代表这些细菌已经被“驯化”了,这时研究人员就可以将它们采集起来,开始在实验室的培养皿中培养。The research was paid for by the National Institutes of Health and the German government (some co-authors work at the University of Bonn). Northeastern University holds a patent on the method of producing drugs and licensed the patent to a private company, NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals, in Cambridge, Mass., which owns the rights to any compounds produced. Dr. Lewis is a paid consultant to the company.这项研究由美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)和德国政府(一部分共同作者在波恩大学[University of Bonn]工作)资助。东北大学对这种生产药物的方法持有专利并将其授权给了一家私营公司NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals(位于马萨诸塞州剑桥市),该公司对使用该方法生产的任何化合物持所有权。刘易斯士是该公司的有酬顾问。Teixobactin is the most promising candidate isolated from 10,000 strains of bacteria that the researchers screened. In test tubes, it killed various types of staph and strep, as well as anthrax and tuberculosis. Tested in mice, it cleared strep infections and staph, including a strain that was drug-resistant. It works against bacteria in a group known as “Gram-positive,” but not against microbes that are “Gram-negative,” which include some that are major causes of drug resistant pneumonia, gonorrhea and infections of the bladder and bloodstream. Dr. Lewis said researchers were trying to modify the drug to make it work against Gram-negative infections.Teixobactin是研究人员从10000株细菌菌株中筛选分离出来的最有前途的候选药物。在试管中,它可以杀死多种类型的葡萄球菌和链球菌,以及炭疽和结核病的病原体。在小鼠身上测试时,它可以清除链球菌感染和葡萄球菌,其中也包括耐药菌株。它可以作用于一类被称为“革兰氏阳性”的细菌,但对“革兰氏阴性”细菌(如耐药性肺炎、淋病、膀胱和血液感染的某些主要致病菌)无效。刘易斯士表示,研究人员正试图对该药物进行改良,希望它也可以用来治疗革兰氏阴性菌感染。Twenty-five other drug candidates were also identified, but most had drawbacks like toxicity or insolubility, Dr. Lewis said, adding that one, though toxic, may work against cancer and will be tested further.刘易斯士说,他们还识别出了二十五种其他的候选药物,但它们大多存在毒性或不溶性之类的缺点,但他也补充说,其中一种虽然有毒,但可能具有抗击癌症的效果,他们将对其进行进一步的测试。Teixobactin attacks bacteria by blocking fatty molecules needed to build cell walls, which is different from the way most antibiotics work. Those molecules are unlikely to change and make the microbes resistant, the researchers said. But if resistance does occur, Dr. Lewis predicted, it will take a long time to develop.Teixobactin与大多数抗生素的机理不同,它是通过阻断脂肪分子,从而阻碍细菌细胞壁的合成来发挥作用的。研究人员表示,脂肪分子不容易发生变异,因此不容易令微生物产生耐药性。刘易斯士预言,假若确实会出现耐药性,也将需要很长很长的时间。Dr. Relman said the argument against resistance was reasonable. But he cautioned that “unsuspected mechanisms of resistance” sometimes develop, and that the only way to tell would be to monitor carefully what happens as the drug is used more and more.瑞尔曼士认为上述关于耐药性的论述具有合理性。但他也警告说,有时候,“耐药性会以出人意料的机制产生”,在药物推广的过程中仔细监测是发现它们的唯一方式。Dr. Lewis said he hoped the research would point the way to a new approach to searching for novel antibiotics. Until now, he said, scientists have assumed that resistance would inevitably develop, and that the only solution would require scrambling to develop new antibiotics in hopes of keeping up.刘易斯士表示,他希望这项研究能指引出一条寻找新型抗生素的新路。迄今为止科学家们一直假设耐药性的产生不可避免,唯一的解决办法就是争分夺秒地开发新的抗生素,期望可以跟上菌株演化的速度。“This gives us an alternative strategy,” he said. “Develop compounds to which resistance will not develop.”“这项研究向我们提供了另一种策略,”他说,“开发不会引起耐药性的化合物。” /201502/360136池州看男科去哪个医院比较好 Whether a man is drawn to a woman#39;s body or her face may depend on whether he sees her as a short-term fling or a long-term lover, according to a new study that discusses evolutionary motivations in dating。一项探讨约会中进化动机的最新研究表明,男人关注女伴的身材还是其长相,取决于他把对方看做是短期的纵情对象还是看做长期恋人。Men who, for the purposes of the study, were considering just a fling with a woman were more likely to peek at a picture of her body than men who were thinking about a long-term relationship, the research found. The guys considering a long-term relationship showed a preference for looking at her face。研究发现,相较于那些考虑发展长期关系的男性,期待一夜风流的男性更可能去关注描绘女性身材的图片。而考虑长期发展的男性则对女性的长相有偏好。The findings may reflect men#39;s evolutionary drives, said study co-author Jaime Confer, a psychology graduate student at the University of Texas in Austin. Men who want a fling, she said, may be subconsciously looking to a woman#39;s waistline to judge the woman#39;s current fertility. Men looking for long-term partners, on the other hand, may be more interested in her face for clues of reproductive potential in the future。研究报告作者之一、德克萨斯大学心理学研究生杰米-康弗说,这些结果可能反映了男性的进化动机。她说,一个想要一夜情的男人潜意识地会去看女人的腰围,来判断她的生育能力。而想寻求长期伴侣的男人则更可能对女人的长相感兴趣,因为他想由此看出此女未来的生殖潜力如何。Previous studies have noted that a woman#39;s face reflects her youth and health, which can affect her future reproductive abilities. Lots of wrinkles might suggest she has few childbearing years left, for example. The body, on the other hand, holds clues as to how fertile a woman is right now. Waist-to-hip ratio can signal whether a woman is aly pregnant, and maybe even whether she is currently ovulating, according to previous research。此前已有研究表明,女性的面容可以反映她的年龄和健康状况,而年轻和健康与否可影响其潜在生殖能力。例如,长有很多皱纹可能意味着她几年后便不能再生孩子了。而另一方面,身体的种种特点可以显示出一个女人现在的生育能力如何。之前的研究显示,通过腰臀比例,人们可以看出一个女人是否怀,甚至可能判断出她是否正在排卵。Confer and her colleagues asked 192 men and 183 women, all heterosexual and in college, to consider entering into either a short- or long-term heterosexual relationship. The students were given a masked picture of a potential date, with boxes covering both the head and clothed body. They could choose to remove either the box covering the head or the box covering the body, but not both。康弗和同事要求大学里192名男生和183名女生(全部为异性恋)开始考虑进入一段短期或者长期的两性关系。同时学生们还拿到了潜在约会对象的照片,头和身体均被盒子遮住。受试者可以选择去掉头部的盒子,也可以选择去掉身体部位的盒子,只能择其一。On the whole, 61 percent of men and 69 percent of women chose to see the individual#39;s face. But among the men who were thinking short-term, the interest in viewing the woman#39;s face decreased. Of the men considering short-term relationships, 52 percent chose to see the body。总体来讲,61%的男生选择看对方的脸,这一比例在女生中为69%。但是那些想要短暂关系的男生对观看女性长相的兴趣就降低了。考虑短暂关系的男生中,52%的人选择看对方的身体。 /201507/384639池州治疗早泄哪家医院专业

青阳县人民医院是三甲医院吗1. We#39;re not impatient, just efficient.我们不是没耐心,而是有效率Long lines? Traffic? Type A individuals loathe them all. This is because we feel as though they#39;re slowing our progress of a certain goal-- even if that goal is just to deposit a check at the bank.排长队?堵车?我们A型人格患者恨透了这些。这是因为,我们感觉这些事情会拖累我们向某个目标前进的进度——即使所谓的目标只是去存个钱。2. Arriving late to anything is ;agonizing;.在任何情况下迟到都是可耻可恨的If you tell us to be somewhere at 6:30, more likely than not, we#39;re rolling up to the parking lot at 6:25. Type A folks tend to have an oversensitivity to time, because we don#39;t want to feel like we#39;re wasting it.如果你让我们A型人格患者在6:30到达某个地方,很有可能我们在6:25就已经到达目的地的停车场了。A型人格患者往往对时间过度敏感,因为我们不希望觉得自己在浪费时间。3. We live by to-do lists.我们按照任务清单来生活How else are we supposed to track what we#39;re supposed to get done?!否则我们怎么明确自己该干什么事呢?4. Each task we#39;re assigned is urgent.我们接受的每项任务都很紧迫Because of this, we value team members who work with the same brevity and speed that we do. Once again, wasting time is our ultimate enemy.正因为此,我们很看重团队中能和我们一样做事干练、有速度的团队成员。再说一遍,浪费时间是我们的死敌。5. We#39;re extremely goal-oriented.我们非常以目标为导向。Once we commit to something, we see it through until the very end, whether it#39;s a work project or Friday night plans.一旦我们决定要做某件事,我们就会不达目的决不罢休,不管是对一个工作项目还是对周五晚上的计划。6. It#39;s hard for us to relax.我们很难放松This is where time sensitivity comes into play again. We hate the idea of letting time pass if there#39;s something we need to be doing. Downtime tends to feel unproductive to Type A folks -- unless, of course, it#39;s on our to-do list.这又是我们对时间的高度敏感性在起作用了。我们讨厌明知道自己必须做某件事,却让时间白白流失。我们觉得休整时间是无生产率的——当然,休整作为任务被列入任务清单的话就另当别论了。7. We get stressed out easily.我们很容易感到焦虑Type A are more sensitive to stress (which, as we know, is terribly bad for our health). We also tend to default on the worst possible outcome when working through a situation. Sorry in advance for the slight negativity.A型人格患者对压力更为敏感(众所周知,这对我们的健康非常不利)。我们常常在事情尚未处理完毕的时候,就已经预见到最坏的结果。先为我们这种略为悲观的倾向道歉啦。8. We have nervous habits.我们在神经紧张时会做某种习惯性动作For me, it#39;s hair twirling. For others, it#39;s nail biting or teeth grinding. This behavior is common for Type A personalities.对我来说,这种习惯动作是用手指缠绕自己的头发。对其他A型人格患者来说,这种习惯性动作也可能是咬指甲或者磨牙。这种应对神经紧张的小动作在A型人格者身上很常见。9. We#39;re emotional.我们很容易情绪化The reason we behave the way that we do is because we care (some could even argue that we care just a little too much). Researchers suggest that Type A people are highly conscientious-- so while it may seem like we#39;re uptight when we#39;re organizing our friend#39;s birthday party, it#39;s really just because we want it to be spectacular. They deserve it.我们之所以做事情如此锱铢必较是因为我们在乎这件事(有人可能会抱怨说,我们在乎过头了)。研究者称,A型人格患者都是极度认真负责的——所以,如果我们在为朋友举办生日派对时显得焦躁易怒,这只是因为我们希望把它办的尽善尽美。寿星们值得拥有!10. We#39;re constantly ruminating over something.我们总会回想某件事You know when you just replay a mistake over and over in your head? This is a common occurrence for Type A individuals. We are notorious for dwelling on our worries, sometimes to the point where it keeps us up at night.人们总会在脑子里一遍一遍回想自己犯过的一个错误,你懂的?这种现象对A型人格患者很常见。这是我们臭名昭著的坏习惯,我们会不断纠结于自己的烦心事,有时甚至为此整晚难以入睡。11. We have a competitive side.我们有好胜的一面This is perhaps one of our most glaring flaws. Type A#39;s put a lot of pressure on themselves to be the best possible version of themselves, which sometimes is taken to mean ;the best person in the room.; It doesn#39;t matter if it#39;s a work assignment or a board game, they#39;re all the same to a Type A personality.这可能是我们最突出的缺陷。A型人格患者的一大乐趣在于,让自己扮演最完美的自己,虽然有时这会被误解成“充当一个屋子里最完美的人”。不管是对一项工作任务还是对一场棋类游戏,他们总是那个好胜的A型人格患者。 /201506/378454池州九华医院是不是三甲医院 安徽池州人民医院医院账单

池州九华医院的权威医生 The consecration of the Church of England#39;s first woman bishop was met with a lone voice of protest at York Minister.在约克教堂,英格兰国教首位女主教的祝圣仪式遭到一个孤零零的抗议声。The Archbishop of York, Dr John Sentamu, asked the congregation of nearly 2,000 whether it was ;now your will that she should be ordained?;约克大主教约翰·圣塔穆士向将近2000人提出这样的问题:“现在是否是授予她圣职的时刻?”Most shouted: ;It is;. But one man, Rev Paul Williamson, stood and called out: ;No, it#39;s not in the bible;.大部分喊道:“是的!”但是还是有一个人——莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊——站出来,大声叫道:“不,《圣经》里没有(女子被授予圣职)。”;With respect, Your Grace, I ask to speak on this absolute impediment, please,; he continued.他接着说:“尊敬的阁下,我请求详细阐述阻止的原因。”Despite the interruption, the consecration of the Reverend Libby Lane as the eighth Bishop of Stockport continued.丽比·莱恩教士被授予斯托克波特第八位主教的祝圣仪式尽管被打断,但还是继续进行。Rev Williamson later told Sky News: ;I felt a marker should be put down to say clearly to everybody that a female bishop is not found in the bible.;莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊事后向Sky新闻说:“我感觉向每个人说清楚《圣经》里找不到女性主教是有必要的。”He added: ;The lord Jesus Christ made a very deliberate choice of those who were to carry on his work.;他又加了一句:“耶稣基督在选谁去承担他的工作时是非常谨慎的。”A Church of England spokesman described Rev Williamson as a ;serial protester;.英格兰教会发言人将莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊描述为一个“一系列抗议者”。The spokesman said they were expecting him to attend, adding: ;He#39;s got the right to protest but the contrast was between a lone voice protesting and a sea of voices affirming.;这位发言人说他们希望他参加祝圣仪式,因为 “他有抗议的权利,但这是一个孤零零的抗议声和排山倒海的肯定声之间的差距。”Rev Williamson previously protested the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall.莱福·保罗·威廉姆逊先前也曾抗议威尔士王子和康沃尔公爵夫人的婚姻。Rev Lane was named as the new bishop last month in a move ending centuries of all-male leadership in the Church.莱恩女教士是在上个月被任命为新主教的,这一举动结束了数个世纪以来教会的领导者皆为男性的状况。The announcement came after the General Synod formally adopted legislation allowing women bishops.而宣布莱恩主教正式任职的公告紧随教会总会正式批准允许女性担任主教的法案之后。During the service she spoke to affirm and declare her belief in the faith and swore oaths of allegiance and canonical obedience.在祝圣仪式中,莱恩主教庄严宣布她的信仰,并宣誓效忠,遵守教规。 /201502/357658池州无痛的人流多少钱尧渡仁里蓉城镇医院地址



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