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宜城市妇幼保健院中医院上环多少钱襄阳妇幼保健院治疗阴道炎多少钱襄樊第四人民医院人流医院排名 5.Obesity Impacts on the Proper Working of the Body5.肥胖影响身体正常运转Ask a child what happens when you are sick or have a disease and the likelihood is that they will say that the disease stops #39;some body part#39; working properly. Heart disease impacts the heart, lung disease the lungs etc. Obesity also impacts on the proper working of the body.当你问小孩子生病会有什么感觉时,他们很可能会说那种不适使“身体某些部位”不能正常工作了。心脏病会影响心脏,肺病会影响肺部,肥胖也会影响身体的正常运转。This impact on the body comes in two separate but connected ways. Firstly the increase in body mass can cause mechanical problems such as osteoarthritis, sleep apnoea and mobility problems. These will often be alleviated if the sufferer loses weight. Secondly the increase in the number of fat cells within the body can be the cause of a range of medical problems such as Heart Disease, Fatty Liver Disease, Infertility, High Blood Pressure etc. Such medical problems may not be easily reversed by a loss of weight.肥胖对身体的影响主要有两个方面,而它们既相互独立又相互联系。第一,体重增加会导致机体问题,如骨关节炎、睡眠呼吸暂停和移动障碍。如果体重下降,那么这些病症也常随之减轻。第二,身体脂肪细胞数量的增加会导致一系列的健康问题,如心脏病、脂肪肝、不和高血压等,而这类健康问题就不会随体重的下降而得到缓解。4.Obesity Works like Type II Diabetes4.肥胖症的作用机理与2型糖尿病类同When a person becomes obese their body starts to produce more of a hormone called Leptin than the bodies of people who are not. Leptin is responsible for telling the body when it is full in the same way that Insulin controls the body#39;s response to Glucose. When a person produces too much Leptin they become resistant to it in the same way that someone with type II diabetes is resistant to Insulin.一个人变得过于肥胖后,身体相较于正常人而言会产生更多称之为瘦蛋白(Leptin)的激素。这是一种传达身体饱腹程度的激素,就像胰岛素传达体内葡萄糖含量一样。当瘦蛋白过多,人会对其产生免疫作用,就跟二型糖尿病患者对胰岛素产生抗体一样。As a person puts on weight their body secretes more Leptin – they are then no longer able to tell when they have eaten enough and so their body allows them to over-eat. Type II Diabetes is treated as a disease whether or not a person develops it as a result of genetic predisposition or as a result of a particular lifestyle. If this is true for Type II Diabetes then why not for obesity?随着人们体重上升,身体分泌出更多瘦蛋白,既而无法得知自己的饱腹水平,这样一来就会过度饮食。不论二型糖尿病的病因是先天而来或是生活方式所致,人们都将其视作一种疾病来对待。所以,既然二型糖尿病受到了这种待遇,肥胖症又有何不可呢?3.The Body Adapts To a Specific #39;Set Point#39;3.肥胖影响“体重固定值”Most people will have a stable #39;set point weight#39; – the weight to which their body defaults. The scales may go up or down but they generally sit at or around this point. As a person puts on weight the body becomes used to a new normal – the set point changes and creeps up. When a person tries to lose weight the body will default back to its set point – it #39;defends#39; the weight. This is why diets are often inefficient unless the person concerned is able to make a wholesale lifestyle change. Even then the body will often try to revert back if the person #39;slips#39;. Not unlike an alcoholic who is never cured a person who does manage to lose weight is not able to give up on their new regime at any time.大多数人都有一个稳定的“体重固定值”,这是身体默认的。平时的体重或高或低于这个数值,但通常都与其相差无几。人的体重上升后,身体会适应一个新常态,这个固定值会缓慢上升。而当人们试图减掉几斤时,身体就自动想要回到那个“固定值”,捍卫原来的体重量。这也就解释了为什么饮食调节对于减肥不太有效,除非减肥者可以颠覆原有的生活方式。不过即使是这样,一旦减肥者稍有懈怠,身体就试图故态复萌。恰恰就如一个不可治愈的酗酒者一样,认真想要减肥的人也无法随心所欲地抛弃自己的饮食起居习惯。2.Obesity Meets the Definition of #39;Disease#39;2.肥胖符合疾病的定义There is no single definition of disease but Webster#39;s dictionary defines it as #39;An alteration of the state of the body or some of its organs, interrupting or disturbing the performance of the vital functions and causing or threatening pain and weakness; malady; affection; illness; sickness; disorder…#39;疾病的定义并不是单一的,其中《韦氏词典》是这样解释的:一种身体和某些器官的变化;有碍于身体重要功能的发挥;导致疼痛、虚弱;身体失调;心情烦躁;身体不适;呕吐;机能紊乱。Obesity meets this definition in all respects. It alters the body– not only by increasing the size of the person suffering from the disease but by affecting the way in which the body produces or metabolises substances; by altering how efficiently some of the organs work or how well the person affected can move. It can cause the sufferer pain, discomfort, embarrassment. It exacerbates other underlying problems and is often, in its causes and effects beyond the control of the sufferer. Obesity has an effect on the physical and mental wellbeing of the sufferer and causes sickness or even death.肥胖完全符合疾病的定义。它不但能改变人们的身体,使患者的体型变大,还能影响体内物质的新陈代谢,影响器官的高效运作和患者的行动能力。肥胖会使人难受,局促不安和尴尬。它也会引发潜在的疾病。通常情况下,患者无法控制其因果,影响患者身心健康,甚至造成疾病或是死亡等后果。1.Obesity Is Like Alcoholism or Depression – Once Seen As Lifestyle Conditions but Now Accepted As a Disease1.肥胖就像酒瘾和忧郁——过去被认为是生活方式,现在被列入疾病范畴One hundred years ago alcoholics were given very little support. Not much was known about the psychology, physiology and mechanics of addiction and it was seen as a lifestyle problem – an addiction gone wrong. In years gone by people suffering from mental health problems were stigmatised, marginalised and told to sort themselves out. In these, more enlightened times, we look back at such attitudes with horror and compassion. People suffering from alcoholism or mental health problems have access to a wide range of support networks and treatments to assist them in dealing with their disease.一百年前,酒鬼是得不到任何帮助的。当时,人们对心理学、生理学以及酒瘾都不太了解,都认为酒瘾属于生活方式问题——形成了错误嗜好。过去,患有精神疾病是可耻的、被排斥的。在如今开明的时代,人们回想曾针对那些精神疾病患者的态度时,难免感到恐惧,并为患者感到十分同情。现在,无论是精神病患者还是醉汉都能获得广泛的持和治疗以摆脱困扰。There is no reason to view obesity in a different light. Even if obesity in a particular person is connected to lifestyle instead of genetic issues there is no reason not to treat it as a disease. Alcohol or cigarettes are optional – we do not need them to survive. All people need to eat; even those who are obese. It is difficult to change a relationship with something that is a fundamental constant in life. You can say no to a glass of wine or beer every day for the rest of your life – you cannot say no to breakfast, lunch and supper. Obesity, as opposed to just being a little overweight, is a condition that is often beyond the means of the sufferer to fix without assistance. It is a disease that has been with us as long as people have been on the planet. Obesity can be inherited from family – if your parents are obese the strong likelihood is that you will be too. While obesity can cause or exacerbate many other health conditions such as heart disease or diabetes it can also be caused by underlying health problems. Once an obese person#39;s body gets used to the weight it will work against attempts to lose it – our bodies are designed to #39;defend#39; the highest weight we reach. Obese bodies become resistant to the hormone that tells us when we are full, in much the same way that a person can become resistant to insulin. Obesity limits life and the sufferer will most likely need medical assistance to deal with the problem. If Alcoholism, Lung Cancer, Cirrhosis, Depression are all diseases then so is Obesity. Obesity is a growing problem worldwide it is a complex issue with many underlying causes that require complex, multi-party solutions. If obesity is considered a lifestyle choice, it can be palmed off as the personal responsibility of the sufferer. If it is a disease with a social and economic impact it becomes a wider problem. The medical establishment can legitimately look for new and innovative ways to treat this disease. Governments will have to make conditions favorable for investment in treatment and ensure that it is accessible and affordable for all. They will promote healthy living; make sure that the urban environment is exercise friendly. Society needs to stop victim blaming and stigmatizing sufferers. Categorizing obesity as a disease is the first step in making these solutions possible and available to all.所以,我们没有理由特殊对待肥胖。即使某些人的肥胖是因为生活方式问题而不是遗传问题,但我们没有理由把肥胖排除在疾病之外。人们可以自由选择是否抽烟喝酒,但所有人都需要吃饭,肥胖的人也不例外。改变我们和基本生活需求的关系是非常困难的。你可以在你的余生每天少喝一杯酒,但是你却没法不吃早饭、中饭或者是晚饭。肥胖跟略微超重不一样,如果没有人帮助,将会是患者无法解决的问题。只要人们还居住在星球上,这个疾病就会一直存在。肥胖也可能从家族遗传——如果你的父母肥胖,极有可能你也会肥胖。在肥胖会导致心脏病、糖尿病之类的疾病的同时,潜在的健康问题也会引发肥胖。一旦一个人长期处于肥胖状态,他便会习惯这种状态,他的身体会自动阻碍他减肥——因为人们的身体天生就有“偏袒高体重”的倾向。肥胖的人对传达腹饱程度的荷尔蒙已形成了抵抗性,就跟糖尿病患者对胰岛素的反应一样。肥胖限制了我们的生活,肥胖的人也需要医疗帮助才能解决这个问题。如果酒瘾、肺癌、肝硬化和抑郁症都属于疾病,那么肥胖也应该是一种病。在全球,肥胖已经是一个日益严重的问题。肥胖是一个复杂的问题,由很多潜在因素引发,解决方法复杂多样。如果肥胖被认为是一种生活方式上的选择,那么这就是患者个人的责任。而如果肥胖是一种影响经济社会发展的疾病,那么它涉及的范围就更广泛了。如此一来,医疗机构就可以研究各种新颖方法来治疗肥胖了。政府必须为治疗肥胖创造一个良好的投资环境,以确保所有人都能接受治疗并负担得起治疗费用。政府还要倡导健康生活,保城市环境有利于人们做运动以锻炼身体。同时社会也要开始停止对患者的责怪和耻笑。为了让这些解决方案行之有效,首要任务就是把肥胖归到疾病这一类。审校:哈利 来源:前十网 /201601/4205025.The Left-Handed Biblical Warriors5.《圣经》中的左手武士We#39;ve talked a bit about how someone left-handed may have an advantage in combat, and that#39;s certainly been well-known throughout history. In fact, the Bible makes special mention of left-handed warriors, which has led to an interesting debate. Needing to free Israel from the rule of the Moabites, God sent Ehud, a left-handed assassin, to carry out one of the most gruesome Biblical assassinations. A big deal is made of left-handed Ehud sneaking his double-bladed dagger into the king#39;s presence by hiding it on his right thigh. Ehud is far from the only left-hander that the Bible mentions. These Biblical left-handers were warriors that came from a tribe called the Benjamites.上文中我们提到过,左撇子在战斗中会有许多优势——这在历史上广为人知。事实上,《圣经》中在一场著名的斗争中特别提及了左手武士。为了帮助以色列人摆脱押人的统治,耶和华派出了他的左撇子暗杀者——以笏来实施一场最恐怖的暗杀计划。这位左撇子武士将他的双刃匕首藏在右腿的裤管里去面圣。以笏也并不是《圣经》中提及的唯一的左撇子,这些《圣经》中的左手武士大多来自于本杰明部落(Benjamites)。According to Judges, the Benjamites were incredible warriors that could hit a single human hair with a sling and used a bow with unparalleled ambidextrous skill. There is debate as to how this warrior tribe developed the left-handed fighting style. One theory states that the Benjamites were simply predisposed to being left-handed, much like the abovementioned Kerr family. Another theory focuses on the translation. The words used to describe their left-handed fighting style didn#39;t just mean ;left-handed; but also, quite literally, ;restricted in his right hand.; Some think that this translation hints at the tribe taking great lengths to retrain right-handed people to use a left-handed fighting style, giving them an edge in battle. It#39;s also possible that the Bible took special note of specifically left-handed Benjamites because of the humor in their name: ;Benjamin; translates as ;son of my right hand,; so the left-handed Benjamites were, ironically, ;left-handed right-handers.;从书中来看,本杰明武士所向披靡,他们可以用弹弓打中一根头发丝,双手都能够灵活操控弓箭。但是这么一个武士部落如何成为了后来的左撇子武士团依旧是个广为争论的话题。其中一个理论认为本杰明部落本身就有变成左撇子的倾向,就像上文中的科尔家族一样。而另一理论坚持;转变说;。它认为书中描述他们左手作战的文字事实上表达了另一种意思——他们有意识地限制自己使用右手。有人认为这种转变暗示了这个武士军团在很长的一段时间内都致力于训练惯用右手的士兵使用左手来提高战争中的优势。也有人认为《圣经》中之所以着重描写了左撇子本杰明是因为他们的名字;Benjamin;寓意着;右手之子(son of my right hand);,所以那些惯用左手的本杰明部族就令人啼笑皆非的变成了;惯用左手的右手之子;。4.King George VI And Retraining Of Left-Handed Children4.乔治六世和左撇子儿童的后天训练The bias against left-handed children has resulted in some pretty extreme measures. A Zulu child who ate his porridge with his left hand could expect to have that hand burned in the hot porridge as a lesson. Even in 20th-century Britain children could expect to have their left hand tied down to make them use their right one. British child psychologists that supported this retraining method also preached that children who used their left hand were simply demonstrating—and developing—a defiant personality that needed to be corrected as soon as possible.人们对左撇子儿童的偏见导致了一些极端残酷的刑罚。如果一个祖鲁小孩用左手喝了粥,那么他的左手会被浸到滚烫的热粥里以示惩戒。即使在20世纪的英国,家长还是会把小孩的左手绑起来以迫使他们使用右手。英国儿童心理学家认为这种后天训练的方法表明了那些左撇子孩子大多拥有一种叛逆个性,需要尽早纠正。Even kings weren#39;t exempt from this; tutors struggled to get the young Duke of York (later George VI) to start using his right hand instead of his left, along with working on his well-known stutter. This, along with other children developing stutters after similar retraining, gave rise to the idea that the two were somehow connected. A number of medical works were presented on how retraining children to become right-handed would lead to the development of a stutter, as well as conditions like dyslexia and other ing difficulties. It was put forth that switching dominant hands led to a struggle for dominance between the two sides of the brain, which in turn manifested itself in a stutter. This theory led to a massive rethinking of the whole retraining idea, and the practice began to die out. Nowadays, it#39;s thought that there#39;s a different reason that children forced to change their hand of choice can develop a stutter: It has more to do with being put in a stressful situation than with the two sides of the brain arguing with each other.即使国王也不能免于这种后天训练。家庭教师曾经试图让小约翰公爵(即后来的乔治六世)使用他的右手而非左手,同时试图矫正他的口吃。然而其他孩子在这种训练下也产生了口吃的毛病,人们不得不开始思考两者间的联系,包括诵读困难和其他阅读困难问题。有人提出,改变惯用手强行转变了大脑的左右半叶的控制区块,从而导致口吃等毛病的出现。这个理论让人们开始反省转变惯用手的利弊,这种后天训练也逐渐不了了之。不过如今,人们普遍觉得后天训练导致口吃也许有不同的原因——后天训练让孩子们面临了巨大的压力,从而左右脑难以协调。3.Cesare Lombroso#39;s Theories On The Left-Handed3.切萨雷·龙勃罗梭的左撇子理论Since Lombroso was a physician who lived at the turn of the 20th century, you#39;d expect his opinions on the matter of left-handed people to have been a little more clinical and forgiving . . . but we#39;ll let his words speak for him: ;Man advances in civilization and culture; he shows an always greater right-sidedness as compared to . . . women and savage races; [who] even when they are not properly left-handed have certain gestures and movements which are a species of left-handedness.; In case that leaves any doubt as to his position on the matter, he went on to explain it.作为20世纪末的一名医生,我们也许期望龙勃罗梭对于左撇子现象做出更为客观的评判……但是事实并非如此。;人类文明和文化不断的进步,他给我们展示了更美好的右边一面……相较于妇女和那些未开化的野蛮种族;即使是那些并不算严格意义上的左撇子的人,也有偏向于左手派别的特定的手势和行为;。这番话也许让我们对他对于左撇子的态度感到疑惑,龙勃罗梭随即解释了这一切。Lombroso thought that there was a higher part of the brain that was connected to logic and reason, while the lower part of the brain was responsible for governing man#39;s baser urges and emotions. It was this lower brain that dictated the lives of the left-handed, as well as of criminals, lunatics, and the generally wicked. He also said that while a person who#39;s left-handed wasn#39;t necessarily bad, left-handedness was one of the traits that he had found to be present in ;the worst characters among the human species.; Lombroso pointed to a long history of bias against the left-handed in support of his theory, which, at the time, was viewed as medical fact and pretty new, revolutionary science. Weirdly, his ideas haven#39;t gone away. Scientists as recently as the 1990s have used his work as a basis for their studies that have concluded that left-handed people were more prone to genetic disorders and had shorter lifespans.他认为逻辑与理性占据了大脑中极大一部分区块,剩下的一小部分与欲望和感性相关联,而左撇子的生活正是由这一小部分配,包括罪犯、精神病人和一些极端分子。龙勃罗梭还称,即使左撇子并不一定都是坏人,他们也展现了;人性中最丑陋的一面;。他认为历史上人们对左撇子根深蒂固的偏见恰恰实了他的理论。这在当时看来是个颇具革命性和科学性的研究理论。然而奇怪的是他的理论并没有随着时间淡出人们视线。20世纪90年代的科学家们在龙勃罗梭的调查基础上进行了更进一步的研究,发现左撇子相较于常人更易出现精神混乱,寿命也更为短暂。2.Debunking The Myth Of Shorter Lifespans2.揭开短寿传言背后的真相Speaking of the myth that left-handed people don#39;t live as long as right-handed ones, let#39;s take a look at that oft-repeated statistic. According to a study published between the late 1980s and early 1990s, a survey of 2,000 people living—and dying—in Southern California led researchers to conclude that left-handed people were, on average, nine years younger when they died. Researchers then went on to speculate that the cause of death had something to do with living in a world designed for right-handed people; statistics like left-handed drivers being about five times more likely to die in a car accident seemed to support this theory. Sort of. They also looked at the number of other types of accidents left-handed people were involved in and chalked it all up to them having to deal with the daily difficulties of using things designed for right-handed people, like knives and power tools. Sounds . . . almost right?传言说左撇子的寿命比正常人要更为短暂。让我们来看看这一份被多次借鉴的统计数据:在1980年到1990年间,南加利福尼亚州曾对2000人做了一份调查,统计结果表明左撇子人群的平均寿命比常人少了9年左右。研究员猜测在这个为右手量身定做的世界里生活也许和他们的死因有些许联系。比如说,左撇子驾驶员在交通事故中的死亡率是正常人的将近5倍。他们还统计了其他事故中左撇子的死亡率,最终将其归咎于日常生活设施都是为惯用右手的人设计的因而左撇子在使用上有一定难度,像道具和一些危险器具之类的。这听起来似乎有一些道理。Our left-handed ers will be glad to know that the theory has since been debunked as total garbage. The numbers might work and the method might have been theoretically sound . . . so where#39;s the discrepancy? The problem is a weird one. Throughout history, left-handed people have been forced to become right-handed, and that practice has only really recently begun to change. So when researchers took a look at how many people had died, their results were skewed. To collect data for their study, they called the families of the deceased and asked them whether their loved ones had been right-handed or left-handed; given the age of the people the survey was investigating, there was undoubtedly a large number of left-handed people who had grown up in a world where being left-handed was discouraged and frowned upon. So not only would they have tried to hide their left-handed tendencies, but their families would have identified them as largely right-handed. Those who admitted to being left-handed tended to be younger, having grown up after the stigma went away. This made it seem like the young deaths of left-handed people were representative of the whole.想必我们的左撇子读者看到这里会很开心,因为这么看来所谓的短寿传言就是废话。这些言论理论上看来似乎很行得通,可是问题出在哪里呢?关键在于,历史上许多左撇子都被强迫训练使用他们的右手,直到现今这种后天的右手训练才渐渐消失。因此,当研究员调查左撇子死亡率时,他们的结果就存在一定的偏差。为了收集数据,研究员联系了那些有病史的家庭,询问他们的近亲是否是左撇子。考虑到研究对象的年龄问题,毫无疑问他们中的大多数都生活在一个排斥左撇子的时代。所以不光他们自己会否认自己是左撇子,他们的家人也会帮他们隐瞒真相。因而,那些大方承认自己是左撇子的多半是一些年轻人,他们生活在一个左撇子不再象征着耻辱的年代。这使得这些年轻一代的死亡率无意间代表了所有左撇子群体。1.Being Left-Handed Might Help You Survive The Apocalypse1.左撇子也许能成为世界末日幸存者The end is nigh, society is crumbling, and civilization is falling apart. People are scrambling for whatever supplies they can find in order to make it through the night. Chances are, you#39;ve been part of (or at least overheard) a conversation about what you#39;d require to get you through the apocalypse. You probably have never heard someone say that they#39;d like to be left-handed, but perhaps that should actually be the first answer they think of. If you#39;ve seen Rocky, you know how much of an advantage left-handed fighters have, and studies have shown that the more lawless the society, the greater that advantage is.末日将临,社会分崩,文明瓦解。人们慌乱的企图抓住任何可以帮他们度过这场劫难的东西。唯一的出路只有你设法参与(或至少无意间听到)到一场讨论如何在世界末日逃生的谈话。你也许从没听到过有人说希望成为一个左撇子,但可能这是他们第一个能想到的了。如果你看过《洛奇》(Rocky),你就会知道一个左撇子拳击手是多么的强大。并且有研究表明,当社会越无序混乱,左撇子的优势就越明显。The baseline for the population#39;s percentage of left-handed people is around 10 percent, but in some societies that number is far greater. Among Venezuela#39;s Yanomami tribe, about 5 in every 1,000 people are murdered yearly—and about 23 percent of the population is left-handed. For the Eipo in Indonesia, the murder rate is 3 in 1,000, and they#39;re about 27 percent left-handed. And then there are the people of Jimi Valley in Papua New Guinea, who have a murder rate of 5.4 in 1,000 and an above-average instance of left-handed people at 13 percent. The study, conducted by the Institute of Evolutionary Sciences, University Montpellier, shows a measurable difference between the most violent societies and the most peaceful ones. For instance, the Dioula from West Africa have a murder rate of 0.013 in 1,000 murder and a left-handed rate of only 3 percent. Researchers conjecture that the advantage of being left-handed in a violent society isn#39;t just a matter of survival, it#39;s a matter of natural selection and allowing one generation to pass its left-handed traits on to the next.世界人口中左撇子大约占10%左右,不过在一些社会中这个比率会高上许多。在委内瑞拉的亚诺玛米部落中,每年平均每1000个人中就有5个人被谋杀——该部落中23%的人口是左撇子。印度尼西亚的电子统计平台显示,印尼犯罪率大约在3‰,其总人口中左撇子占比大约27%。巴布亚新几内亚的吉米峡谷中的族人犯罪率高达5.4‰,他们的左撇子占比也高于平均水平,大约在13%。蒙彼利埃大学的进化科学研究会的一项调查研究发现,相较于这些犯罪率最高的社会结构,那些安定的社会结构显得截然不同。例如西非的迪乌拉犯罪率仅有0.013‰,同时他们的人口中左撇子占比仅3%。研究员们推测,在混乱的社会中,一个左撇子并不仅仅意味着可以在暴力冲突中幸存,这其实是一种自然选择,使得一代人中惯用左手的一族得以连绵相传。翻译:周予星 来源:前十网 /201509/397852襄阳第一人民医院治疗便秘多少钱

襄阳妇保医院是属于私立还是公立?My clothes: ‘They wear me, in a way’我的衣:“在某种程度上,他们在穿我”Robert is 6ft 7in tall. A giant, without his heels. Very tall men are often intimidating; they use their height to enforce their status, to tell us how tough they are. Not Robert.罗伯特身高六尺七。不穿高跟鞋也是个巨人。非常高的人总是让人害怕,他们能够利用身高来强调身份地位,告诉我们他们有多强壮。但罗伯特不是。There is no obvious fight in him. Instead he plays with femininity, with fun, with ideas of home and away. He’s wearing a floral pinny, like an English country mum. He has some spring-like sprigs in his hair. These are domestic, rural, female references. But his top ventures further afield: there’s a palm tree, a turquoise sea, a sunny sky. Robert’s chest has gone on holiday abroad. And what of his shawl and trousers? Both a beautiful bright coral, they remind me of churidars under a tunic, a scarf for all occasions, of India, of South Asia, even further away than the seaside above his waist. 他身上没有明显的斗志。相反他具有女性的柔弱,趣味,有着家和远方的想法。他穿着用花装饰的围巾,像一位英国农村的母亲。他头发上有一些像春天的卡子。它们是家庭,农村和女性的象征。但是他朝着最高挑战又进了一步:一颗棕榈树,一片青绿色的海和晴朗的天空。罗伯特的胸部是海外度假的场景。那他的围巾和裤子呢?两个都是美丽闪光的珊瑚,它们使我想起束腰外衣下的印度长裤,想起一块适用于任何场合的围巾,想起印度,想起南亚,甚至想起他腰上方的海滨。Then there are his feet. Glitter fluff socks, suede court shoes, slightly wobbly stance. Robert’s feet are awkward, turned in, as easily embarrassed as a child. It’s as though he’s playing a part with his feet. As though the way he holds them was suggested by the shoes.接下来是他的脚。闪烁绒毛的袜子,绒面的球场鞋,微微歪斜的姿势。罗伯特的脚很笨拙,向内弯,像孩子一样局促不安。看起来好像他在和自己的脚玩耍。似乎他穿鞋的姿势是由鞋决定的。Robert’s clothes look cheap. They’re found or swapped rather than bought, which means their value is not in how much they cost but in how they are used. He uses them beautifully, with a quiet delight. He is one of the most unusually dressed people we’ve had in this column, but he isn’t wearing his clothes with show-off pride or check-me-out attitude. He’s just wearing them, like the rest of us do jeans and a sweatshirt. There is so much that’s unusual about Robert’s outfit, but the most remarkable thing about it is how he makes it all look so casual.罗伯特的衣看起来很廉价。它们不是买来的而是找来或交换来的,这意味着觉得它们价值的不是花费多少成本而是如何使用。他带着不起眼的愉悦,美妙地使用它们。他是这个专栏穿着最不寻常的人之一,但是他并没有炫耀似的骄傲或是想要被注意的态度。他只是穿着它们,就像我们穿牛仔裤和运动衫一样。罗伯特的饰有很多不寻常的地方,但最值得注意的是他如何让它们看起来那么随意。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201603/430233襄阳市中医院男科大夫 Moody people are often baffling to those of us with steadier emotions.喜怒无常的人常常令情绪稳定的人感到困惑。But scientists argue that changing moods – as seen in sulking teenagers, grumpy spouses, or bad-tempered parents - serve an important purpose.但科学家认为情绪多变——多见于阴郁的青少年,爱发牢骚的配偶,或者暴脾气的父母——其实有它的重要目的。Rather than being a weakness, they are nature#39;s way to of helping us adapt to an ever changing world. So when times are good and spirits are high, we take more risks at a time they are likely to be rewarded.这不是缺点,而是帮助我们适应瞬息万变的世界的自然方式。And when times are tough, sulking can help us conserve our energy.当万事顺意、志得意满时,我们更倾向于去冒风险,因为我们觉得自己很可能会得到回报。当时局艰难时,阴郁的情绪可以帮我们保存能量。To take a human example, a stock market trader who makes a successful deal becomes more optimistic about the outcome of his next transaction.举人类为例,股市交易者大赚一笔时,他对下一笔交易将会信心满满。He is then likely to take more risks – as he becomes more optimistic things will go in his or her favour.他会倾向于冒更多险,因为他乐观地期待事情会顺遂心意。The increase in risk taking allows him to make maximum gains at a time when risk taking is most likely to pay off.在风险投资回报率高时,冒更大风险让他可以获得最大化的利益。This holds true when a variety of different events have an underlying connection, the authors argue.作者论说,当多个不同事件之间存在潜在联系时,这个结果是成立的。To take an example from the natural world, the authors suggest an animal#39;s mood improves on finding a number of fruits in a tree.作者又举了一个自然界的例子,他指出动物在一株树上发现许多果实时情绪会改善。Rather than assessing each tree individually, this good mood helps the animal to look at the big picture – and optimistically make it think fruits are in abundance.情绪大好的动物不会挨个打量每株树,而是会乐观地认为这一片树的果实都很丰硕。This encourages the animal to climb up the neighbouring branch – where good conditions make it more likely that there will be a tasty fruit available.这会鼓励它爬上旁边那棵树,由于这片树生长环境良好,所以那颗树的枝头上很可能挂着一个好吃的果子。It may be increased rainfall or sunshine has caused fruit to become more abundant, the authors suggest.作者指出,也许是降雨和日照增多让果实更丰饶。#39;In this situation, it makes little sense to update expectations for each tree independently,#39; the authors write, and makes the animal expect #39;a general increase in reward and update expectations for all related trees accordingly.#39;作者写道:“在这种情况下,动物不会对每棵树都抱有不同的期望,而是会整体地期待‘周边的树都能有更多回报’。”Eran Eldar, of University College London said: #39;This effect of mood should be useful whenever different sources of reward are interconnected or possess an underlying momentum.英国伦敦大学学院伊然·艾尔达说:“当不同回报的来源相互间都有联系或拥有潜在动力,这种情绪效应将会很有用。#39;That may often be the case in the natural as well as in the modern world, as successes in acquiring skills, material resources, social status, and even mating partners may all affect one another.#39;“不仅在自然界,在现代社会,获取技能的成功与获得物质资源、社会地位,甚至和找对象都是环环相扣的。”When rewards are starting to thin out – for example if winter is coming – then a negative mood will result in an individual event, such as finding a fruit, being #39;downgraded#39;– allowing behaviour and expectations to be quickly adjusted downwards.当回报减少——比如冬天来临——消极的情绪就会致使动物对找到果实的期望降低,从而调整自己的行为。The authors suggest that this could lead to behaviours such as an animal deciding to save energy and hibernate instead of rushing around.作者说,这会导致动物决定节省体力或冬眠,而不是到处乱跑。 /201511/408130襄阳宜城市妇幼保健院中医院治疗月经不调怎么样

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