2019年09月16日 00:26:56|来源:国际在线|编辑:管互动
Things we can learn from “American Sniper”:我们可以从《美国狙击手(American Sniper)中学到的东西:You know the movie, right? It has not only been nominated the Best Picture Oscar; it could wind up selling more tickets than the other seven nominees combined. Plus, it’s triggered a left-right controversy that makes the old dust-up over “Duck Dynasty” seem like a tiny cultural blip.你知道这部电影,对吧?它不仅获得了奥斯卡最佳影片提名,而且最终票房可能比其他七部提名影片加在一起都高另外,它在左右两派之间引发了很大争议,令之前为《鸭子王朝(Duck Dynasty)打的那一仗相形见拙“American Sniper” tells the story of Chris Kyle, a real-life Iraq war veteran and sharpshooter. The film is certainly powerful, and it celebrates our Iraq veterans. But it also eulogizes the killing of Iraq insurgents, including children, and critics feel it ought to be put in the context of an invasion that didn’t need to happen in the first place.《美国狙击手讲述了克里斯·凯尔(Chris Kyle)的故事他是一位现实生活中的神手,曾参加过伊拉克战争这部电影无疑令人震撼,它颂扬了我们的伊拉克老兵,但也赞美了对包括儿童在内的伊拉克叛乱分子的杀戮家认为,它应该提供一个背景:这场入侵本来就是没有必要发生的There’s been less conversation about the final scene in the movie, which shows the hero walking through his family home, where the kids are romping. He’s carrying a handgun, which he points at his wife Taya, playfully telling her to “drop them drawers.” Taya says she can see he’s finally getting over his war traumas and back to his old fun-loving self.对于电影的最后一幕,大家讨论得比较少在这一幕中,主人公带着一手,穿过自己的家,孩子们正在嬉戏他开玩笑地用手指着妻子塔亚(Taya),说:“把衣脱了”塔亚说,她能看出来,他终于走出了战争创伤,恢复到以前那种爱玩爱闹的状态This is, by virtually any standard, insane behavior. Mike Huckabee, a big “American Sniper” fan, recently published a book called “God, Guns, Grits and Gravy,” which is so wildly opposed to any weapon regulation that Huckabee opens his chapter on modern education by complaining that public schools are anti-gun. Yet he also presents a list of universally accepted gun safety rules, many of which boil down to don’t point it at anybody as a joke.以任何标准来看,这种行为都极其愚蠢迈克·赫卡比(Mike Huckabee)是《美国狙击手的铁杆粉丝,最近出了一本书,名叫《上帝、、砂砾和横财(God, Guns, Grits and Gravy)该书猛烈抨击各种形式的武器管制,在“现代教育”一章的开始,他抱怨了公立学校的反立场然而,他也列出了一些公认的安全准则,其中很多条都可以归纳为:不能用指着任何人开玩笑“Yeah, but if you want to complain about the casual treatment of guns in movies, you don’t have to look very hard on any Friday night,” said Senator Chris Murphy of Connecticut. Murphy hasn’t seen the movie, but he’s one of Congress’s leading advocates of gun-control regulation. It’s not the world’s most rewarding job. In recent years, his colleagues have not only refused to pass an extremely modest bill on background checks, they’ve failed to ban the sale of guns to people on the terrorism watch list.“是啊,但如果你想抱怨电影里对的草率处理,随便哪个礼拜五晚上都可以轻易找到例子,”康涅狄格州参议员克里斯·墨菲(Chris Murphy)说墨菲还没看这部电影,但他是国会首屈一指的控法规倡导者这可不是一份招人喜欢的工作近年来,他的同僚们不但拒绝通过一个极其不起眼的背景调查法案,连禁止向恐怖主义监控名单中的人出售都做不到“American Sniper” is on one, supremely obvious level, a celebration of gun culture. But it’s also a cautionary tale. The real Chris Kyle was shot to death while the script was being written. He had volunteered to help a troubled veteran, Eddie Ray Routh, who had a history of violent behavior and was an apparent victim of post-traumatic stress. Kyle felt the best way to get him to relax was to take him to a shooting range. While they were there, Routh turned his gun on Kyle, and one of Kyle’s friends, killing them both.一定程度上说,《美国狙击手在十分鲜明地歌颂文化但同时它又是个警世故事真实世界里的克里斯·凯尔是在剧本写作期间被杀的他主动去帮助陷入困境的艾迪·雷·劳思(Eddie Ray Routh),一个有暴力行为前科的退伍军人,而且似乎受到创伤后应激障碍的困扰凯尔认为让他放松下来的最佳办法是带他去射击场劳思在那里将对准凯尔以及凯尔的一个朋友,杀死了二人“American Sniper” could actually be seen, at least in the final scene, as a good-gun, bad-gun message. The real Chris Kyle did enjoy walking around the house, twirling a pistol. His wife said that as the clouds lifted after his Iraq service, he would playfully point a gun at the television and pretend to shoot down the bad guys.实际上可以说,《美国狙击手传达了一种有好、坏的观念,至少在最后一场戏中是这样克里斯·凯尔本人的确是那种在家里摆弄着手走来走去的人他的妻子说,随着从伊拉克战场归来后的阴霾散去,他有时会开玩笑地拿指着电视,假装击毙里面的坏人Jason Hall, who wrote the movie screenplay, said the scene was meant to both show Kyle in recovery and presage the violence that was about to occur off-screen.影片编剧杰森·霍尔(Jason Hall)说,安排这样一个场景是为了说明凯尔在复原中,同时也预示了即将在画外发生的暴力“There’s a tension in the scene that builds toward the ending,” he said in a phone interview.“这场戏有一种张力,一直积聚到结尾,”他在一次电话采访中说The American gun lobby has pushed its cause so far that it, too, may be falling off a cliff. Texas, where Chris Kyle’s alleged murderer is going on trial next week, has always had a gun-friendly culture, so much so that visitors can bring concealed handguns into the State Capitol. Some people definitely do not think this goes far enough, and, on opening day of the Legislature last month, they demanded new laws making it legal to carry handguns in the open, preferably without a license.美国的游说事业在推动其目标时不遗余力,简直已经到了悬崖边缘在德克萨斯,也就是被控谋杀克里斯·凯尔的嫌疑人下周上庭的地方,一直都有一种奉文化,对的态度友好到前往州议会的人可以隐蔽携带手显然有人觉得这还不够,他们在上月的议会开放日上要求通过新的法律,让他们可以合法公开携带手,最好是不用持One particularly bouncy group, Open Carry Tarrant County, flooded the office of Representative Poncho Nevárez, a non-supportive Democrat. A of the ensuing scene showed Nevárez, looking extremely wary, asking the demonstrators to leave his office, while one of them yelled back: “I’m asking you to leave my state.” When Nevárez tried to close his door, one of the protesters stuck his foot in it. This was all happening, remember, in a building where carrying concealed weapons is perfectly fine.有个叫“塔兰特县公开携”(Open Carry Tarrant County)的团体格外活跃,他们涌进了不持该提案的众议员庞乔·内瓦雷兹(Poncho Nevárez)的办公室在随后拍摄的一段视频中可以看到,神色极为慌张的内瓦雷兹要求抗议者离开他的办公室,而其中一个人喊道:“我要求你离开我的州”内瓦雷兹试图关门,却被一名抗议者伸脚卡住别忘了,这一切都发生在一个可以完全合法隐蔽携带武器的建筑物里When it was all over, some legislators in both parties wore “I’m Poncho” badges in solidarity with Nevárez, who was assigned a security detail after he and his family received threats.事后来自两党的部分议员佩戴了“我是庞乔”的徽章,表达对内瓦雷兹的持,他和家人在受到威胁后得到了专门的警卫保护The leader of Open Carry Tarrant County, Kory Watkins, then posted another in which he claimed that the resistant lawmakers were getting their duty was “to protect the Constitution. And let me remind you: Going against the Constitution is treason. And treason is punishable by death.”“塔兰特县公开携”领导人科里·瓦特金斯(Kory Watkins)随后又上传了一段视频,声称和那些玩忽职守的议员对抗是“为了保护宪法我来提醒你们一下:和宪法背道而驰是叛国叛国是要处死刑的”Meanwhile, in the Texas Capitol, enthusiasm watering down the gun laws seems to be dwindling. That could qualify as a happy ending.与此同时,在德州议会,放宽法律限制的呼声似乎在渐渐平息这可以算作美满结局了 3598If you ever feel vaguely guilty about the vast amounts of television you watch, might I suggest you cling to the findings of this study, published last week in Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. In it, the authors claim that watching high-quality television dramas — things like Mad Men or The West Wing — can increase your emotional intelligence. That is, watching good TV makes you more empathetic.如果你曾因看太多电视,心中隐隐感到愧疚,我建议你看完以下研究结果这是上周发表于《审美、创造及艺术心理学上的其中,研究作者称,观看高质量的电视剧——如《广告狂人或《白宫风云——可提高你的情商也就是说,看优质电视节目让你更能体察他人In the paper, the authors describe two experiments that led them to their pro-TV conclusion. In one, they asked about 0 people to first watch either a television drama (Mad Men or The West Wing) or a nonfiction program (How the Universe Works or Shark Week: Jaws Strikes Back). Afterward, all of the participants took a test psychologists often use to measure emotional intelligence: Theyre shown 36 pairs of eyes and are told to judge the emotion each pair is displaying. The results showed that the people whod watched the fictionalized shows did better on this test than those who watched the nonfiction ones.报告中,研究作者描述了两个让他们提出这一结论的实验其中一个实验中,他们先让0个人观看电视剧(《广告狂人和《白宫风云)或非虚构类节目(《宇宙解码和《鲨鱼周:大白鲨的反击然后,全部参与者接受一项心理学家常用于测量情商的测试:研究人员向他们展示36双眼睛,并被要求判断每双眼睛表达的感情结果显示,在测试中,观看了虚构类节目的人,比看非虚构类节目的人表现更好They tried this again, only switching up the programs (The Good Wife and Lost versus Nova and Through the Wormhole) and adding a control group, too: people who took the eye-ing test without watching any television first. Again, their results showed that the fiction viewers empathy scores were superior, though the nonfiction viewers scored higher on average than those who hadnt watched anything beehand.他们又试了一次,只播放《傲骨贤妻、《迷失与新星和《穿越虫洞这几部电视剧,并加入控制组控制组的参与者直接参加眼睛判断测试,不看任何电视节目他们的结果再次显示,看虚构类节目的参与者情商分更高,而看非虚构类节目的参与者,得分也比不看电视的人高It a similar finding to a widely reported study that claimed that ing literary fiction is linked to better scores on this empathy-measuring test. The authors of that study and this new one argue that a complex fictional narrative ces the er or viewer to consider a problem from multiple perspectives; further, since not every character emotion is explicitly spelled out, the audience must do some mental work to fill in those gaps, making a guess at the inner lives of the character.这与年一项被广泛报道的研究结果相似:阅读文学小说与在情商测试中得高分相关那项研究的作者和此项新研究的作者都认为,复杂的小说叙事,迫使读者或者观众从多方面思考问题;另外,因为不是每个角色的情绪都明确地表达出来,观众必须通过一些脑力工作来弥补这些空白,揣测角色的内心活动That literary fiction study, however, was also widely critiqued its methods. Specifically, the fiction the researchers chose their study was by authors like Louise Erdrich or Anton Chekhov; the nonfiction, on the other hand, was one of three Smithsonian s, with titles like ;How the Potato Changed the World.; I mention this not to speak ill of delicious tubers (I would never do that), but to point out that the nonfiction samples they chose werent about people. No wonder the study subjects were better at ing human emotions when theyd just spent some time ing about human emotions. And this new study falls short in a similar manner: Is it really that surprising that people might be in a more empathetic state of mind after trying to figure out what is going on in Don Draper head than they would be after watching a Shark Week show? What does that really tell us?然而那项对文学小说的研究,也因其研究方法而广受批评尤其是,研究者为他们的研究所选的小说,是由像路易丝·厄德里奇和契诃夫这样的现实主义作家所写的而他们所选的非虚构文学作品,是史密森杂志的三篇文章之一,题为《土豆是如何改变世界的我提这点不是在说土豆坏话(我永远不会这么做的),而是为了指出,这些非虚构类文学作品不是关于人的这也就难怪实验者在读完关于人情的作品后,能更好地理解人的感情了这项新研究也有着相似的局限:人们在揣唐·德雷珀(《广告狂人主角)的脑子里想什么之后,比看完《鲨鱼周之后变得更能理解他人,这真的令人惊讶吗?这到底告诉了我们什么?Maybe not much, but if youre looking an excuse to buckle down with some binge-watching now that the weather turned, do what you will with this new research.也许并没有告诉我们什么但如果你想趁现在天气不太好,为全心投入某部电视剧找借口,那么你看完这个新研究之后知道该怎么做了吧 89

China’s obsession with a South Korean television show about a 00-year-old Harvard-educated alien who falls in love with an arrogant actress reached such a frenzy last year that online streaming companies here began racing to snap up licensing rights other South Korean television programs, inflating their prices almost tenfold一部讲述受过哈佛教育的00岁外星人爱上傲慢女演员的韩国电视剧,在中国引发痴迷的热潮,导致中国在线流媒体公司开始竞相抢购其他韩国电视节目的播映权,令价格翻了几乎十倍Then China’s entertainment regulators stepped in, imposing greater limits on eign television content as part of a broader campaign to rein in China’s fast-growing market online , which has become a popular alternative to Chinese broadcast television. (According to official statistics, there were 33 million viewers of online — TV shows included — in China by the end of , making it the largest streaming market in the world) Many in the online industry in China suspect the new guidelines were issued at least partly because of the popularity of “My Love From Another Star”中国监管机构随后着手对外国电视内容施加了更大的限制,并且采取了更广泛的措施来约束中国的网络视频市场这个市场正在快速增长,已成为了电视台节目的一个广受欢迎的替代选择(中国官方统计数据显示,在年底,包括电视节目在内的网上视频共获得.33亿观众,使其成为全球最大的市场)中国网络视频业的很多业内人士都觉得,新准则的出台至少部分上是《来自星星的你引发的Faced with the limits, popular streaming websites like Sohu, iQiyi and Youku want to develop their own Korean-inspired content to sate the country’s appetite the programming, part of a broader fascination with Korean popular culture. That has meant trying to tap into South Korea’s secret sauce — the magic mula that has turned the country into a pop-culture juggernaut that churns out viral exports like the singer and rapper Psy, the singer Rain and hits like “My Love From Another Star”面对这些限制,搜狐、爱奇艺和优酷等人气流媒体网站想要推出自己制作的韩国风格内容,以满足国人对这类节目的需求,因为韩国流行文化在中国引发了广泛迷恋这意味着尝试利用韩国的秘密武器,一个让韩国变成流行文化大国的神奇配方:大量打造出在国外广受欢迎的艺人和节目,比如说唱歌手Psy、歌手Rain,以及《来自星星的你这样的热播剧“We share the same culture and cherish similar social values,” said Sophie Yu, director of international communications iQiyi, the online streaming website affiliated with the search giant Baidu. “So Korean content naturally is easy to be understood and accepted by the Chinese audience”“我们有着共同的文化,珍惜类似的社会价值观,韩国的节目很容易被中国观众理解和接受”爱奇艺的国际传讯总监索菲·于(Sophie Yu)说爱奇艺是搜索巨头百度旗下的一个流媒体视频网站 Chinese companies, part of the strategy includes making Chinese versions of popular South Korean fare, particularly variety and reality shows. Some of the hottest Chinese programs, like Zhejiang Television’s game-variety show “Running Man” and Hunan Television’s reality show “Where Are We Going, Dad?,” were based on South Korean mats. Nearly all of China’s top online websites have signed agreements with South Korean television stations and production companies to co-produce television shows tailored Chinese audiences对于中国企业,这个战略的部分内容是制作人气韩国节目的中国版本,尤其是综艺和真人秀节目中国当前最火爆的一些电视节目,如浙江电视台的游戏综艺节目《奔跑吧兄弟,湖南电视台的真人秀节目《爸爸去哪儿,都是以韩国节目为模版制作的中国几乎所有的顶级在线视频网站都已与韩国电视台及制作公司签订了协议,联合制作专门针对中国观众的电视节目But after the success of “My Love From Another Star,” Chinese companies are setting their sights higher. Millions of viewers in China last year tuned in to watch the 1-episode mini-series, which originally aired on the Seoul Broadcasting System, a leading South Korean network但《来自星星的你大获成功后,中国公司把目光投向了更高的地方去年,数以百万计的中国观众收看了这部1集的韩剧,它最初是在知名韩国电视台首尔放送(Seoul Broadcasting System)播出的The show ignited a nationwide frenzy. Fans were hospitalized binge-eating fried chicken and beer (the star actress’s favorite food on the show), and even the first lady of China, Peng Liyuan, became swept up in the fever. She was ed by the state-run People’s Daily commenting on the physical resemblance between the lead actor, an extraterrestrial heartthrob with a mop of jet-black hair, and her husband, President Xi Jinping, in his younger years该剧集引发了全国性的狂热因为暴食炸鸡和啤酒(该剧中的女演员最喜欢的食物),一些粉丝进了医院,甚至第一夫人彭丽媛也未能免俗该剧男主角是一个来自外星的万人迷,头发乌黑浓密,官方媒体《人民日报援引彭丽媛的说,她丈夫习近平年轻时与这名男主角的外形有些相似The target audience dramas like “Star,” as is it known, consists mostly of women in their teens to early 0s who prefer to watch shows known as naocanju, or “brain-dead dramas,” instead of popular series from the ed States, like “Game of Thrones” and “House of Cards”《来自星星的你这类电视剧的目标受众主要是十几岁到四十岁出头的女性相比于《权力的游戏和《纸牌屋等热播美剧,她们更喜欢看这种被称为“脑残剧”的节目Maggie Xiong, senior director of international acquisitions at Youku, the streaming service, said the show “brought Korean content to the mainstream” It was streamed more than .5 billion times in the first three months after its premiere in December .流媒体务优酷网的国际采购高级主管熊淑琴表示,这部剧“将韩国内容带给了主流观众”该剧在年月首播,前三个月的观看量超过5亿次“ ‘My Love From Another Star’ was a very exceptional show, just like ‘Friends’ in the 1990s and early 00s,” said Grace Guan, who manages Sohu’s Korean content strategy. “We would all love to make a show like that, but there are so many elements involved”“《来自星星的你是一部非常棒的电视剧,就像世纪90年代及1世纪初的《老友记(Friends)一样,”搜狐韩国内容策略负责人关咏说“我们当然希望能做出这样的剧,但这涉及很多要素” years, entertainment industry observers in China have sought to explain Korean television’s foothold in China. They say it comes down to packaging多年来,中国的行业观察人士试图解释韩国电视业占据中国市场的原因他们称,归根结底在于包装“The Koreans continue to do well because of the details,” said Fan Xiaojing, a Chinese journalist and long-term analyst of the Korean entertainment industry. “China just can’t capture the romance”“韩国人一直能做的比较好是因为他们注重细节,”中国记者、长期关注韩国业的分析师范消静说“中国就是无法捕捉到那种浪漫”Unlike in China, where experts say up to 70 percent of a production’s budget can be spent on actors’ salaries, both Korean and Chinese producers say that Korean shows tend to spend more on production sets and screenwriters, avoiding fake props, brands and backdrops in favor of the real things. And since in Korea shows are broadcast soon after they are filmed, scriptwriters and directors can get feedback quickly, allowing them to make tweaks according to audience demands专家称,中国多达70%的制作预算都花在演员身上,韩国和中国的制片人都表示,与中国不同,韩国的节目往往在制作布景及编剧方面花费更多资金,避免假道具、品牌及背景布幕,使用真材实料由于韩国的电视剧在拍摄完毕后立即播放,编剧和导演很快就能得到反馈,使得他们能够根据观众的要求做出调整Actors in Korea are also groomed from a young age and taught how to walk and dress, said Ms. Guan, who previously worked at an artists’ management agency in Seoul. They are taken in plastic surgery, and as part of their training are instructed on how to “let just one teardrop fall”之前曾在首尔一家艺人经纪公司工作的关女士表示,韩国的演员也是从很小开始培养的,他们学习如何走路、穿衣他们接受整容手术,作为训练的一部分,他们还要学习如何“只流下一滴眼泪”The Chinese are catching on, producers on both sides say, as they also learn what content resonates most with Chinese audiences. According to producers, the show must be fast-paced, and if it is a drama, it should be a love story中韩两国的制片人都表示,中国人正在迎头赶上,他们也在了解什么内容最能让中国观众产生共鸣这些制片人表示,节目必须是快节奏的,如果是电视剧的话,应该是爱情故事“Chinese people think the good dramas are ones with nonrealistic themes,” said Ma Xue, a cultural critic and producer. “All involve a Cinderella who falls in love with a prince”“中国人觉得,好电视剧就是那些讲非现实主题的,”文化人、制片人马雪说“讲的都是灰姑娘与王子恋爱的故事”As love, the expression of it is usually restrained. In “Star,” when the alien character, Do Min-Joon, and the star actress, Cheon Song-yi, even so much as kiss, Do Min-Joon falls violently ill而爱的表达通常是克制的在《来自星星的你中,外星人都敏俊和女明星千颂伊即便是接吻,都敏俊都会出现严重的不适According to the new regulations, which were issued in September, eign television shows cannot constitute more than 30 percent of TV content on Chinese online -streaming sites. In addition, all eign television shows must be reviewed by censors bee they can be streamed根据去年9月公布的新规定,中国各流媒体网站提供的外国电视节目内容不能超过其总量的30%除此之外,所有外国节目在上线播出前,必须经过审查机构的审查Korean production companies are still finding ways to take advantage of the fast-growing online market in China. HB Entertainment is partnering with a Chinese company to produce two new dramas similar to “Star” specifically the Chinese market, one in Chinese and one in Korean with subtitles韩国的制作公司仍在想办法利用中国快速发展的网络市场 HB公司正在与一家中国公司合作,特别针对中国市场制作两部与《来自星星的你类似的新剧,一部是中文的,一部是韩语的,但都会加上字幕“China is a big part of our strategy now,” said Bomi Moon, head of the Korean company HB Entertainment, which recently opened a Beijing office. “Many Chinese companies want to work with Korean partners because we’re good at writing scripts”“中国现在是我们的战略的重要组成部分,”韩国HB公司负责人文普美说“很多中国公司都希望与韩国公司合作,因为我们擅长写剧本”该公司最近北京开设了办公室 3879

1 Know your body and be comtable with what it is. Try looking into a mirror and appreciating how amazing your body really is. Your body is a masterpiece, and it can do some incredible stuff if you learn how to use it. 好好珍惜自己的身体,相信自己的身体是大自然最伟大的创作,学会好好打扮自己的身体,这是优雅的基本条件 1

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