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2019年08月24日 19:18:57 | 作者:服务解答 | 来源:新华社
英国爱丁堡大学的一位教授研究出了一项新技术,能够让普通的电灯泡作为无线网络信号传输器,只要开灯,就能无线上网。据介绍,这项发明被命名为D-light,只要将房间里传统白炽灯换成LED灯,便可让灯泡变成无线网络发射器。它通过改变房间照明光线的频率进行数据传输,每秒传送速度超过10兆,与典型的宽带连接不相上下。它可以应用于医院、机场、军队甚至于水下。从理论上说,飞机乘客甚至能够利用机舱内发出的光照信号上网冲浪。除此之外,这项技术还可用于从空白电视信号频段或者未被使用的卫星信号发送无线数据。 Light bulbs could be soon used to broadcast wireless Internet, a leading physicist has claimed. Harald Hass said he has developed a technology which can broadcast data through the same connection as a normal lamp. By simply turning on the light in the room you could also switch on your Internet connection, he said in a speech. Other possibilities of the device - which he has dubbed ‘Li-fi’, or Light Fidelity - include sending wireless data from the ‘white space’ in your television spectrum or unused satellite signals. Professor Hass, of the school of engineering at Edinburgh University in the UK, said that currently we use radio waves to transmit data which are inefficient. With mobile phones there are 1.4 million base stations boosting the signal but most of the energy is used to cool it, making it only five per cent efficient. By comparison there are 40 billion light bulbs in use across the world which are far more efficient. By replacing old fashioned incandescent models with LED bulbs he claimed he could turn them all into Internet transmitters. The invention, dubbed D-Light, can send data faster than 10 megabits per second, which is the speed of a typical broadband connection, by altering the frequency of the ambient light in the room. It has new applications in hospitals, airplanes, military, and even underwater. Aeroplane passengers could in theory be able to surf the Internet from signals beamed out of the lights on board. ‘The way we transmit wireless data is inefficient electromagnetic waves, in particular radio waves which are limited, they are sparse, they are expensive and only have a certain range,’ Professor Hass said. ‘It is this limitation which does not cope with wireless data...and we are running out of efficiency. ‘Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum...wouldn't it be great to use it for wireless communications?’ He added that the visible light spectrum had 10,000 more times the space than radio waves, making it the ideal range to use. During a lecture professor Hass showed off a desk lamp which had been fitted with an LED light bulb which transmitted data to a receiver on the table below it. Whenever he put his hand in the beam of light the , which was beamed onto a screen behind him, stopped playing as the signal was being blocked. Professor Hass said the technology has not yet been integrated with smart phone but he hopes that soon it will be. ‘Everywhere that there is light, these are potential sources for data transmission,’ he said. ‘For me the applications of it are beyond imagination...all we need to do is to fit a small microchip to every potential illumination device and this would combine illumination and data transmission, and this could solve the problems facing us in wireless communication.’Vocabulary:White Space: 空白电视信号频段,指各电视频道之间的无线传输节目的频段。 /201108/151105

China’s loosening control of renminbi welcomed中国扩大人民币浮动幅度获各方好评China’s decision to loosen some of its currency controls, permitting greater volatility in daily trade from Monday, has been welcomed as an important step towards allowing the renminbi to float freely. 中国决定放松一部分汇率管制,从周一起扩大人民币汇率日浮动幅度。此举受到各方欢迎,被视为迈向最终允许人民币汇率自由浮动的重要一步。From this week, the renminbi will be allowed to rise or fall 1 per cent each day from the daily official rate against the US dollar, double its previous trading range of 0.5 per cent.从本周起,人民币兑美元交易价相对于当日官方中间价的日浮动幅度由0.5%扩大至1%。Analysts still expect the central bank to keep the exchange rate stable in the coming months as a buffer against global economic uncertainty, but the band widening lays the groundwork for a future in which market forces, not the government, shape its value.分析师们预计,中国央行在未来几个月内仍将保持人民币汇率稳定,作为针对全球经济不确定性的缓冲,但扩大浮动幅度之举将为未来由市场力量(而非政府)决定汇率打下基础。Beijing hopes one day to transform the renminbi into a currency that will vie for a place alongside the dollar and the euro on the global stage. Widening the band brings it closer to that goal, although other, and riskier, reforms to open its capital account are needed first.北京方面希望有朝一日实现人民币国际化,使其在全球舞台上与美元和欧元分庭抗礼。扩大浮动幅度意味着中国向这个目标走近了一步,尽管中国仍需推行风险较高的其他改革、放开资本账户。This was an “important step by the People’s Bank of China to increase the flexibility of their currency”, said Christine Lagarde, managing director of the International Monetary Fund.国际货币基金组织(IMF)总裁克里斯蒂娜#8226;拉加德(Christine Lagarde)表示,此举是“中国央行提高人民币汇率弹性的一个重要步骤”。The US Treasury described the move as “positive for China, the ed States, and the global economy” if implemented properly, but added that “further progress is needed”.美国财政部称,此举如果实施得当的话,将“有利于中国、美国乃至全球经济”,但补充称“有必要取得进一步的进展”。Until now, the mechanics of the Chinese exchange rate have been relatively simple. The central bank has used a trading band since 2005 to guide the renminbi in a “crawling peg” against the dollar. It sets the midpoint of the range in the morning before the market opens, then intervenes throughout the day to keep the currency within the desired bounds.迄今中国汇率形成机制一直相对简单。中国央行自2005年起采用交易区间来引导人民币汇率“爬行盯住”美元。央行在每日早上市场开盘前设定汇率中间价,然后在全天不时干预汇市,以使汇率保持在规定的浮动幅度内。Whatever the daily ups and downs, the renminbi has steadily risen against the dollar, appreciating 5-7 per cent a year, apart from a pause during the global financial crisis.尽管每日有涨有跌,但近年来人民币相对美元稳步走高(年升值幅度达5%至7%),只是在全球金融危机期间暂停了一段时间。With the band widening, the Chinese currency should become harder to predict. But Beijing is not about to relinquish control of the renminbi. Rather, it wants to broaden what it describes as the “the exchange rate formation mechanism”.扩大浮动幅度后,人民币汇率应当变得更难预测。但北京方面并不会很快放弃控制汇率。相反,它希望拓宽其所称的“汇率形成机制”。It wants to use a basket of the currencies of its biggest trading partners – the US dollar, the euro and the yen – as an anchor for the renminbi. In practice, it has relied most on the dollar.它希望参考一篮子主要贸易伙伴的货币(美元、欧元和日元等)来调节人民币汇率。在实践中,人民币汇率对美元依赖程度最大。The wider band will make the shift to a flexible basket-based exchange rate feasible by allowing greater “two-way volatility” against the dollar, said Lu Ting, an economist with Bank of America Merrill Lynch. 美国-美林(Bank of America Merrill Lynch)经济学家陆挺表示,扩大浮动幅度将允许人民币兑美元汇率出现更大的“双向波动”,使人民币转向基于篮子货币的弹性汇率具有可行性。 /201204/177892

For decades under communism, owning a private car was an impossible dream in China. Now that the dream has come true for tens of millions of Chinese, they are waking up each day to a life of traffic jams and smog.曾有几十年的时间,在实行社会主义制度的中国,拥有一部私家车是一个遥不可及的梦想。如今,数千万中国人已实现了这一梦想,结果却发现,每天早上醒来后都有交通拥堵和雾霾天气在等待着自己。Beijing’s air pollution has been so bad recently that it has captured headlines around the world – yet the capital has far from the dirtiest air in China. More and more mainland cities can boast world-class traffic congestion, parking shortages and commuting times, auto analysts say.北京近来空气污染极为严重,引起了全世界的关注——然而,北京远非中国空气质量最差的城市。汽车业分析师表示,在交通拥堵和车位紧张程度、以及通勤时间方面,越来越多的内地城市已“跻身”世界前列。Under Chairman Mao Zedong, schoolchildren were taught that these were the ills associated with capitalism, but China’s urban planners were no match for half a century of pent-up demand from first-time car buyers.毛泽东时代的孩子在学校里学到的是,以上这些都是资本主义特有的问题,但当被压抑了半个世纪的首次购车需求集中释放时,中国城市规划者根本无力招架。The country, whose showpiece industry event – the Shanghai Auto Show – starts this weekend, is now the world’s largest car market. And it is paying the price.中国汽车行业的盛事——上海车展(Shanghai Auto Show),已于上周末开幕。中国目前已成为全球最大的汽车市场,但它正为此付出代价。With more than half of all Chinese living in cities, “smog and clog” are becoming big political issues. Even washing all those cars is exacerbating the country’s water shortage, according to a report last week from a Chinese NGO.目前中国城镇人口比例已超过一半,“雾霾和拥堵”正成为一个重大政治问题。中国一家非政府组织(NGO)上周发布报告称,这么多汽车,仅是洗车都会导致中国缺水问题加剧。The impact is so high that some cities are even thinking the unthinkable: sending China back to its roots as a nation of cyclists.汽车带来了巨大的不利影响,以至于一些城市产生了一个不可思议的想法:让中国重新成为“自行车王国”。“Ten years ago, everyone dreamt of owning a car. But after they realised that dream, they found it has caused a lot of problems,” says Dong Hongzhao of the Intelligent Traffic System programme at Zhejiang University of Technology. “Traffic congestion has harmed our health and caused a lot of inconvenience,” he adds, predicting that urbanites will soon be fed up enough to opt for public transport, or even bicycles.浙江工业大学(Zhejiang University of Technology)研究智能交通系统的董红召表示:“十年前,所有人都梦想有辆汽车。但当他们梦想成真后,却发现这引发了许多问题。交通拥堵损害了我们的健康,导致了许多麻烦。”他预计,城市居民很快会受够了交通拥堵,转而选择公共交通、乃至自行车出行。Schemes by local authorities to encourage people to use bikes are popping up across the country.中国各地政府纷纷出台各种项目,鼓励人们骑车出行。Hangzhou, the city where Mr Dong lives and works, is one of China’s most famous tourist cities but is also a municipality of 11m people, bigger than Greater London. It is famous throughout China for its traffic jams – but also for having the world’s largest public bicycle rental scheme.董红召在杭州生活和工作。杭州是中国最著名的旅游城市之一,但也是一个拥有1100万人的超级大城市,人口比大伦敦(Greater London)还要多。杭州堵车之严重全国闻名,但该市拥有全球最大的公共自行车租赁项目,这一点同样全国知名。An hour after sunrise, the public bicycle stand on Kaixuan Road in Hangzhou starts to get busy. A mother loads her small son on to the bike’s child seat to deliver him to school. She swipes the public transport card that gives her an hour on the bike for free – the same rechargeable card she can later use for a ride on Hangzhou’s new subway line, a public bus or taxi.早上7点左右,杭州凯旋路上的公共自行车租赁点就开始忙碌起来。一位妈妈把儿子抱上自行车的儿童座,骑着车送他去上学。刷一下公交卡,她就可以免费使用自行车一小时。之后,她还可用这张可重复充值的公交卡乘坐地铁(最近开通了新线路)、公交车或出租车。Later, a middle school pupil wearing the red neckerchief of the Communist party’s Young Pioneers pulls out a bike, then an old man with a dog in the front basket, and finally 24-year-old white-collar worker Jin Qiyan takes the last cycle for his one-hour commute to work. Mr Jin owns a car, but says “it’s faster, more convenient and more environmentally friendly by bike”.过了一会儿,一名佩戴红领巾的中学生推走了一辆车。接着,一位老人把一条放进自行车前车篮里,推着车离开了租车点。最后又来了个年轻人——24岁的白领金奇彦(音译)推走了该租赁点的最后一辆自行车。他需要骑一个小时才能到工作的地方。金奇彦有一辆私家车,但他说,“骑车更快、更方便,也更环保”。With a rental stand every 300m in downtown areas, mobile apps that tell users where to find the closest available bicycle, and fees that rise from Rmb1 to Rmb3 an hour, the scheme is aly very popular: as many as 400,000 people use it every day.在杭州市中心的街道旁,每隔300米就有一个租车点,有许多移动设备应用程序告诉用户最近的租车点在哪里,一小时免费期之外的租车费用从每小时1元到每小时3元不等(按超出时长分为三个费用等级)。目前这个项目已经广受欢迎:有40万人每天都使用租赁自行车务。Hangzhou wants to encourage the city’s 1m car owners (a figure that has quintupled in the past decade) to stop “misusing” their vehicles for short trips that could be made by bike, says Luo Bin of the Hangzhou Municipal Comprehensive Traffic Research Centre, a quasi governmental organisation. The city government wants 50 to 60 per cent of people walking, riding electric bikes or push bikes.杭州市综合交通研究中心(Hangzhou Municipal Comprehensive Traffic Research Centre)是一家政府下属机构。该中心的罗斌表示,杭州希望鼓励该市100万名私家车车主(这个数字是10年前的5倍),在骑行距离内的短途出行中不再“滥用”汽车。杭州市政府希望,步行、骑电动车或自行车出行者的比例能达到50%至60%。Other cities such as Suzhou, Foshan, Shenzhen, Taiyuan, Changsha, Shanghai and Chengdu, to name just a few, are also pushing public bicycle rental.其他许多城市也在大力推广公共自行车租赁,随便说几个,比如苏州、佛山、深圳、太原、长沙和成都,等等。But so far there are few signs that the Chinese are y to trade in their BMWs and go back to bicycles: in the first quarter of this year, sales of SUVs rose 45 per cent year on year – hardly a sign of an environmental revolution among Chinese drivers.但迄今仍没有多少迹象表明,中国人准备卖掉自己的宝马(BMW),重新选择骑车出行。今年一季度,运动型多功能汽车(SUV)的销量同比增长45%,这很难算是中国私家车主开始环保革命的信号。Mr Luo acknowledges that a big part of the current problem is failure to enforce laws against traffic violations such as double parking and blocking intersections. “Fifty per cent of the congestion is made by people themselves,” says Klaus Paur, of Ipsos consultancy in Shanghai. Handing out a few traffic tickets may be easier than getting China’s car lovers to obey the decree: let them ride bikes.罗斌承认,当前的问题在很大程度上缘于,并排停车和堵塞路口等交通违章行为未受到严肃处理。益普索(Ipsos)驻上海分析师包亦农(Klaus Paur)表示:“拥堵有50%是人为造成的。”让中国的爱车人吃几张罚单,比让他们响应“骑车出行”的倡议更容易。 /201304/236584

The mystery man pictured with an 18-year-old Lady Diana Spencer has been unmasked as aristocrat Adam Russell.和18岁的戴安娜#8226;斯宾塞女爵合照的神秘男子日前曝光,原来是一位名叫亚当#8226;拉塞尔的贵族。Old Etonian Mr Russell, the great-grandson of former Tory prime minister Stanley Baldwin, is shown relaxing with the future Princess of Wales during a group ski holiday in Val Claret in the French Alps in 1979.亚当#8226;拉塞尔是前英国首相、保守党领袖斯坦利#8226;鲍德温的曾孙,曾就读于贵族名校伊顿公学,俗称“老伊顿人”。照片中他正和未来的威尔士王妃一起放松休息,那一年是1979年,他们正在法国阿尔卑斯山度假胜地Val Claret参加滑雪旅行团。The Daily Mirror, which bought the photo two days after Diana’s engagement to Prince Charles was announced in February 1981, wrote NOT TO BE PUBLISHED in crayon on it.《每日镜报》在1981年2月戴安娜和查尔斯王子订婚的消息公布两天后买下了这张照片,并用蜡笔在照片上写下“不能出版”几个字。The photo is now being auctioned in the US.这张照片目前正在美国被拍卖。Oxford student Mr Russell is said to have had a ‘galumphing’ crush on Diana. Nothing, however, happened between them.当时在牛津大学读书的拉塞尔据说“一下子”被戴安娜迷住了。不过他们两人之间没有发生任何事。According to royal author Andrew Morton, Mr Russell went travelling for a year, and when he returned to the UK in 1980 and told a friend that he liked Diana, he was told: ‘You’ve only got one rival, the Prince of Wales’.据皇室作家安德鲁#8226;莫顿说,拉塞尔当时出门旅游了一年,当他在1980年回到英国时,他告诉一个朋友说他喜欢戴安娜,那个朋友告诉他说:“你只有一个竞争对手,那就是威尔士王子。”He tactfully decided not to pursue her, but the pair remained great friends.他很机智地决定不去追求戴安娜,不过他和戴安娜始终是非常好的朋友。Mr Russell later said he initially thought Diana was a bit of a Sloaney ‘giggler’ but got to like her when both were injured skiing.拉塞尔后来说他一开始觉得戴安娜是那种喜欢用限量版奢侈品、总是吃吃傻笑的女孩,但是在两人都在滑雪中受伤后开始喜欢上她。He found her ‘bubbly, giggly, but not in a vacuous way, and lacking in self-confidence’.他觉得戴安娜“活泼、喜欢格格地笑,但不是空洞的那种笑,不是很自信”。Mr Russell, who is now a deer farmer in Dorset and married to gardening expert and TV presenter Ali, declined to comment.拉塞尔现在在多塞特郡养鹿,妻子是园艺专家、电视节目主持人阿里。拉塞尔拒绝对照片做出。The picture shows Diana lying on a bed in a chalet with Mr Russell, who is resting his book on her shoulder. On the window ledge behind them is a bottle of Johnnie Walker whisky.在照片上,戴安娜和拉塞尔斜躺在滑雪小屋的一张床上,拉塞尔把正在看的书倚在戴安娜的肩头。他俩身后的窗台上放着一瓶尊尼获加威士忌。The identity of the photographer is not known.没人知道是谁拍下这张照片的。 /201301/219188

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