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Since ancient times, marriage has been regarded as most blessed events in the life of a Chinese passing the imperial examination and the birth of one#39;s children. one of the three The other firvo are Marriage was solemnized with lots of interesting customs performed to this day.从古至今,婚礼一直被中国人认为是人生三大快事之一。另外两个分别是金榜题名和生子。为了使婚礼看起来庄严正式,中国人有很多沿用至今的有意思的风俗习惯,有些至今仍在沿用。It was very important to follow a basic principle of the ;Three Letters and Six Etiquettes; in the past. Even now some customs are still followed.遵循“三书六礼”的基本原则在过去是非常重要的。即使在现在过去的一些习俗仍在沿用,当然有时候会根据实际情况做一些变动。Three Letters三书The ;Three Letters; include the Betrothal letter, Gift Letter and Wedding Letter.The Betrothal Letter is the formal document of the engagement,a must in a marriage. Next is the Gift Letter,which would be given to the identified girl#39;s family.Within the letter will be a list of the types and quantity of gifts designated for the wedding. Once both parties accept the marriage,the Wedding Letter is prepared and presented to the bride#39;s family on the day of the wedding and is a document that confirmed and commemorated the formal acceptance of the bride into the bridegroom#39;s family, with some adaptations of course.“三书”包括聘书、礼书和迎书。聘书是订婚的重要文书,是结婚必需的。礼书是给女方家的,其中应列出婚礼所需的礼物的种类和数量。一旦双方同意结婚,男方要准备迎书在结婚当日呈给女方家人,迎书的目的是确认男方已经正式将新娘接纳为家庭的一员。Six Etiquettes六礼Proposal: If an unmarried boy#39;s parents identify a girl as their future daughter-in-law, they will then locate a matchmaker. The matchmaker will formally present his or her client#39;s request to the identified girl#39;s parents.纳:未婚男方的父母确定未来儿媳的人选之后,就会请来媒人牵线。媒人会正式向女方家长提出男方的请求。Birthday matching: If the potential bride#39;s parents do not object to the marriage, the matchmaker will then ask for the girl#39;s birthday and birth-hour to assure the compatibility of the potential bride and bridegroom. If the couple#39;s birthdays and birth-hours do not conflict according to astrology,the marriage will continue onto the next stage. If there is any sign of astrological conflict, which meant the marriage will bring disasters upon both families,the proposed marriage is immediately quashed.问名:如果女方父母不反对这门亲事,媒人就会要求他们提供女孩的生辰八字,看看男孩和女孩是否相合。如果相合,婚礼会进人下个阶段。如果相冲,两人的结合会给家庭带来灾难,求婚会立刻终止。Presenting betrothal gifts: Once both birthdays matched,the bridegroom#39;s family will then arrange for the matchmaker to present betrothal gifts,including the betrothal letter, to the bride#39;s family.纳吉:一旦双方的生辰相合,男方会安排媒人给女方送去聘礼,其中包括聘书。Presenting wedding gifts: After the betrothal letter and betrothal gifts are accepted,the bridegroom#39;s family will later formally send wedding gifts to the bride#39;s family. Usually,gifts may include tea,lotus seeds, longan,red beans,green beans,red dates,oranges,pomegranate,and other delicacies,depending on local customs and family wealth.纳征:女方接受了聘书和聘礼后,男方会正式给女方送去“大礼”,其中通常会包括茶叶、莲子、龙眼、瓜子、红豆、绿豆、红枣、橘子、石榴和其他一些物品。由于各地习惯不同和家庭贫富不等,聘礼的内容和数量会有一定差异。Picking a wedding date: An astrologist or astrology book will be consulted to select an auspicious date to hold the wedding ceremony.请期:男方和女方会征求方士的意见或者查阅相关典籍来确定婚礼举行的好日子。Wedding ceremony: Before the wedding,a“good luck woman; who has a nice family will arrange the bridal bed and scatter symbolic fruits on the bed. Nobody is allowed to touch the bed until the couple enters the bridal chamber after the wedding ceremony,except Children who are invited onto the bed to bless the couple with fertility.迎亲:婚礼举行之前,会有家庭比较好的“喜婆”铺婚床,在床上撒有象征意义的水果。新婚夫妇婚礼之后进入新房之前,除了邀请来祝新人早生贵子的孩子外,任何人不得碰婚床。Usually the bride#39;s dowry shall be sent to the bridegroom#39;s family by the day before the wedding day. Sometimes the dowry will be brought by the bride#39;s estorts. Q traditional dowry normally consists of valuable items such as jewellery embroidered beddings,kitchen utensils and furniture. The type of the dowry is constantly changing except for the basic,symbolic items. For example,in 1980s,a sewing machine, a bicycle,and a recorder were musts in a marriage. Now, they are totally out of fashion.婚礼进行前一天,新娘的嫁妆要被送到新郎家。有时候嫁妆还要新郎的陪护。传统嫁妆通常会包括一些值钱的物品,比如珠宝、刺绣的床上用品、厨具和家具。除了一些基本的有象征意义的物品,嫁妆的种类一直在不断变化。比如在上世纪80年代,嫁妆必须包括缝纫机、自行车和录音机。现在,这些都过时了。Unlike Western tradition,the colour red dominates traditional Chinese weddings. Chinese people tend to use or wear red to add a joyful atmosphere to such a festive occasion.,和西方传统不同,中国传统的婚礼以红色为主。中国人往往用红色或穿上红衣来增加喜庆的气氛。At dawn on the wedding day, the bride puts on new dothes, wears a pair of red shoes and waits for the so called ;good luck woman; to dress her hair in the style of a married woman. Her head would be covered with a red silk veil with tassels or bead strings that hang from the phoenix crown. She waits for her future husband to escort her home, with married women talking around her about how to be a good wife.在婚礼当天的清晨,新娘会穿上新妆,头戴凤冠,脚穿红婚鞋,等待喜婆为她盘头。盘好后,就用有穗子或珠串的红盖头蒙头等待自己未来的丈夫来迎娶,她的周围会有已婚妇女告诉怎样做个好妻子。On the other hand,the bridegroom prepares himself to receive his wife. He gets dressed in a long gown,red shoes and a red silk sash with a silk ball on his chest. The groom kneels at the ancestral altar as his father puts a cap decorated with cypress leaves on his head to declare his adulthood and his family responsibilitier.与此同时,新郎也在准备迎亲。他穿上长袍和红鞋子,胸前别上一个红绣球,然后跪在宗庙的供案前,由他的父亲为他戴上有柏枝装饰的新郎帽,并宣布他已成家立业。Then the bridegroom sets out to receive his bride. Usually a crowd of friends escorts the bridegroom and musicians play joyful tunes during the entire trip.准备停当,新郎就出发迎娶新娘。通常会有一群朋友陪伴在新郎左右,还有乐师一路上不停地演奏婚乐。The most interesting part of the reception really takes place at the doorstep of the bride#39;s residence,which is heavily guarded by the bridesmaid or the bride#39;s sisters. It is customary for the bridesmaid to give the bridegroom a difficult time before he is allowed to enter. Usually wisdom,courage and his friends will help the bridegroom to succeed in his ;trial;.However, there is one more situation he has to negotiate with the bridesmaid and sisters of the bride-to distribute among them red packets containing money-in order to take his bride home.迎亲最有意思的一段发生在新娘家的门前。新娘家的门通常都由伴娘或新娘的们把守。根据风俗,她们只有对新郎百般刁难之后,才能放新郎进门。新郎通常需要借助自己的智慧、勇气和朋友的帮助才能通过这种“试炼”,然而,为了把新娘带回家,还有一件事他要跟伴娘和新娘的们协商:给她们发红包的数量。Before the bride departs to the bridegroom#39;s home,the“good luck woman; will lead her to the sedan chair. On her way to the chair, one of her sisters will shield her with a red parasol,while another sister will throw rice at the sedan chair. At the back of the sedan hang a sieve and metallic mirror that are believed to protect the bride from evil. The bride has to cry to show that she does not want to leave her parents.在新郎离开新娘家之前,有喜婆把新娘领到轿子上,在此过程中由新娘的一位用红伞遮住新娘,另一个向轿子内撒米。轿子的背后会挂上一个筛子和一面金属镜子,人们认为它们可以避邪。新娘必须要哭,以此向人们表明她不想离开自己的父母。Then firecrackers will be set off to drive away evil spirits as the bride sits into the sedan chair. All along the way people make great efforts to avoid any inauspicious influence. For instance,the sedan chair is heavily curtained to prevent the bride from seeing an unlucky sight(e. g. a widow, a well or even a cat). When the parading troop arrives at the bridegroom#39;s,firecrackers will be set off to hail the bride#39;s arrival. Before the sedan chair a red mat is placed so that the bride will not touch the bare earth. By the threshold,a flaming stove and saddle will be set up and the bride is required to sidestep or step over them to avoid evils.新娘坐上轿子后,会燃放鞭炮驱赶邪灵。一路上人们都会竭力避免不好的影响。例如,轿子四面都用帘子遮蔽,以避免新娘看到什么不祥的景象(柳树、井、甚至是猫)。迎亲队伍到达新郎家时,会燃放鞭炮欢迎新娘的到来。轿前会放上一个红色的垫子,不让新娘接触到土地。门槛前会放置一个燃着的炉子和鞍座,新娘要从旁边绕过去,或者从上面跨过去。The bride and bridegroom are then led to an altar, where the couple kowtows to Heaven and Earth,the family ancestors and parents successively. They then Afterwards, a grand feast is held for relatives and those who helped with the wedding. The newlyweds will resume drinking wedding wine. Generally they are required to cross their arms to sip wine. They also will toast their guests. Guests voice their good wishes for the couple.然后新郎和新娘会被领到一个香案前,拜天地,拜祖宗和父母,夫妻交拜。之后会进人洞房。整个过程会有人指导提示,观众会报以掌声。此后会举行一个盛大的宴会招待亲朋好友。新婚夫妇会喝交杯酒。喝完后也会向客人敬酒。客人们会表示对新人的良好祝愿。After night falls, the teasing games start. Usually all young men can participate except for the bride#39;s married brothers-in-laws. These funny and silly games help ease the tension,since in ancient times the newlyweds never met each other before the wedding!Most of the games require the shy couple to ad like wife and husband. The festive atmosphere also promotes closeness among all the family members and the community beyond. There also will be other activities conducted by the bridegroom#39;s mother after the roaring laughter fades into the darkness.夜幕降临时,除新郎已婚兄弟之外的年轻人通常都会去闹洞房。他们会玩些非常有趣或者愚蠢的游戏来帮助新婚夫妇消除紧张,要知道在古代新婚夫妇在婚礼之前是没有见过面的!游戏大多都会要求羞涩的新郎和新娘表现得像夫妻。喜庆的气氛会增进所有家庭成员以及社区间的亲密关系。Traditionally,the newlyweds are to return to visit the bride#39;s parents one or three days after the wedding. They will be hailed with a banquet and it is the bridegroom#39;s turn to suffer the well-intentioned teasing of the bride#39;s relatives and friends.按照传统,新婚夫妇在婚礼后的第三天要“回门”:回到新娘家。新娘父母会设宴招待,此时就轮到新郎受新娘亲友的善意的愚弄了。Traditional marriage customs lost their popularity due to the collapse of the feudal arranged marriage and its complexity. However, traditional marriage can still be seen in the countryside,despite innovations. Now, traditional marriage customs are being revived in some places and they are attracting many prospective couples.由于封建的包办婚姻已经瓦解,传统婚姻的习俗非常复杂,传统婚姻已经不受欢迎。然而在农村依然能看到它的踪影,当然也做了一些创新。如今有些地方,传统婚姻又开始流行起来,吸引着越来越多的要结婚的年轻人。 /201505/377305This post is in partnership with Entrepreneur. The article below was originally published atEntrepreneur.com.本文与《创业者》杂志(Entrepreneur)合作。下文最初发表于Entrepreneur.com。More and more entrepreneurs are working remotely. They may have an “office” at home, in a co-working space or even at the nearest coffee shop. Fortunately, technology has allowed everyone — even entrepreneurs who commute to a traditional office every day — to benefit from the flexibility of working from home when it’s needed or preferred.如今,越来越多的创业者开始远程办公。他们可能在家里有一间“办公室”,或者使用联合办公空间,或者就近选择一家咖啡厅。幸运的是,科技让每一个需要或偏爱远程办公的人,都可以享受在家办公的灵活性,那些每天去传统办公室工作的创业者也不例外。Anyone who works from home will tell you that it has its benefits, yet also challenges. When I started my business in 1998, social media did not exist, I had no clients and most of my friends worked in a traditional office setting.每一位在家办公的人都深知这种方式的好处和挑战。当我在1998年开始创业时,社交媒体还没出现,我没有客户,大多数朋友也是在传统办公环境中工作。After working for a large hotel for nearly six years, I had grown accustomed to being surrounded by people each day. Working from home provided peace and solitude, yet I was lonely.在一家大酒店工作六年之后,我开始习惯了身边每天都围绕着许多人。在家工作确实能享受独处的平静,但我时常感到孤单。I had no one to interact with except my yellow Labrador. No humans were around for sharing ideas. I worked long hours, many in my pajamas. No one was there to hold me accountable for my work and I had to force myself to rise at a reasonable hour each morning and develop self-discipline.除了那只黄色的拉布拉多猎犬,没有人可以交流。没有人与你分享想法。我工作很长时间,大多时候是穿着睡衣。没有人让我对自己的工作负责,我必须强迫自己每天早上在合理的时间起床,强迫自己学会自律。But after a while, I set up a regular routine, joined some networking groups and adopted some best practices. Here are some tips to keep in mind to stay focused on your work throughout the day:经过一段时间之后,我养成了有规律的作息,加入了一些社交组织,并借鉴了一些最佳做法。牢牢记住下面这些建议,可以帮助你全天保持对工作的专注:1. Set and keep regular office hours.1. 制定并坚持有规律的办公时间。Most people who work from home find they work too much rather than too little. Other remote workers struggle to keep a regular schedule — working a few hours one day and pulling an all-nighter the next.大多数在家办公的人都会发现,自己做的工作太多而不是太少。有些远程办公者则难以保有规律的作息时间——某天只工作几个小时,第二天又熬个通宵。Some interruptions can’t be avoided. Client deadlines may unexpectedly require extra hours. Family obligations can interfere as well, especially if children are home during the day.有些中断是不可避免的。客户的最终期限可能需要安排意想不到的加班时间。家庭责任也会造成干扰,尤其是孩子们白天在家的时候。Do your best to set work hours and stick to them. Then try your best to leave work at the “office” and turn your phone on silent and enjoy the rest of your day. Give yourself some time to recharge so you can be as productive as possible.尽最大努力设定工作时间并严格遵守。然后尽量将工作留在“办公室”,在其他时间将电话调为静音,享受快乐时光。给自己留出充电的时间,以尽可能保持工作效率。2. Plan and structure your workday.2. 计划和组织你的工作日。Structure your workday to maximize efficiency. Take advantage of your body’s natural rhythms and plan your work around your most productive hours.组织你的工作日,实现效率最大化。利用身体的自然节奏,根据效率最高的时间段来计划自己的工作。If you know you focus best in the morning, resist the temptation to check email until 10 a.m. or later. A quick review of your calendar when you first start work can set you up for a productive workday.如果你在早上的注意力最集中,就尽量等到上午十点或更晚的时间再去查看电子邮件。在开始工作时迅速查看一下日程安排,可以让你一天的工作更有效率。Make a list of your most important tasks before you move on to less urgent business. If possible, shut your office door (if you have one) to signal to others that you’re working and don’t wish to be disturbed.制定一份“最重要任务清单”,以免将时间花在并不太紧急的事务上。若有可能,关上办公室的门(如果有的话),让其他人意识到你正在工作,不希望被打扰。3. Dress to impress (even if it’s just for your dog).3. 着装上要下功夫(哪怕只是穿给你的爱犬看)。As enticing as it is to stay in pajamas all day, this is not the best work habit. The way you dress affects you psychologically.整天穿着睡衣确实很有诱惑力,但这并不是最好的工作习惯。你的着装会影响你的心理。Taking the time to shower, have breakfast, brush the teeth and dress can make someone feel more confident. Maintain a casual (not sloppy) work wardrobe to help you transition smoothly between home and office — even if they’re in the same place.拿出时间洗澡、吃早饭、刷牙和穿衣,可以让一个人变得更加自信。衣柜里准备一些休闲的工作装,可以帮助你在家庭和办公室之间顺利转变——即便它们其实是在同一个地方。4. Set aside a designated work area.4. 划出特定的工作区域。Consistency is an important aspect to working from home. Try to work at the same spot every day. It could be a spare bedroom that you’ve turned into a home office, a desk located in the corner of the living room or even the dining room table.连贯性是在家办公的一个重要方面。尽量每天在同一个位置工作。比如由备用卧室改造而成的家庭办公室,起居室角落里的一张桌子,甚至餐厅的桌子。Make sure your workspace functions efficiently for you, your business and your style. Surround yourself with things that inspire you and make you happy including flowers, music and pictures. Make your workspace a place you enjoy going to each day, an area where you can focus and do your best work.确保你的工作空间按你的业务和个人风格有效运转。周围放一些能够激励你和让你高兴的物品,比如鲜花、音乐和照片。让你的工作空间变成你每天喜欢呆的地方,让你能够保持专注、全力以赴地工作。5. Take breaks.5. 频繁休息。Schedule time for frequent breaks throughout the day. Rise from your desk, stretch or walk around the house or down the street. Take a lunch break and enjoy a midday meal.安排出频繁的休息时间。从桌子旁站起来,伸伸懒腰,或者绕着房子或在大街上走走。安排午休时间,享用一顿美味的午餐。If you need a little socializing, go out to lunch with friends or clients. A major advantage to working from home is having flexibility. If fitness is important to you, a quick trip to the gym can reinvigorate you and make for a productive afternoon.如果你需要参加一些社交活动,那就去和朋友或客户一起吃午饭。在家工作的一个重要优势就是灵活性。如果健身对你很重要,迅速去健身房运动一下,可以让你充满活力,精力充沛地开展下午的工作。6. Avoid distractions.6. 避免干扰。One challenge of working from home is accountability. With no colleagues or partners nearby, it’s easy to become distracted. There are always errands to run and chores at home to do. Do your best to put off household tasks, like laundry and dishes, until you’ve gone “home” for the evening.负责任是在家办公的一项挑战。由于身边没有同事或合伙人,你很容易走神。你会有各种差事需要处理,也需要解决各种家庭琐事。尽量将家庭任务推迟到晚上“回到家”之后去做,比如洗衣和洗碗等。Stay focused on work throughout the day to maintain consistent productivity. Avoid online distractions as well. Limit the time spent on email, social media and websites unrelated to work.让自己专注于工作,可以保持续的工作效率。此外,还要避免在线干扰。限制花费在与工作无关的电子邮件、社交媒体和网站上的时间。Set a timer on your phone or computer if necessary. Don’t waste time or money on meetings or activities that are counterproductive to your success.若有必要,在手机或电脑上设置定时器。不要把时间或金钱浪费在那些对个人成功不利的会面或活动上。 /201502/360378

Chinese cuisine is known for its taste and philosophical and aesthetic qualities. It is closely tied to the development of the 5 000-year-old Chinese civilization. It is also related to the development of tourism in China-well known scenic spots are associated with well-known dishes named after the spots. There is for example“fried Yellow River carp with sweet and sour sauce; of Shandong,and“Hupao vegetarian ham; and“West Lake water shield soup; of Hangzhou。中国的菜肴因其味道可口并具有哲学和美学品质而闻名。这是与中国五千年的文明发展息息相关的。这还与中国旅游业的发展相联系—著名的景点都有以景点命名的知名菜肴。例如,山东的“糖醋黄河鲤鱼”,杭州的“虎跑素火腿”和“西湖药菜汤”。Chinese cuisine devotes meticulous attention to the color,smell,taste,shape,sound and vessel of food.“Sound; refers to the crispiness of food,especially for such dishes as Sichuan#39;s“sizzling rice crust with three delicacies.”When a steaming hot sauce made of shrimp and other delicacies is poured on freshly fried rice crust, a sizzling sound will be heard which signals kinds of containers,and dishes. happiness to the Chinese.“Vessel”refers to the different such as porcelain,pottery and silverware,for different tables。中国菜肴十分注意食物的色、香、味、形、声、器。“声”指的是食物松脆程度,尤其是四川的“三鲜锅巴”等菜肴。当由虾子和其他鲜美食品煮成的热酱浇在刚炸出来的锅巴上时,就可以听到吱吱的声音,这对于中国人来说象征着幸福。“器”指的是不同种类的盛放器皿,例如瓷器、陶器以及银器,它们适用于不同的桌子和菜肴。Chinese food can be classified into six categories:中国食品可以分为下列六大类:1. Local dishes.1.地方莱肴This refers to a class of dishes with very strong local flavors that came into existence in line with local products,climate and customs. Among the most well known local dishes are“sea cucumber braised with scallion; of Shandong,“hot and spicy hot pot; of Sichuan.这一类指的是带有浓厚地方风味的菜肴,它们是伴随着当地的农产品、气候以及习俗而产生的。其中最出名的地方菜肴就是山东的“葱烧海参”和四川的“香辣火锅”。2. Royal dishes.2.宫廷菜肴These used to be prepared by the imperial kitchen for emperors and empresses. Usually,they are fancifully named and exquisitely prepared with the best ingredients. Among the most famous are“all birds pay court to the phoenix; and “swastika-shaped braised pork slices.”这些菜肴过去是由御膳房为皇帝和皇后烹制的。它们通常都有神奇的名称并且选用最好的配料精心制作而成。其中最有名的就是“百鸟朝凤”以及“万字扣肉”。3. Family dishes.3.家族菜肴These used to be reserved for high-ranking bureaucrats and celebrities.But they were subsequently adopted by ordinary people. Among the most famous family dishes are Confucian-style and Tan-family style. In addition,“Dongpo Pork;“diced chicken stir-fried with chili and peanuts; are also popular dishes.这些过去是由高级官员和名人所享用的。但是最终还是进人了寻常百姓家。最有名的家族菜肴莫过于孔府菜和谭府菜。,此外,“东坡肉”和“宫爆鸡丁”也是深受欢迎的菜肴。4. Ethnic food.4.民族食品These originated in minority-inhabited areas,and became popular nationwide. Famous ethnic dishes include roast beef,“sliced mutton hot pot; and shashliks.这些指的是发源于少数民族居住地区并风靡全国的食品。出名的民族菜肴包括烧牛肉、羊肉火锅以及烤肉串。5. Vegetarian food.5.素食Because most monks eat vegetarian food,it is also known as“monastery dishes.”There are a wide variety of flavors. These dishes are often cooked in such a way as to look and taste exactly like meat and fish.由于大多数僧人都吃素食,因此这也被称为“斋饭”。它有各种各样的风味。这些菜肴的烹饪方式经常使其看上去、吃起来就仿佛是肉和鱼一样。6. Medicinal dishes, or food therapy.6.药膳或食疗The Chinese believe that mixing tonics with food adds flavor to the food and is good for health. Famed medicinal dishes include“lily decoction with chicken; and “porridge with lotus seeds and lily.”中国人认为将补药和食物放在一起既可以丰富食物的味道又有益于健康。有名的药膳包括“百合鸡汤”和“莲子百合粥”。Chinese Food-Eight Regional Variations中国的八大地方菜系The late Chairman Mao once remarked that China#39;s greatest contributions to the world are traditional Chinese medicines and Chinese food. To testify to the popularity of Chinese food,a piece of Western humor has it that the happiest man in the world is one who earns an American salary,lives in an English house,is married to a Japanese woman and eats Chinese food!毛主席生前曾经说过,中国对世界的最大贡献就在于传统中药和中国食品。有一则西方幽默可以明中国食品的受欢迎程度:世界上最幸福的人就是拿美国的薪水、住英国的房子、娶日本老婆、吃中国食物的人!Gourmets agree that Chinese cuisine is the only one that combines all the qualities of others. Some say French food is good for the flavor, Greek food for the smell,and Japanese for the ritual. But Chinese food has all these qualities and more.美食家一致认为中国的菜肴是唯一结合了其他国家菜肴优点的。有些人说法国菜的优点在于口味,希腊菜的优点在于香味,日本菜的优点在于礼节。但是中国菜除了所有这些长处还有别的优点。Chinese cuisine has a number of different genres,but the most influential and typical known by the public are the“Eight Cuisines;.These are as follows:Shandong Cuisine,Sichuan Cuisine,Guangdong Cuisine,Fujian Cuisine,Jiangsu Cuisine,thejiang Cuisine,Hunan Cuisine,and Anhui Cuisine .The essential factors that establish the form of a genre are complex and include history,cooking features,geography, climate,resources and life styles. Cuisines from different reqions are so distinctive that sometimes despite the fact that two areas are geographical neighbors their styles are completely alien.中国的菜肴拥有许多种不同的流派,但是最具影响力并且最为公众所熟悉的就是“八大菜系”。它们是:鲁菜、川菜、粤菜、闽菜、苏菜、浙菜、湘菜以及徽菜。确定一种流派形式的关键要素十分复杂,而且包括历史、烹调特征、地理、气候、资源以及生活方式。不同地区的菜肴各具特色,因此尽管有时两个地区相互毗邻,但是它们的风格完全不同。Shandong Cuisine鲁菜This is the local flavor of Jinan City and Jiaodong Peninsula derived from the use of shallots and garlic. Both restaurant chefs and housewives are expert in cooking seafood,soups, meat and offal. The recipes are those that once delighted the royal court and were served to the emperor. The typical can indude many delicate dishes such as:这是济南市和胶东半岛的地方风味,它使用葱和蒜。饭店厨师和家庭主妇都是烹制海鲜、汤、肉和内脏的行家。这些菜谱曾经取悦了皇家并且由皇帝享用。它的特色菜单包括许多精美的菜肴,例如:Braised abalone一一smooth,delicate, fresh and savory.红烧鲍鱼—光滑、精美、新鲜、美味。Sweet and Sour Carp-with crisp exterior and tender fish interior,a little sweet and sour.糖醋鲤鱼—外表松脆,里面鲜嫩,微甜、微酸。;Eight Immortals Crossing Sea Teasing Arhats; This is a starter before a celebration feast. It is luxurious and traditionally uses its eight main ingredients: fin,sea cucumber,abalone,asparagus,prawns and ham. The stock is flavored with fish#39;s swimming bladder and fish bones. These symbolize the eight immortals and the Arhats are symbolized by the inclusion of chicken breast.八仙过海闹罗汉—这是喜庆宴会的第一道菜。这道菜十分豪华,它传统上使用八种主要配料:鱼翅、海参、鲍鱼、芦笋、对虾以及火腿食料要用鱼缥和鱼骨来调味。这些象征着八仙,而罗汉(相当于佛教中的圣徒)则用鸡脯来象征。Guangdong Cuisine粤菜Guangdong cuisine takes fine and rare ingredients and is cooked with fished skills and in a dainty style. It emphasizes a flavor which is clear but not light, refreshing but not common,tender but not crude. In summer and autumn it pursues clarity and in winter and spring, a little more substance. The sauteed dishes always rely upon exquisite presentation involving excellent cutting and carving skills. Typical here can embody these following characteristics:粤菜采用了精美、珍稀的配料,而且采用了精致、爽口的烹调技巧。粤菜强调口味清爽但不清淡,提神但不落俗套,鲜嫩但不粗糙。在夏季与秋季,粤菜追求的是清爽;而在冬季和春季则比较注重实质。炒菜经常采用精美的外表,这就需要精湛的切菜技巧。它的特色菜单包括以下这些特征:Chrysanthemum fish-chefs with adept cutting techniques shape the fish like chrysanthemums,each individual morsel being convenient to enjoy with either chopsticks or forks.菊花鱼—拥有高超切菜功夫的厨师将鱼做成菊花形状,每一片鱼都十分便于用筷子或又子食用。Braised snake porridge-of rare meat of cobra,grimalkin,and pullet,braised elaborately,also called“Dragon and tiger contending;(Long Hu Dou).烩蛇粥—选用珍贵的眼镜蛇肉、雌猫肉、仔鸡肉进行烩制,它也被称作“龙虎耳一”。Roast suckling pig-a famed dish with rather long history,golden and crisp exterior, and tender meat inside,with dense aroma.烤乳猪—这是一道拥有悠久历史的名菜,它外面是金黄色的松脆外壳,里面则是粉嫩的肉,香气浓郁。Fujian Cuisine闽菜Fujian cuisine has four distinctive features, that is,fine cutting techniques,various soups,unique seasonings, and exquisite cooking. Chefs can always cut the thin jellyfish into three pieces and into very thin th. And thanks to the abundant resources of marine products,the soup of this cuisine genre has its freshness and keeps its own savor with ease. The seasonings add sweet and sour flavors to the dishes. To add to its appeal the food is served in or on elegant bowls or plates.闽菜有四个与众不同的特征,这就是精美的切菜技巧、各种汤菜、独特的作料以及精湛的烹饪。厨师总是能够将薄薄的海蜚切成三片,然后再切成非常细的丝。而且由于当地海产品资源丰富,因此该菜系的汤菜十分鲜美,而且很容易保持其本身的香味。作料则让菜肴具有甜味和酸味。食物是用雅致的碗或盘子盛放的,这增加了它的吸引力。Appealing dishes are countless,so we can only enumerate some of them:由于诱人的菜肴难以一一列举,因此我们只举出几道菜肴:Fried golden bamboo shoot with chicken mince-every 100g of winter bamboo shoots will be cut into 500一600 strips with the same length and bth. Then they can blend with the very small pieces of chicken.鸡茸金丝笋—每一百克冬笋要切成500至600片,并且长度和宽度相等。然后将它们与非常小的鸡肉混合在一起。Buddha jumping over the wall-the most famous and classical dish,which has a long history since the Qing Dynasty.佛跳墙—这是最有名、最经典的一道菜,它起源于清朝,历史悠久。Dongbi dragon pearl-it chooses materials from the rare longyan trees of thousand year#39;s history in Kaiyuan Temple in Auanzhou,the delicate scent is rather catching.东壁龙珠—它选用泉州开元寺中有着上千年历史的珍稀龙眼树上的龙眼,它那柔和的清香十分诱人。;Fried Xi Shi#39;s tongue; is made from the locally produced Fujian mussel. According to the legend of the concubine,Xi Shi,of the king of the state of Wu was thrown in the sea tied to a huge stone by the wife of Gou Jian,the king of Yue who destroyed Wu,to prevent her husband being seduced by her beauty. In the area of the sea where she sank, a special breed of mussel appeared and this was said to be Xi Shi#39;s tongue.炒西施舌选用当地出产的福建海蚌制成。传说越国国王勾践灭了吴国之后,吴国国王的妃子西施被勾践的妻子绑在一块大石头上面投人大海,以防止自己的丈夫被西施的美貌所勾引。在她沉入的海中出现了一种品种特殊的海蚌,据说这就是西施的舌头。Anhui Cuisine徽菜It is mainly composed of local flavors of Huizhou and other areas along the Yangtze River and the Huai River. Among the dishes on the hui cuisine ,you will find fried or quick-fled dishes than those that are braised. People here are indined to add ham as seasoning and sugar candy to enrich the freshness and are quite accomplished in the art of cooking。它主要由徽州以及长江和淮河沿岸地区的地方风味组成。在徽菜菜单上,人们会发现油煎或爆炒的菜肴要比煮的菜肴少。当地人倾向于将火腿用作作料并用冰糖提鲜,而且在烹饪艺术上十分精湛。Among these delicacies,some of the traditional ones are eye-catching:在这些美食中,有些传统美食十分抢眼:;Braised turtle with ham;-the oldest dish using the special ;Mati turtle;. The delightful taste of this dish has inspired poets。火腿炖甲鱼—这是最古老的一道菜,它选用特殊的马蹄鳖。这道菜令人愉悦的口味激起过文人墨客的诗兴。;Fuliji grilled chicken; the cooking technique was derived from Dezhou braised chicken of Shandong Province,with improvement of the technique by chefs at Fuliji. The grilled chicken is golden and tempting,and the meat is so well cooked that it falls easily from the bone.符离集烧鸡—它的烹饪技巧来自于山东省的德州扒鸡,并由符离集的厨师对其技巧进行了改进。烧鸡呈金黄色并且十分诱人,鸡肉的烹饪十分精湛,因此很容易从骨头上剥离。Jiangsu Cuisine苏菜Jiangsu cuisine developed from the local recipes of Yangzhou,Suzhou and Nanjing. Its main cooking techniques are braising and stewing,thereby preserving the original flavor and sauce. The elegant color,novel sculpts, with salt and sweet taste will soothe your stomach. The Jiangsu cuisine has several branches,including Shanghai cuisine,Nanjing cuisine is known for its duck recipes,Suxi cuisine with flowery hue,etc. the most highly recommended courses are:苏莱是从扬州、苏州以及南京的当地菜谱发展而来的。它主要的烹制手法是煮和炖,因此保持了原汁原味。精美的颜色、新奇的造型、再加上注重咸味和甜味,因此定能让您大快朵颐。苏菜分为几个分,其中包括上海菜、因鸭肴而闻名的南京菜、色斑斓的苏锡菜等,强烈推荐下面几道菜:Three sets of ducks-an interlinking dish,that is to put pigeon into wild duck, then put the wild duck into a fowl duck. When stewed,the fowl duck is tender, the wild one crisp,and the little pigeon delicate!三套鸭—这道菜是一个连环套,要把鸽子放在野鸭里面,然后把野鸭放进家鸭里面‘。当菜炖好之后,家鸭鲜嫩、野鸭松嫩、小鸽子则味道鲜美。Boiled dry th of Tofu-thanks to the exquisite skills of chefs,the tofu can be cut into very thin ths which have chances to absorb the savor of soup.When chicken pieces added to the soup,the dish is called“chicken dry th;;likewise,when shrimp added,it makes“shrimp dry th;.大煮干丝—由于厨师技艺的精湛,豆腐可以切成非常细的丝,因而有机会将汤的味道吸收进去。当把鸡块加到汤里时,菜肴便被称作“鸡汁干丝”;同理,如果将虾子加进去的话,它便成了“虾汁干丝”。Lion#39;s head braised with crab-powder there is a metaphor in the dish name. In actual fact the Lion#39;s head is a conglomeration of meat that is shaped like a sunflower and resembles a lion#39;s head. It can be braised in a clear soup,or be red-cooked in a dense soup. A seasoning of crab powder enhances the flavor.清炖蟹粉狮子头—这道菜的名字是形象的说法。实际上,这个狮子头是用肉聚在一起做成向日葵的外形,而且这和狮子头十分相似。它既可以放在清汤里炖也可以放在浓汤里红烧。如果加人蟹粉作调料的话则可以让味道更棒。Zhejiang Cuisine浙菜As Zhejiang cuisine consists of hundreds of small delicacies from its main tities,it takes in Hangzhou#39;s fineness and diversification,Ningbo#39;s softness and origfinality, and Shaoxing#39;s pastoral interests. Hangzhou,once the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty(1127一1279),it is customary to endow cuisine with dainty place-names. The chief techniques of cooking lie in the methods used such as frying,quicking,stir一ing,braising,and steaming thus rendering the dishes both salubrious and savory.由于浙菜包含了几大城市中数百道小吃,因此它有杭州菜的精致和多样、宁波菜的清鲜和原汁原味以及绍兴菜的田园魅力。杭州曾经是南宋(1127一1279)的首都,当地菜肴通常以秀美的地名命名。烹饪的主要技巧在于所使用的方法,例如炸、爆炒、炒、炖、煮,因此使菜肴既有助于健康又美味可口。West-lake braised fish in vinegar-a traditional delicacy in Hangzhou. It is said that there was once a boy who made his living by fishing. When he fell ill his sister-in-law fished for him and braised the fish she caught with a marinade of vinegar and sugar. He was said to have made an immediate recovery after eating it.The boy#39;s story aroused the attention of the emperor and the recipe has been used ever since.西湖醋鱼一这是杭州的一道传统美食。据说,曾经有一个男孩以为生外当他生病时,他的嫂嫂便为他,然后将捕来的鱼放到糖醋汁中炖。据说他吃了以后立刻病就痊愈了。这位男孩的故事引起了皇帝的注意,从此以后这道菜谱便沿用至今。Shelled shrimps cooked in Longjing tea-as the Longjing tea is taken as the best tea in Hangzhou,which is reputed for greenness,fragrance,pure taste and elegant looks,when the living shrimps are stir-fried in the longjing,the dish sends a refreshing aroma and is quite delicious.龙井虾仁—由于龙井茶是杭州最好的茶叶,并且因为其绿、香、纯以及美妙的外观而闻名。当把活虾剥壳后与龙井茶一起翻炒的时候,这道菜便散发出沁人的香味并且极为可口。Sichuan Cuisine川菜This combinesthe cuisines from Chengdu and Chongqing. From as early as the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911),books had systematically recorded a total of 38 cooking methods,such as scalding,baking,mixing,and stewing,etc. It features pungent seasonings which were famed as“Three Peppers;(Chinese prickly ash,pepper and hot pepper ),“three aroma;(shallot, ginger,and garlic),“Seven Tastes ;(sweet,sour, tingling,spicy,bitter,piquant, and salfir),and“Eight Flavors”(fish-flavored,sour with spice,pepper-tingling,odd flavor, tingling with spice,red spicy oily,ginger sauce,and home cooking ).川菜包括成都和重庆的菜肴。从清代起(1644一1911),就有书籍系统地记录了总共38种烹饪方法例如烫、烘、和、炖等。它的特点就在于使用了辛辣的作料,这些佐料是“三椒”(辣椒、胡椒、花椒),“三味”(葱、姜、蒜),“七味”(甜、酸、麻、香、苦、辣、咸),“八味”(鱼香、酸辣、椒麻、怪味、麻辣、红油、姜汁、家常)。Delicious dishes:美味菜肴:Stir-fried tofu with minced beef in spicy bean sauce-A real feast of tender bean curd,minced beef, pepper and bean sauce. It is said that it was made by a pock-marked but ingenious woman. Hence the name Ma Po Tofu(pock-marked woman#39;s bean curd).麻婆豆腐—这是用嫩豆腐、碎牛肉、辣椒以及豆酱做成的一道真正的美食。据说它是由一位麻脸但却极具创造天赋的妇女做成的,因此起名叫麻婆豆腐。;lamp-shadow beef;-the beef is cut in very thin sheet. When a piece is car-ried,it looks like translucent paper, slippery and reddish. When put under the lamp or light,a red shadow will appear.灯影牛肉—它将牛肉切成非常薄的片状。当拿起一片牛肉时,看上去就像一张半透明的纸一样,十分光滑并且略带红色。当把它拿到灯光下时,就会出现红色的阴影。;Lung pieces by the couple;-a quite popular in Chengdu. It got the name because the dish was ever sold be a couple and today it remains the original savor, tender meat,tingling and spicy.夫妻肺片—这道菜在成都相当受欢迎。它这个名称的由来是因为这道菜曾经由一对夫妻卖的,今天它依然保留了原先的味道,肉嫩、麻辣。;Gong bao ji ding;-This is a tender chicken dish,tender as the meat is quickly fried. Flavored with peanuts,this is tasty and very popular.宫爆鸡丁—这道菜使用了嫩鸡肉,因为它是快速煎炸而成的。加了花生之后它便十分可口了,而且深受青睐。Hunan Cuisine湘菜Hunan cuisine lays a stress on the use of oil,dense color, and techniques that produce crispness,softness and tenderness as well as the savory flavors and spices. Stewed fins,fried fresh cabbage with chestnuts,Dong Anzi chicken,immortal chicken with five elements,are of the highest reputation. Chairman Mao, together with other leaders praised the Hunan cuisine in 1958.湘菜强调油重、色浓,而且所采用的手艺使菜肴具有脆、软、嫩的特点并有可口的香味和辣味。红艰鱼翅、板栗烧菜心、东安仔鸡、五元神仙鸡都是最出名的菜肴。毛主席以及其他领导人在1958年都对湖南菜给予了赞誉。;Stewed fins;-it had been famous during the Qing Dynasty. Choice fins,chickens,pork are stewed in chicken soup and sauce,tasting really fresh and mellow.红偎鱼翅—它闻名于清朝。它选用鱼翅、鸡肉、猪肉放在鸡汤和酱油中偎制而成,品尝起来极为鲜美醇香。;Immortal chicken with five elements;-a dish made by putting five elements,litchi,longyan,red dates,lotus seeds,and medlar, into the body of a chicken,then to braise. The taste is rather peculiar and it is said to have the effect of strengthening the constitution.五元神仙鸡—指将五种要素,荔枝、龙眼、红枣、莲子以及拘祀放入一只鸡的体内,然后开始炖鸡。它的味道十分独特而且据说能够强身健体。Other Cuisines其他菜肴There are also other delicious cuisines such as Beijing cuisine,Dongbei cuisine,Uygur cuisine and Hubei cuisine. As the capital of China,Beijing always offers a vast variety of dishes from all over the country. Consequently,no matter where you visit, there will be fascinating food that you can enjoy.在其他地方也有美味,例如北京菜、东北菜、维吾尔菜以及湖北菜。北京作为中国的首都,总是能让人们品尝到全国各地的各种菜肴。因此,无论您前往哪个地方,都可以享受到美味的食物。Chinese Medicinal Cuisine中国的药膳Chinese medicinal cuisine is a long standing tradition.Early records show that it was in use as far back as the Han Dynasty(206 一220 ).Through continual improvement during the succeeding dynasties,it has developed into a practical science of nutrition. This is not a simple combination of food and traditional medicine, but it is a distinctive cuisine made from food and medicinal ingredients following the theory of Chinese medicine.中国的药膳拥有悠久的传统。早期的记录显示,早在汉朝(公元前206至公元220年)人们就开始用药膳。通过以后各朝各代的不断改良,药膳已经发展成一门实用的营养科学。这并不是简单地将食物和传统药物相混合,而是按照中医理论将食物和药物成分制作成与众不同的菜肴。This not only became the means of health-preservation among the people of China,but also sp abroad,especially popular in Southeast Asia.There is a wide choice of foods that are used in many different.ways to promote health.It is estimated that there are more than 600 different kinds of resources ranging from cereals fruits,vegetables , meats and marine products. Many of these will be unfamiliar to foreigners;however all are quite precious and effective in the field of medicinal food.Many different ingredients are used to add to the appeal as well as to strengthen effects of the cuisine. Wine,sugar, oil,sah, vinegar and honey,and other commonly used items such as almonds,mandarin orange,or peanuts,all are utilized in the cooking process.这不仅成为中国人保养的一种方式,而且还走出了国门;它在东南亚尤其受欢迎。为了增进健康,可以选择多种多样的食物并使用不同的烹制方法。据估计,有600多种不同种类的资源可供选用,它们包括谷物、水果、蔬菜、肉类以及海产品。这些资源中有许多对于外国人来说很陌生,但是所有这些在药膳领域都十分珍贵并卓有功效。药膳使用了许多不同的配料来增加其吸引力并加强菜肴的药效。酒、糖、油、盐、醋、蜜以及其他常用的材料,例如杏仁、芦柑或是花生,所有这些都在烹饪过程中得以使用。According to its respective functions,medicinal cuisine is classified under four categories:health-protection dishes,prevention dishes,healing dishes and thera-peutic dishes.根据其各自的功用,药膳分为四类:保健菜肴、防病菜肴、康复菜肴以及治疗菜肴。Health-protection dishes refer to reinforcement of required nutritional food correspondingly to maintain the organic health. A soup of pumpkin and almond can help lose weight;soup of angelica and carp can add beauty; and ginseng congee can give more strength.保健菜肴指为了保持机体健康相应加强所需营养的食物。一份南瓜杏仁汤有助于减肥,当归鲤鱼汤则可以美容,而人参粥则可以增强体力。Prevention dishes build resistance to potential ailments.“Mung bean soup; is considered helpful as a guard against heat stroke in summer. Lotus seeds,lily, yam,chestnuts,and pears can assist in the prevention of dryness in autumn and a strengthening of resistance to cold in winter.防病菜肴增强了对可能患上疾病的抵抗力。人们认为绿豆汤在夏天有助于预防中暑。莲子、百合、山药、核桃以及桃子在秋天可以有助于防止干燥,并在冬季增强对感冒的抵抗力。Healing dishes are the medicinal food for rehabilitation after severe illness.“Broiled sheep#39;s heart with rose; or“braised mutton with angelica; will help to rebuild a healthy constitution.康复菜肴指用于重病之后帮助康复的药膳。玫瑰烤羊心或当归炖羊肉则有助于恢复健康的体质。Therapeutic dishes aim at the specific pathology.“Fried potatoes with vinegar; can adjust the organ and restrain hypertension and carp soup with Tuckahoe may enrich the strength of blood plasma albumen to help reduce swelling.治疗菜肴的目的是为了治疗特定的疾病。醋馏土豆可以调解器官并抑制高血压,而获荃鲤鱼汤则可以增强血浆蛋白的能力并有助于消肿。 /201506/378789

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