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哈尔滨妇儿医院过年放心互动

2019年11月21日 16:44:27 | 作者:飞度云诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Its Friday August 13th, Im Mark Licea, and its time to get loaded.The big Google feature that the company announced yesterday is something called voice actions. This will let you make phone calls, send reminder emails, search for directions and music and even set your alarm. You will need the voice search app now in Android market and it requires Android 2.2. Another feature announced is Chrome-to-phone now available for all Froyo users. This lets you click on a new icon in your browser and send links to your Android device.今天是8月13日,周五。我是Mark Licea,是时间收听我们的最新资讯了。谷歌昨日宣布推出声音遥控功能。通过声音,你将能够拨打电话,发送邮件,查看地图,搜索音乐,甚至是设定闹钟。你需要做的就是配备Android 2.2系统,并在下载相关的应用程序。另外,谷歌手机版浏览器对所有Froyo用户可用,通过它你可以将链接轻松发送到你的其他Android系统电子设备上,你要做的只是轻轻点击浏览器上的一个按钮。Anyone interested in first-person shooters will be excited for this. Irrational Games announced a follow-up to the very popular BioShock franchise with BioShock Infinite. The game looks very different from the original BioShock atmosphere and takes place in a floating city called Columbia. I dont want to give out spoilers but the game is slated to come out in 2012.所有喜欢射击游戏的玩家有福了。Irrational Games公司宣布将制作《生化奇兵》续集。这款游戏在背景上将与前作有很大差别,故事设定发生在一座名叫Columbia的悬浮城市。我并不想剧透,所以我只能说这款游戏预计于2012年发售。And you can now tweet an article without leaving the actual article page. Twitters launching a Tweet button that triggers a pop-up with a shortened url to share with others. Right at the gate sites like Youtube, time.com, Hulu, USA today and CNN are using the Tweet button.现在,发一条微不用再粘贴全部的链接地址了。现在发微放入全部链接,会自动显示缩短网址。现在Youtube,time.com,Hulu,USA today和CNN等都已经应用这项技术了。Internet explorer 9 will have their Beta version out on September 15th. The Beta will work with Windows Vista and Windows 7 but no XP. And users will swap out their current IE for the new version. Features include HTML5 support and improved java script engine and the ability to use your computers graphic chip to speed up text and image rendering.IE浏览器9将于9月15日推出测试版。这款测试版只能在Vista,Windows 7环境中运行,而不能应用于Windows XP。而用户必须替换掉原来的版本的IE浏览器才能使用该测试版。这版的IE浏览器应用HTML5,可运行java脚本引擎,并能够应用电脑的绘图芯片加速文本和图片的解码。And ASUS is launching a slew of tablets, the grayscale e-tablet is more of a Kindle competitor with an 8-inch screen. It will launch in October for 300 dollars. The company is also ying the 10-inch EEE pad EP101 TC in March, and it will go for 399 dollars and run Android. And then the EP121 will have 12-inch screen, run Windows 7 and use a special docking station that can turn the tablet into a laptop. Its said to have a price tag close to 1,000 dollars and its scheduled to ship in December or January.华硕公司发售了一系列平板电脑,其中grayscale e-tablet是一款8英寸屏幕的平板电脑,是Kindle的有力竞争对手,grayscale将于10月发售,售价为300美元。明年3月,华硕还将推出10英寸的EEE pad EP101 TC,这款平板电脑将运行Android系统,售价为399美元。在这之后是12英寸的EP121,采用Windows 7系统。特殊架能使它变身笔记本电脑。据说这款电脑将售价1千美元,预计于12月或1月上市。Those are your headlines for today. Im Mark Licea with cnet.com. And youve just been loaded.这些就是今天的头条。我是cnet.com的Mark Licea。感谢您的收看。Cnet.com live is the place to find your favorite Cnet tech shows. From hottest gadgets, to the latest tech news, we stream alive, 5 days a week, at Cnet.com/live.登录Cnet.com就可以观看你最喜欢的节目。不管是最热的电子配件,还是最新的科技新闻,我们都将及时为您报道,一周5期,精尽在Cnet.com。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/189757Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My 21-year-old niece has been dealing with a drinking problem since high school. I also have a drinking problem that only my husband and kids know about. My husband, who was having a serious talk with my niece, decided it was in her best interest to tell her about my problem.我21岁的侄女在高中就染上了酗酒恶习。我也有酗酒的毛病,但只有我的丈夫和孩子知道这一点。我的丈夫和我的侄女进行了一次严肃的谈话,决定告诉她我酗酒的秘密。他认为这样做对她有好处。I am very private and want no one to know about my drinking because of the stigma attached. I dont want my parents or siblings to have to worry about me or look at me differently.我非常自私。我希望没有人知道我的酗酒恶习,因为我认为那是一种耻辱。我不希望我的父母或兄弟们为我担心,也不希望他们以异样的眼光看我。I cant be certain my niece will blab this information to everyone, but somehow, I think she will eventually. Do you think my husband had good reason to tell her? I dont see how it would help, and it sure made me angry. Shouldnt such personal information come directly from me? - Upset Wife我不知道我侄女会不会把我的这个秘密告诉每个人。但我觉得她最终会的。你认为我的丈夫有权利告诉她我的秘密吗?我不知道这对我的侄女会否有所帮助,但这肯定让我很生气。这样的个人秘密难不应只属于我一人吗? ;; 一个忐忑不安的妻子Dear Upset:亲爱的忐忑女士:Your husband should have asked you first if it was okay to give your niece this information, but you cant put the cat back in the bag. It is very possible that learning her aunt has a similar problem was comforting to your niece and will inspire her to work harder. We think having this information will do more good than harm, and we hope you will forgive your husband so you can be a source of encouragement to your niece.你的丈夫在向你侄女透露这个秘密之前,确实应该征询你的意见。但另一方面,你总不能把秘密守一辈子吧?也许当你的侄女知道她的婶婶也有同样的困扰时,她会稍感平衡,并将激励她更加努力地工作。我们认为,将这个秘密告诉你的侄女,总会利大于弊。我们希望你会原谅你的丈夫,还希望你可以给你的侄女予以鼓励。201202/172840Science and Technolgy.科技。Social status and health.社会地位与健康。Misery index.贫困指数。Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why.社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘。ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity. That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s. These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite. Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives. Cardiac arrest-and, indeed, early death from any cause-is the prerogative of underlings.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。心跳骤停——而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死——那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies. But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not. A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques. Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings. The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system. Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed. To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard (and probably unethical) if it were done to human beings. You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难(而且很可能不道德)。但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies.不健康的身体,不快乐的心情。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques (females were chosen because a lot of previous work on animal hierarchies has been done on female macaques) and split them into groups of four or five. The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group (newly introduced monkeys almost always adopt a role subordinate to existing group members). The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验(用女性猴子的原因是,前期大量动物地位等级的准备工作都是在女性猴子身上做的),并把他们分为四到五组。根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号(新来的都是要听前辈的,这是潜规则)。等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes (30% of the total number in a monkey genome-or, for that matter, in a human one). They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one. Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones. The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too. Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 研究结果有很多。每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因(一个猴子基因组总数的30%——这也适用于人类),寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do. Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system. In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation (a general immune response that involves tissue swelling and increased immune-cell activity in the affected area). Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因(一种普通的免疫反应,包括细胞组织的膨胀,还有增加免疫细胞在疫区免疫细胞活动)。虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression. In keeping with previous work, they found that high- and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress. They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself. But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals. Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life. To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.表现遗传学——目前分子生物学最热的话题之一——是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny. Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups. When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed. Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans. But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use. In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around. The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201209/200526

The Nucleus原子核Don: A guy walks into a bar, and sits down next to an electron. The electron has two empty beers in front of him, and was working on a third. ;My life is a worst;, says electron. ;I just got fired from my job, my dog bit me, my wife left with another guy.; The guy says, ;Why are you so negative?;有一个人走进了酒吧,刚刚好坐在了电子的旁边。电子面前已经摆了两个空啤酒瓶子了,正在与他的第三瓶“奋战”着。“我的生活真的很糟糕”电子说道,“我刚刚被公司辞退了,我的要咬我,老婆也和别的男人跑了!”这个人问道:“你为什么这么negative呢?”OK, now the explanation. The nucleus of an atom is composed of neutrons and protons. Around this nucleus swirls a cloud of electrons. Why are the electrons there? They are attracted and held in place by an electromagnetic interaction with the nucleus. The nucleus has a net positive charge, while electrons carry a negative charge. And opposite charges attract.OK,现在来解释一下。原子核由中子和质子两种微粒构成。在原子核外部,电子云围绕原子核旋转。为什么这里会有电子呢?电子通过与原子核的电磁相互作用,被吸引到了这里。原子核带正电荷,而电子则带负电荷。而我们知道,异性相吸。Yaeuml;l: I get it! ;Why so negative?; Hes talking to an electron.我懂了。“谁叫你带负电呢?”他对电子说的话应该是这样理解的吧。D: Right!是的。Y: So electrons have a negative charge, while protons, neutrons and nucleus have a positive charge?那么,也就是说电子是带负电荷,而质子、中子和原子核都是带正电荷?D: Almost! The protons have the positive charge, while the neutrons, as their name suggests, have no charge at all. If you have three protons in the nucleus, youll need three electrons to make whats called a ;stable; atom.这样说也差不多!质子是带正电荷的,而中子就像他的命名所暗示的一样,是不带点的。如果一个原子核中有三个质子,那么必须要有三个电子,这个原子才能够称得上是“稳定的”原子。(注:negative通常情况下是表示“消极的,负面的”,而此处不做此用。此处,negative应理解为“带负电的,阴性的”) /201209/197866

Books and Arts; Book Review;Poetry and the first world war;Late starter;文艺;书评;诗歌与第一次世界大战;诗坛后起之秀;Now All Roads Lead to France: The Last Years of Edward Thomas. By Matthew Hollis.《如今条条大道通法国:爱德华·托马斯人生最后几年》,马修·霍利斯著。Edward Thomas was a late starter to poetry. “I couldnt write a poem to save my life,” he declared aged 35, when a “literary hack” of minor biographies and travel memoirs, struggling to support a wife and three children. A year later, and three years before he was killed by a passing shell in the Arras offensive in the first world war, he had written and published some of the finest poems to come out of Britain at the beginning of the 20th century.爱德华·托马斯在诗歌方面是一位后起之秀。“我没法靠写诗养家糊口 。”他在35岁时如是说。当时他是一位“受雇文人”,写一些短篇传记和游记,艰难地供养妻子和三个孩子。他在36岁时创作并发表了一些诗歌。在20世纪初的英国,他的这些诗作是最优秀的。又过了三年以后,他在第一次世界大战的阿拉斯战役中被炮弹击中,不幸身亡。What changed Thomas from a middling prose writer to a dazzling poet is the central theme of Matthew Holliss engaging new book, which won two awards for biography when it came out in Britain last year and is just now being published in America. Mr Hollis, a poet and editor, focuses on the last five years of Thomass life before he died in 1917.马修·霍利斯这本引人入胜的新书主要讲述托马斯是如何从一位普通的散文作家成为一位杰出诗人的,去年在英国问世时赢得了两项传记奖,眼下即将在美国出版。作者霍利斯既是诗人也是编辑,他主要描写了托马斯在1917年去世之前最后五年的生活。His book begins in London, where Thomas visits a new bookshop dedicated to poetry that had just opened in “shady Bloomsbury”. Around this shop circled the poets that made up literary London at that time: Ezra Pound, an American, who would greet startled visitors to his flat in a purple dressing gown; W.B. Yeats, an Irish poet and playwright who shunned newfangled electricity in favour of candlelight for his evening ings; and Rupert Brooke, a dashing young English poet, who would die a soldier in 1915 from an infection caught while stationed near Greece, and whose poetry sold 250,000 copies in the decade after his death.书中的故事从伦敦开始。在“树影婆娑的布鲁斯伯里”,托马斯来到了一家新开的书店(这里主要销售诗歌作品)。在书店的墙上,到处都是诗集——都出自当时伦敦文学界的主要诗人之手:其中包括美国诗人埃兹拉·庞德——他会穿着紫色的睡袍来接待公寓里的访客,让他们目瞪口呆;爱尔兰诗人兼剧作家 W.B. 叶芝——他在晚上读书的时候喜欢就着烛光,而不用新潮的电灯照明;以及风度翩翩的年轻英国诗人鲁伯特·布鲁克——他曾是一名士兵,1915年驻扎在希腊附近时受到感染,败血症发作身亡——而在他去世后的十年之内,他的诗集售出了25万册。Less glamorous or eccentric than these figures, Thomas was a prolific and occasionally acerbic book reviewer, six feet tall, “slim, loose-limbed and vigorous”, who struggled with near-suicidal depression. He had married while still an undergraduate at Oxford and his relationship with his wife Helen was a troubled one. He often spent time away on the long journeys needed for his travel books, such as the “The Icknield Way”.托马斯不像这些人那么有魅力,也不像他们那么特立独行。他是一位多产的书评家,笔触偶尔会有些尖刻。他身高六英尺,“身材瘦削,四肢柔软灵活,充满了活力”,一直在和极易导致自杀的抑郁症抗争。托马斯还在牛津大学就读时就结了婚,而他和妻子海伦的关系并不好。为了写《伊克尼尔德驿道》之类的游记,他常常出门作长途旅行。Mr Hollis is adept at evoking the atmosphere of the time, and at negotiating the complicated friendships and squabbles between these poets. But it is when Thomas meets Robert Frost, a “Yankee” poet determined to be published in Britain that his book comes to life. It was Frost—a stocky, quick-tempered figure—who persuaded Thomas to write poems, and who believed that “words exist in the mouth, not in books”. Once Thomas decided to write verse, he did so quickly. Spurred on by Frost, and by the oncoming threat of war, at one point he wrote nearly a poem a day, including his much loved “Adlestrop” with its “lazed, heat-filled atmosphere…of that last summer before the war”. Mr Hollis re-creates Thomass process of writing by comparing the differing drafts of his poems, giving life to his process of composition, and charting the correspondence between Thomas and Frost once the latter had moved back to America.霍利斯擅长营造时代氛围,也擅长描写那些诗人之间复杂的友谊和矛盾。但这本书真正生动的部分是在托马斯遇到罗伯特·弗罗斯特(一位决心在英国发表诗作的“美国佬”诗人)之后。正是这位身材敦实、脾气急躁的弗罗斯特劝说托马斯走上诗歌创作道路的,他还认为“语言存在于口齿之间,而不是在书本里面”。一旦托马斯决定写诗了,他很快就开始了创作。受到了弗罗斯特的鞭策,战争的威胁又隐隐逼近,曾经有段时间他几乎每天就写出一首诗——其中就有那首广为人们称道的《艾德稠普》,诗中描写了“战争爆发前的最后一个夏天……那慵懒、闷热的空气”。霍利斯比较了托马斯不同的诗稿,为这位诗人的创作过程赋予了生命,并记录了弗罗斯特回到美国后两人的通信情况。通过这些途径,霍利斯重现了托马斯的写作历程。In many ways, Thomas was a difficult, reticent figure, who was quite capable of signing off letters to his mother “Yours ever, Edward Thomas”. Even after he had enrolled in the Artists Rifles regiment, he remained painfully shy about his work, hiding his poetry among calculations on the trajectory of shells, or disguising it as prose. This may be one reason why Mr Hollis tends to address his subject formally throughout his book, frequently by his full name, and does not delve—beyond polite speculation—into the various extramarital romances Thomas may have had. Those who want such details will have to go elsewhere. Instead, Mr Hollis captures something far greater than a mans personal life, and far more elusive: the desire and struggle to write, even when you begin, as Thomas put it, “at 36 in the shade”.从很多方面来说,托马斯是一位寡言少语、不易相处的人。他在给母亲写信时,末尾处总是署上“您永远的儿子——爱德华·托马斯”。即使是在他加入艺术家兵团之后,他仍然极为羞涩,不愿将自己的作品公诸于众。他把诗作混在炮弹弹道测算纸里,或是伪装成散文。这或许能够从一个方面解释为什么霍利斯在写这本书时自始至终都郑重地论述主题,提到托马斯时常常以他的全名相称,而且并未探究托马斯可能有过的几段婚外恋——只是礼貌地进行了一些推测。想要了解此类细节的读者不得不去别的书中寻找了。而霍利斯所描绘的内容远比诗人的私生活重要,也更加难以捉摸,那就是:创作的欲望、创作的努力——正如托马斯所说,即使这个创作过程是从“36岁时在某片树荫下”开始的。 /201210/203927

Science and Technology Pollution in the Himalayas Time to call the sweep?科技 喜马拉雅山受到了污染 是时候呼吁清扫了吗?Soot gets everywhere. Even into the worlds highest mountains到处都弥漫着烟灰,甚至蔓延到了世界的最高山。THE Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan plateau are sometimes referred to as the Earths third pole, because of the amount of ice they host. They are also known as Asias water tower. Their glaciers feed the continents largest rivers—and those, in turn, sustain some 1.5 billion people. Many studies suggest, though, that the Himalayan glaciers have been shrinking over the past few decades. This has usually been attributed to rising air temperatures, but climate researchers have now come to realise that tiny airborne particles of soot and dust are also to blame. Being dark, they absorb sunlight. And that warms their surroundings.喜马拉雅山及其邻近的青藏高原有时被称作是地球第三极,这是因为它们身上覆盖着大量的冰雪。有时也被称作亚洲水塔,它们所蕴藏的冰川是这片大陆中最大河流的水源,反过来这些河流维系着15亿人的生命。然而许多研究表明在过去的数十年里喜马拉雅山的冰川在不断地减少。这通常是由不断高升的气温所致,但是气候研究人员开始意识到这也归咎于空气中的烟灰粒子和尘埃,因为这些物质是黑色的,所以吸收阳光,进而使得周围气温升高。Near cities, and in regions like South-East Asia, where people are clearing vegetation by burning it, soot is expected. But as Angela Marinoni of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate in Bologna explained to an audience at the 2nd Third Pole Environment Workshop in Kathmandu on October 27th, the high Himalayas are also under an onslaught from this sort of pollution. Even at altitudes above 5,000 metres (16,400 feet), soot is widesp. And when it lands on glaciers it accelerates their melting.在城市附近和像在东南亚这些地区,人们烧毁植被,因此就产生了烟灰。但是10月27日在加德满都举行的第二次第三极环境研讨会上,但是来自波隆纳的Angela Marinoni—一位大气物理学及气候研究所的研究人员对一名观众解释到:;喜马拉雅山也受到了这种烟灰的污染;.即使在海拔高于5000米(约16400英尺)的地区也弥漫着烟灰,当它们飘落到了冰川上,就会加速冰川的融化。Dr Marinoni and her colleagues have been examining Himalayan soot since 2006. In that year the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid, in the Khumbu valley, began a full-time study of aerosol particles, soot among them. The researchers initial intention was to take advantage of what they assumed would be the pristine conditions found at such high altitude (the observatory is 5,079 metres above sea level) to measure typical background conditions of the atmosphere. Instead, they were surprised to find a thick haze, loaded with soot, smothering the mountain slope. In the rainless pre-monsoon months between January and May, about one day in five saw the Khumbu valley blanketed in a dense brown cloud.自从2006年开始Dr Marinoni和他的同事就在调查研究喜马拉雅山上的烟灰。在那年,尼泊尔气象天文台—金字塔在孔布山谷开始专职研究浮质粒子中的烟灰。研究的初始目的是利用地处这片高纬度地区的原始地貌来测量大气中特殊的背景环境(天文台设在海拔5079米处)。然而他们惊讶的发现了一片充斥着烟尘的厚厚阴霾,笼罩着山坡。一月至五月是少雨的前季风时期,孔布山谷平均每五天中就有一天笼罩在厚厚的棕色烟云下。By analysing atmospheric circulation patterns, Dr Marinoni and her colleagues found that winds could bring soot and dust from as far away as Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. And if that were not bad enough, the Himalayan valleys act as chimneys, pumping pollutants from the Indian plains to the mountain peaks. Dr Marinoni estimates that the combined effect of this crud could reduce the glaciers ability to reflect light by 2-5% and increase the amount of melting by 12-34%.通过分析大气循环类型,Dr Marinoni和他的同事发现风力可以把烟灰和尘土从远至欧洲,中东和北非等地带到喜马拉雅山上。如果这还不够糟糕的话,喜马拉雅山谷就犹如烟囱一样,把印度平原的污染物排放到喜马拉雅山峰。Dr Marinoni估计这种杂质的共同作用能使冰川的反光能力降低2-5%,融化范围增加12—34%。Those suggestions are corroborated by a study led by Xu Baiqing of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, in Beijing. His team drilled cores from the ice of five Tibetan glaciers in order to examine the past few decades worth of pollution. These cores show that the level of pollution, especially soot, in Himalayan glaciers correlates with emissions in Europe and South Asia.中国科学院青藏高原研究所的徐柏青领导做了一项研究实了以上研究人员的发现。他的研究小组钻取了青藏高原5大冰川的冰心以观察过去数十年的污染。这些冰心不仅表明了此地的污染程度,更重要的是说明了喜马拉雅山冰川上的烟灰与欧洲和南亚的排放相关。In the north-west and centre of the Tibetan plateau Dr Xu and his team found that particularly high levels of soot had fallen on the glaciers during the 1950s. These regions are under the influence of westerly winds, suggesting that the soot in question originated in Europe. That hypothesis is supported by the observation that soot levels fell during the 1970s, a period when many European countries enacted clean-air regulations.在青藏高原的西北部和中部地区徐士和他的研究小组发现:在20世纪50年代大量的灰尘落在冰川上。这些地区受西风影响,因此研究人员正讨论这些烟灰可能来自于欧洲。一项调查报告实了这个假设,报告表明20世纪70年代大量灰尘落到了喜马拉雅山冰川上,而且就在这一时期许多欧洲国家制定了净化空气的法规。The glaciers in the south-eastern part of the plateau, by contrast, are downwind of the Indian subcontinent—and Dr Xu found that the concentration of soot in those glaciers went up by 30% between 1990 and 2003, coinciding with a period of rapid industrial growth in India.相比之下,青藏高原东南部地区的冰川地处于印度次大陆的顺风处,徐柏青发现1990年至2003年间其地区的烟灰覆盖增长了30%,恰巧与印度这时期工业的迅速发展成正比。The worry is not that the Himalayan glaciers will disappear. Despite a foolish mistake in a report by the International Panel on Climate Change suggesting that this might happen quickly, no one believes that to be the case. But accelerated melting induced by this soot could cause flooding. That would be bad enough.人们所担忧的并非是喜马拉雅山冰川将会消失。尽管国际气候变化小组发布一项愚蠢的报告,表示在不久的将来可能会发生这一惨剧,但是没有人去相信。烟灰会加速冰川融化进而导致洪水的爆发。尽管这样,这也已经够遭的了。 /201301/222665

LAST November marked the start of the tenth year since the epic, stamina-sapping Doha round of trade talks began. It was also when the German chancellor, Angela Merkel, and Britainrsquo;s prime minister, David Cameron, joined by the heads of government of Turkey and Indonesia, asked a group of experts to work out how on earth to get a Doha deal done.去年11月标志着自历史性的一刻;;逐渐消耗耐力的多哈回合贸易谈判开始以来第十个年头的开始。德国总理安格拉?默克尔和英国首相戴维?卡梅伦以及土耳其和印尼政府首脑也在去年11月共同要求一批专家研究出切实达成多哈协议的方法。Led by Peter Sutherland, a combative former director-general of the World Trade Organisation and its predecessor body, GATT, and by a trade economist at Columbia University, Jagdish Bhagwati, the experts were due to issue a report on January 28th. That will be in the midst of the annual jamboree at Davos in Switzerland, where global bigwigs gather to chew over world affairs.由世贸组织和其前身关税及贸易总协定的前总裁彼得?萨瑟兰和哥伦比亚大学贸易经济学家贾迪什?巴格瓦蒂带头的专家们将于1月28日发布一份报告。在瑞士的达沃斯年会上,全球的权威人士相聚一堂讨论世界事务,这份报告正好在该年会召开期间发布。The report could cause a few attendees to choke on their Gluuml;hwein. It urges its sponsors, along with the rest of the leaders of the worldrsquo;s big economies, formally to commit to finishing the round by the end of the year. It is far from clear how such a deadline could be made binding, but the idea is as much tactical as practical, and received backing this week from the International Chamber of Commerce.这份报告可能会导致一些与会人员在喝葡萄酒时呛到。该报告敦促主办方以及世界大经济体的其余领导人正式致力于到今年年底完成多哈回合谈判。如何使这样一个最后期限具有约束力尚不甚清楚,但是这个想法既有战术性又有实用性并且在本周得到了国际商会的持。Mr Sutherland argues that his experience during the Uruguay round of trade talks taught him that having a firm timetable is the best way to knock heads together. Those talks took a mere seven years, ending in 1994, and if it is any consolation to todayrsquo;s negotiators, even the WTOrsquo;s official history admits that at times they ;seemed doomed to fail;.萨瑟兰先生称,他在乌拉圭贸易谈判中的经历告诉他,一个坚定的时间表是达成协议的最好方法。那些谈判只进行了7年,于1994年结束。如果这对如今的谈判人员有什么安慰的话,那就是甚至连世贸组织的官方历史也承认,有时那些谈判;似乎注定会失败;。That is a fate that must not befall Doha, the experts insist. They reckon that only a few more steps are needed for an agreement. Richard Baldwin of the Graduate Institute in Geneva, one of the economists in the group, argues that ;Doha is a lot closer to being done than it has ever been, and than a lot of people realise.;专家们强调,这样的命运一定不能降落到多哈回合谈判身上。他们认为只需再走几步就可以达成一项协议了。日内瓦研究生所、专家组中的经济学家之一理查德?鲍德温表示;与以往以及许多人意识到的情况相比,多哈回合离达成协议要近得多。;One reason is that agricultural commodity prices are high, so in America subsidies to farmers, which are linked to world prices, have been tapered down. This means that trimming them back should be less controversial than might otherwise be the case. That could encourage Barack Obama to throw his weight behind the talks. Finishing the Doha round could also help his administration flaunt its pro-business credentials, which have been under question of late.原因之一是农产品价格昂贵,因此美国与世界价格相关的农业补贴已经有所减少。这意味着使农产品价格回落应该会比以往少一些争议,这可以促使贝拉克?奥巴马在谈判背后施加影响力。完成多哈回合也有助于表明他的政府是持企业的,最近这一点一直受到质疑。An emphasis on the importance of removing trade barriers in service industries, such as technology, could help to bring the agreement of big service-sector exporters, notably India. That countryrsquo;s reluctance to make concessions on agriculture was blamed by many for the collapse of the last serious attempt to finish the Doha round in July 2008. And the big emerging economies, the authors argue, need to remember that an umbrella trade agreement that covers almost all countries is far preferable to the idea of trying to strike scores of bilateral deals.着力于消除务业(如技术行业)的贸易壁垒可能会有助于获得务业出口大国(主要是印度)的同意。2008年6月,进行了完成多哈回合的最后一次认真尝试,但失败了。许多人将那次失败归咎于印度不愿在农业方面让步。报告的撰写者们称,新兴大经济体需要铭记的是,几乎所有国家签订的全面贸易协议要比努力签订众多双边协议可取得多。Some Doha doubters argue that the world economy has moved on since the round began;trade in services has become far more important, and many countries have aly cut tariffs on their own;making the talks largely irrelevant. But the authors provide some convincing evidence against this view. The proposals aly on the table would add 0 billion in new trade each year. They would lead to a substantial reduction in the tariffs paid. For example, the total amount of tariffs paid on manufactured goods imported into America could fall by almost 50%.一些多哈回合的怀疑人士称,自多哈回合开始以来,世界经济已经发展了。务业的贸易变得重要得多,许多国家已经自行降低关税,这使谈判变得基本上无关紧要了。但是报告的撰写者提供了一些令人信的据来推翻这种观点。在谈判中已经提出来的意见将使新的贸易额每年增加3600亿美元。它们将使所付的关税大大减少。比如,进入美国的制造业商品所需的关税总额将减少近50%。The authors do, though, admit that there are growing gaps ;between 20th-century trade governance and 21st-century trade;. A case in point is the growth and rising complexity of global supply chains, which means that todayrsquo;s protectionists are more likely to resort to targeted rules rather than tariffs; this makes trade negotiatorsrsquo; traditional goal of tariff-killing less relevant. But abandoning the present negotiations in favour of an entirely new round of talks with a more up-to-date agenda, as some have advocated, has even less chance of getting anywhere than the Doha effort. That is saying something.不过,报告的撰写者也承认,;20世纪和21世纪之间的贸易管理;差距日益加大。明这一点的一个例子是全球供应链增加并且越来越复杂,这意味着如今的贸易保护主义者更有可能采用有针对性的法规,而不是关税,这使贸易谈判人员消除关税的传统目标不那么合理了。但是要是像一些人所提倡的那样,放弃当前的谈判,采用一个更加与时俱进的议程,启动一轮全新的谈判,那么成功的可能性比多哈回合甚至还要小。这是有一定道理的。201202/172059

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