时间:2019年10月20日 09:32:33

James Clapper, the Obama administration’s director of national intelligence, is not given to slips of the tongue.奥巴马(Obama)政府的国家情报总监詹姆斯克拉珀(James Clapper)可没有口误的习惯。On Tuesday, largely unnoticed amid his remarks on Iran and China, the US spy chief hinted at one of the most significant debates behind the closed doors of the US security apparatus.日前,很多人都没有注意到,在发表有关伊朗和中国的讲话时,这位美国间谍机关首脑曾就美国安全机关幕后的最重大辩论之一发出过暗示。Cyber attacks, Mr Clapper noted, are going to get worse “until such times as we create both the substance and psychology of deterrents”.克拉珀指出,网络攻击愈演愈烈的状况,“将持续到我们建立了实质和心理的双重威慑之际”。Considering the vast sum the US spends on cyber capabilities — so much that many in defence circles liken it to a new Manhattan project — it is a startling admission. “The US has the most capable [cyber] offence in the world and it has zero deterrence value,” says James Lewis, senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and project director of the Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency.考虑到美国用于提高网络能力的开数额巨大——以至于防务领域的许多人将其类比成新的曼哈顿工程,上述表态是一种令人震惊的认可。美国战略与国际研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)高级研究员、美国第44任总统网络安全委员会(Commission on Cybersecurity)项目主任詹姆斯刘易斯(James Lewis)表示:“美国拥有全球最强大的(网络)攻击能力,其威慑价值却为零。”“This is where the debate is moving: some people are now saying ‘maybe we need to retaliate. Maybe we need to do something back’,” says Mr Lewis. “This is a very quiet debate — it’s not very public at all, but these are the kind of discussions the [Pentagon] is having right now.”刘易斯表示:“这场辩论目前的进展是:部分人表示‘也许我们必须报复,也许我们必须还击’。这是一场非常安静的辩论,根本就没怎么公开化。不过,这正是(五角大楼)目前正在开展的那种讨论。”“For years a lot of us have been repeating the line from Dr Strangelove that it doesn’t do anybody any good to be building a Doomsday machine if you don’t tell anyone about it.”“多年来,我们中的许多人一直在重复《奇爱士》(Dr. Strangelove)里那句台词:如果你建造一台末日机器(Doomsday machine)而不告诉任何人,那对所有人都毫无益处。”The Russian device, in Stanley Kubrick’s satirical film masterpiece, is supposed to prevent nuclear war by acting as a perfect deterrent: it will automatically retaliate after a US strike. It fails because its existence is kept secret from Washington. With the exception of Stuxnet, a suspected US/Israeli cyber attack on Iran’s nuclear capability, aggressive western cyber activity has been limited.在斯坦利錠布里克(Stanley Kubrick)这部讽刺电影名作中,那台俄罗斯设备本来是打算作为一种完美的威慑,起到阻止核战争的作用:该设备会在美国袭击后自动采取报复行动。然而,由于它的存在性对华盛顿保密,它并未起到这种作用。相比之下,除了Stuxnet蠕虫病毒这个例外——这种传说中美国与以色列对伊朗核设施发动的网络攻击——西方攻击性的网络活动始终是有限的。The need for a clearer offensive posture is in part gaining popularity as many western governments come to terms with the limits of their defensive efforts to date — and the cost of boosting them further.当众多西方国家政府认识到迄今他们在防务措施上的局限性、以及加强网络防护的成本之后,采取更明确进攻态势的必要性在一定程度上受到了人们的欢迎。In the US, for example, just 45 per cent of government departments are covered by the National Security Agency’s “Einstein 3” security net, which automatically blocks known malware based on the US’s huge trove of malware signatures.比如,美国只有45%的政府部门受到了美国国家安全局(NSA)“爱因斯坦3号”(Einstein 3)安全网络的保护。这种网络能够根据美国收藏的海量恶意软件签名,自动屏蔽已知的恶意软件。To boot, national security vulnerabilities extend well beyond the traditional departments of government. And efforts to encourage greater private sector cyber defence have been mixed.此外,国家级安全漏洞的存在范围,大大超出了传统的政府部门。而鼓励私营部门加强网络安全防护措施的努力,也始终效果不一。In the UK, for example, where intelligence and security services have blazed a trail in fostering greater co-operation with the private sector, there are still big shortcomings. One senior British cyber security official recounts having to inform a FTSE 100 business three times over the course of as many weeks about a serious breach in their systems. Eventually he gave up. “It could ruin them,” he says, “but sometimes I think that a bit of a Darwinian lesson is needed. They’re on their own now.”以英国为例,该国的情报和安全务机构已经打造了一条通道,以便加强与私营部门的合作。然而,整个系统依然存在巨大短板。一位资深英国网络安全官员详细讲述了他与一家富时100(FTSE 100)成分股企业打交道的过程。他曾不得不在多周内三次就系统中的一个严重漏洞通知这家企业,最终却不得不放弃这么做。他说:“这个漏洞可能会毁了它们。但是,有时候我感到来点达尔文式的教训是必要的。如今,他们要自己承担相应后果了。”Even as organisations’ cyber walls get higher, attackers’ ladders are getting longer and their tunnels deeper.就算是机构的网络安全围墙修得更高,攻击者的云梯也在加长,他们打的地道也在加深。“The increasing sophistication of malware tools, the deep pockets of states using them and the proliferation of organised criminal gangs in this sector make it increasingly difficult to grasp just how serious the issues are,” says Stuart Poole-Robb, a former military intelligence official and now chief executive of the business intelligence group KCS.原军事情报官员、现担任企业情报集团KCS首席执行官的斯图亚特渠尔-罗布(Stuart Poole-Robb)表示:“恶意软件工具越来越复杂,使用这些工具的政府财力雄厚以及有组织犯罪团伙在该领域的扩散,这让人们越来越难以明白这个问题有多么严重。”In 2014, the average so-called “advanced persistent threat” attack lasted 205 days before being detected, according to the digital security vendor FireEye. The countries most targeted in 2015 were the US, South Korea, Japan, Canada, the UK and Germany. And few in western cyber defence circles have any hesitation in identifying the principal culprits: Russia and China, with Iran fast catching up.数字安全供应商FireEye的数据显示,2014年,所谓的“高级持续性威胁”普通攻击在被发现前持续了205天。2015年最容易遭受攻击的国家是美国、韩国、日本、加拿大、英国和德国。西方网络防务圈的人们几乎毫不犹豫就能指出罪魁祸首:俄罗斯和中国,伊朗也在迅速赶上。“I would say it’s pretty brazen really. We are being hit by the Russians more or less every day,” says one Nato military cyber defence specialist.北约(Nato)一位军事网络防务专家表示:“我得说,这真的相当无耻。我们每天多多少少都会遭到俄罗斯人的攻击。”Others are even more explicit. “We are talking about the largest loss of IP [intellectual property] in the history of the world with China,” says a senior US intelligence official.其他人甚至讲得更为直白。一位美国高级情报官员表示:“我们正在与中国谈论世界历史上规模前所未有的知识产权损失。”“People say that it’s not war unless territory is lost or things like that. But what you’ve got is certain actors who are very willing to exploit our dependency on the web to achieve their political objectives,” says Ewan Lawson, senior fellow at the UK’s Royal ed Services Institute and former cyber warfare officer of the UK’s Joint Forces Command.曾担任英国联合部队司令部网络战争军官、现任英国皇家联合军种研究院(Royal ed Services Institute)高级研究员的尤安劳森(Ewan Lawson)表示:“人们说,如果不是领土沦丧或者诸如此类的事情,那就不是战争。但你得到的是,某些参与者非常愿意利用我们对网络的依赖来实现他们的政治目的。”“We could turn the lights off anywhere we wanted to,” says a senior British official with close knowledge of the UK’s offensive capabilities. “But we’re not about to. Part of the problem is in working out what the effects of that would be. And how an adversary would respond. Nobody wants an actual war.”一位极为了解英国防务能力的英国高级官员表示:“我们可以随心所欲地关灯,但我们不会这么做。问题的一部分在于弄清楚这样做的后果将是什么。对手将会如何应对。没有人想要真正的战争。”The problem is perhaps the extent to which western governments have been slow to realise the extent the cyber domain has changed the notion of warfare itself. Russia’s current military doctrine, for example, envisages future conflicts in which war is never truly declared: instead aggression moves along a sliding scale.问题或许是,西方各国政府过于迟缓地认识到,网络领域极大地改变了战争本身的概念。例如,俄罗斯当前的军事学说设想,在未来的冲突中永远不会真正宣战,相反,攻击规模会越来越小。Russia’s aggressive actions in cyber space are all carefully designed to fall short of warranting any kind of serious military or aggressive response.俄罗斯在网络世界中的攻击行为全都是精心设计的,不会引起任何类型的重大军事或攻击回应。One of Moscow’s new favoured tactics is to arm crime syndicates with sophisticated hacking tools and malware and subcontract them to undertake operations against adversaries or to mount so-called “false flag” attacks to muddy the water around attribution, says a senior US military cyber command officer.美国网络司令部的一位高级军官表示,莫斯科新近青睐的战术之一是,为犯罪集团提供复杂的黑客工具和恶意软件,并让他们打击对手或者发起所谓的“伪旗”攻击,故意混淆攻击的源头。“The Russians and the Chinese and the Iranians are deliberately looking to avoid the tripwires in the current international system,” says Mr Lewis. “After the cold war the west defined a game of international security where oddly enough we would tend to win. Well, these guys are playing a different game altogether now.刘易斯表示:“俄罗斯人、中国人和伊朗人刻意寻求绕开当前国际体系中的防护措施。在冷战结束后,西方定义了国际安全游戏——非常古怪的是,我们往往会赢得这场游戏。哦,这些家伙现在在玩一个完全不同的游戏。”“We’re lining up on the football field. And they are outside the stadium.”“我们在球场上列队,而他们在球馆外面。” /201508/389960

History is filled with great, enduring love stories, from Napoleon and Josephine to Prince Edward and Wallis Simpson.Here are some of history’s most consequential trysts:历史上写满了精,隽永的爱情故事。从拿破仑与约瑟芬的故事到爱德华王子与华里丝-辛普森的故事。下面这些故事都曾对历史进程产生重大影响:1. Mary Godwin amp; Percy Bysshe Shelley 戈德温-玛丽与珀西-比希-雪莱One of the great unions of literary history began in 1814, when the 16-year-old Mary Godwin and the dreamy, but very married, 21-year-old romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley met in secret at the grave of Mary’s famous suffragette mother, Mary Wollstonecraft. There, as Mary later recounted, the two touched each other with the “full ardour of love,” an ardor that would eventually leave the aspiring writer pregnant and Shelley estranged from his wife。这段恋情堪称文学史最伟大的结合之一:故事始于1814年,16岁的玛丽-戈德温与那位耽于幻想、却已然成婚的21岁浪漫主义诗人雪莱在玛丽母亲的墓前秘密相会了。玛丽的母亲玛丽-沃斯通克拉夫特是当时著名的妇女参政权论者。在那里,据玛丽之后回忆,两个“怀着满心爱恋”的人儿有了肌肤之亲。这份爱恋最终让这位有抱负的女作家怀了,而雪莱与妻子的关系日益疏远。The 了Fallout: The lovers were married a few years later after Shelley’s pregnant wife drowned herself in Hyde Park, but their tumultuous partnership ended when the poet drowned a few years later. Still, it would produce some literary masterpieces, including Mary’s classic Frankenstein, which she conceived while on holiday in Switzerland with Shelley and Lord Byron in 1816.结局:雪莱的妻子怀着身在海德公园投水自尽。数年之后,雪莱和玛丽这对情人结婚了。可是,这段多舛的爱情故事最终的结局却是——几年后,诗人溺死水中。不过,这段爱情还是启发他们创作了许多文学佳作,比如玛丽的《弗兰克斯坦》,她构思这篇小说的时间正是1816年,她与雪莱、拜伦伯爵在瑞典度假的时候。2. Catherine the Great amp; Grigory Potemkin 叶卡捷琳娜女皇与格里高利-波将军Every great empress needs a counselor, military strategist, soul mate and boy toy, or, in the case of Grigory Potemkin, one man capable of wearing all of those hats. Catherine the Great first encountered the dashing Potemkin when the young commander (10 years her junior) helped the 33-year-old overthrow her disappointing husband, Czar Peter III,in 1762.每位伟大的女皇都会需要一名顾问,一位军事谋士,一个灵魂伴侣,加上一个男宠。而格里高利-波将军一人担当了这所有的角色。1762年他们第一次相遇了——当时33岁的皇后在这位勇猛的将领(比她年轻10岁)的帮助下,颠覆了她那位不成气候的皇夫,沙皇彼得三世。The Fallout: The coupling produced a powerful political alliance for decades. Yet even as Potemkin’s role at court expanded, he grew more marginalized in Catherine’s bedroom, increasingly relegated to the third wheel of a ménage à trois or consigned to the role of pimp, acquiring younger male specimens for one of the most powerful women in history。结局:这对佳偶在数十年间组成了一对强势的政治联盟。可是,随着波将军在政坛上势力的扩张,他在叶卡捷琳娜女皇卧室里的地位却越来越被边缘化,越来越变成“三角家庭(ménage à trois)里的第三者,甚至被委任为拉皮条者,为这位历史上最有权力的女人搜集更年轻的男子。3. Charles Dickens amp; Nelly Ternan 查尔斯-狄更斯与娜莉-特南Even literary giants are not immune to the midlife crisis. By 1857, the 45-year-old Victorian novelist was at the height of his powers, a literary superstar — who was also married with nine children and living, by all appearances, a virtuous family life. Then he began an adulterous affair with Ellen “Nelly” Ternan, a gifted young actress in his employ who was just a year older than his 17-year-old daughter。即使是文学巨擘也无可避免的会感染上中年危机症。在1857年,那位45岁维多利亚时代的伟大小说家成为了文学界的超级巨星,正处于事业的巅峰时期——已婚,有9个子女,过着父慈子孝的幸福生活,至少从表面上看是如此。这时,他却与一位受雇于自己的年轻女演员开始了一段婚外情,这位颇具天赋的年轻女演员名叫艾伦·“娜莉”-特南,比他17岁的女儿仅年长一岁。The Fallout: The affair proved the best and worst of times for the writer. Dickens’s marriage fell apart, but his 13-year relationship with Nelly continued until his death, though his tireless (and successful) efforts to keep his double life a secret may have hastened his demise. Nelly is believed to have inspired the dark secrets characteristic of his later novels and several of their characters, including Estella in Great Expectations。结局:这段恋情最终成为作家一生中“最好的时代,同时也是最糟糕的时代”(《双城记》)。尽管狄更斯不遗余力的为自己的婚外情生活保守秘密(并且成功做到了),但最终他的婚姻崩塌了,不过他与娜莉的爱情关系却持续了13年,直至他去世。人们相信,狄更斯后期作品中黑暗神秘的风格特征正是诗人受到娜莉影响的结果,同时娜莉还启发狄更斯创造了许多文学形象,包括《远大前程》中的伊思黛拉。4. Henry VIII amp; Anne Boleyn 亨利八氏与安-波琳This historic pairing, portrayed in countless films, books and television shows, has long captured the public imagination, though the precise details of the courtship remain fuzzy。这对具有历史影响的佳偶曾在电影、书籍和电视剧中被无数次描绘,长久吸引着世人的想象,可是,他们关系的真实细节却一直扑朔迷离。The Fallout: Henry’s attempt to legitimize his marriage to Anne would famously lead to England’s break from the Roman Catholic Church, while Anne’s brief stint as Henry’s second queen would lead to the birth of the future Elizabeth I and Anne’s ultimate beheading。结局:亨利力图使自己与安的婚姻合法化,众所周知,正因为此才导致了英国与罗马天主教教廷的决裂。而正因有了安作为亨利第二任皇后的短暂生涯,才有了后来伊丽莎白女王一世的诞生,也才有了安最终的被送上断头台的命运。5. Elizabeth Taylor amp; Richard Burton 伊莉莎白-泰勒与理查德-波顿It seems fitting that the famous Hollywood duo met while playing another famously doomed couple in Cleopatra (1963). Both Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton were married to others at the time but the attraction was epic and a ferocious affair ensued。这对人儿是在饰演电影《克里奥佩特拉》(1963)中另一对(和他俩一样)命中注定的恋人时相遇的,这似乎再合适不过了。当时伊丽莎白-泰勒和理查德-波顿都已经结婚,可是他们却被彼此吸引,由此展开一段史诗般的、热烈的恋情。The Fallout: The couple’s 10-year “marriage of the century” became the closest thing to reality television in the 1960s, a constant magnet for gossip and hordes of paparazzi. They would divorce in 1974, remarry the following year and divorce again shortly after that。结局:这对恋人维系了十年的“世纪婚姻”成为了20世纪60年代最贴近真人秀的爱情故事,它像磁铁一样不断吸引着流言蜚语和无数的八卦新闻。他们在1974年离婚,又在一年之后复婚,但不久又再次分开了。 /201508/393319

The traditional path onto Wall Street for women typically involves getting your degree from a top-20 university and then landing a position within an analyst program at a prestigious firm like JPMorgan JPM 0.17% , Citi C 0.61% , Bank of America BAC -0.36% , Goldman Sachs GS -0.41% , or Morgan Stanley MS -0.33% , all of which actively recruit women graduates. There, you would spend the required “two years” determining where you fit within the company and how to pursue your career. However, while this remains a coveted and valid path to success, it isn’t the only one.对于女性来说,进驻华尔街的传统路径包括,就读美国排名前20的高校,然后在根大通、花旗、美国、高盛或根士丹利等知名公司获得一份分析员工作,所有这些公司都在积极地招聘女性毕业生。在那里,人们可以在公司要求的“两年期”内决定自己契合的部门以及职业路径规划。不过,尽管这仍是一条令人梦寐以求的通往成功的康庄大道,但并非唯一的路径。If you’re working towards a career on Wall Street don’t limit yourself to an analyst program – this isn’t the only door of opportunity. There are many other areas on Wall Street where your skills and talents will be equally as valued.如果你准备在华尔街谋职,请勿将自己局限于分析员职位,这并非唯一的机会之门。华尔街还有许多其他领域同样珍视你的技能和才干。So, where should you look then?那么,其他的选择都是什么?For starters, don’t think of Wall Street as just the sell side. There’s a whole world out there that is buying what the sell side is offering in fact, at a number of funds, jobs on the buy side can be more lucrative than analyst positions. But even adding only the buy side to your perspective is still too narrow. Many parts of Wall Street would not exist without the exchanges and IT aspects, which from my personal experience are both extremely interesting and rewarding areas to work. As a matter of fact, Nasdaq would not be where it is today if not for some of the great women who have held managerial and leadership roles in various areas within the company.对于新人来说,不要把华尔街看做是唯一的卖方。事实上,在一买一卖的闭环中,购买卖方产品的公司多如牛毛。在一些基金公司中,买方的工作比分析员职位更赚钱。但是,仅把目光放在买方公司仍然过于狭隘。如果没有交易所和IT业务,很多华尔街公司都无法存在。从我的经验来看,这些领域都有一些非常有意思而且能让人获益匪浅的工作。事实上,纳斯达克有今天的成绩,多亏了在公司各个部门担任管理和领导职务的一些伟大女性。Entry-level jobs are excellent opportunites to educate young women about the realities of the financial world, and can prepare them for the next move up within the firm or another area of the financial industry. And I can assure you that exchanges and financial technology firms are fast-paced, dynamic organizations that often sit at the center of the financial fabric of our economy. Additionally, industry oversight organizations, such as FINRA and the SEC, are also critical components of the financial ecosystem and present relevant opportunities for women. It’s important to experience as many parts of an organization as you can – because some day, you may have the chance to lead that organization.入门级别的工作是年轻女性认识金融界的绝佳机遇,而且能够让她们为今后在公司或金融行业其他领域的晋升做好准备。可以肯定的是,交易所和金融技术公司都是快节奏、充满活力的公司,通常位于经济金融构架的核心。此外,像美国金融业监管局和美国券交易委员会这样的行业监管机构也是金融生态系统的关键组成机构,也为女性提供相关机遇。尽可能多地去体验一个组织不同环节的工作至关重要,因为未来有一天,你可能有机会来领导整个组织。Regardless of how or where you enter Wall Street use your inherent skills and strengths to succeed. One of many strengths that I often see in successful women on Wall Street is a responsible balance between risk taking and risk mitigation – the ability to assess situations smartly and make the right medium-to-long-term decisions without being lured into reckless, short-term profit-taking. Particularly in the wake of the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, the ability to achieve this balance was highly prized and much sought after.不管你是如何进入华尔街的,运用你的内在技能和优势来获得成功。在华尔街成功女性所具有的众多优点当中,我经常看到的一个优点便是对风险进行认真负责的权衡,她们合理判断形势并做出正确的中长期决策,而不是盲目地追求短期利益。尤其是在2007-2008年金融危机过后,实现这一平衡的能力被高度珍视,而且供不应求。As you start your journey into the world of Wall Street, assume nothing, question everything, and open your eyes to all possible opportunities. Frankly, this advice will help you succeed on Wall Street or anywhere else.随着你开始华尔街的征程,对任何事不要先入为主,但保持怀疑精神,睁大双眼探求所有可能的机遇。坦白地说,这一建议将有助于你在华尔街或其他任何地方获得成功。 /201503/364317

Hewlett-Packard is spinning off its Chinese server business into a joint venture with Tsinghua university, as US hardware makers come under pressure in China.就在美国硬件制造商在华面临种种压力之际,惠普(HP)将其在华务器业务剥离,与清华大学(Tsinghua University)成立了一家合资企业。The Silicon Valley technology group said it would sell a majority stake in the Chinese unit for about .3bn, valuing it at .5bn net of cash and debt.这家硅谷高科技集团表示,将以大约23亿美元的价格,出售在这家在华业务部门持有的多数股股权。以这一价格计算,惠普在华业务部门的估值为45亿美元。The new company will be called HC3 and also include technology assets from the prestigious Chinese research university.新公司将被命名为新华三(H3C),其旗下资产还将包括清华大学这家著名中国研究型大学注入的高科技资产。Meg Whitman, HP’s chief executive who is in the middle of splitting the company in two, said it was a “bold move to win in today’s China”.惠普首席执行官梅格#8226;惠特曼(Meg Whitman)表示,此举是“为在今日中国赢得胜利而采取的大胆举措”。这位首席执行官正在将惠普公司分拆为两家公司。In a statement released ahead of the company’s earnings report, due after the markets close in New York, she said: “The combined company will build upon an extensive and valuable patent portfolio, best-in-class products and customer focus, and Tsinghua’s world-class research capability.”惠普定于在纽约股市收盘后发布财报。在财报前发布的一份声明中,惠特曼表示:“合并后公司所仰仗的基础,将包括丰富而极有价值的专利组合、对产品和客户第一流的关注、以及清华大学的世界级研究能力。”The move comes after US technology companies have faced questions in China about potential links to US spying, after revelations by Edward Snowden purported to show the US National Security Agency tampering with hardware exports.就在惠普最新交易之前,美国高科技企业在中国面临重重质疑,即它们或与美国间谍活动有关联。在此之前,据报道,爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)的爆料曾显示美国国家安全局(NSA)对硬件设备出口的干预活动。HC3 will be the largest player in networking in China and a leader in servers, storage and technology services, HP said. It will have .1bn in annual revenue, adjusted operating profit of 0m and 8,000 employees. The management for the new company has yet to be appointed and the deal is expected to close near the end of 2015.惠普表示,新华三将成为中国网络互连领域的最大商家,并成为务器、存储器及技术务领域的业界龙头。该公司将拥有8000名员工,年收入将达31亿美元,调整后的运营利润为4亿美元。新企业的管理层目前尚未任命,该交易预计将在今年年底时达成。 /201505/376517

文章编辑: 泡泡门户