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2019年10月17日 05:51:10来源:88专家

  • The living wage最低生活工资Wage flaws工资缺陷Sense and nonsense about minimum wages最低工资的意义何在What unites Ed Miliband, the Labour leader; Boris Johnson, London’s Tory mayor; and Barclays Bank? All are keen on the “living wage”, the hourly rate needed to pay for the items people reckon they need for an acceptable standard of living. On November 5th researchers paid by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation uprated it to 7.45 pounds (.90). A separate calculation by GLA Economics, a research unit that advises Mr Johnson’s government, put the living wage in London at £8.55. Mr Miliband suggests naming and shaming those who pay less. Business folk warn darkly about the cost in lost jobs. Who is right?是什么将工党领袖埃德·米利班德,纽约的保守市长鲍里斯·约翰逊以及巴克莱联系在一起呢?他们都对“最低工资”极感兴趣,每小时的工资应该足以付人们认为的在一个合适的生活水平下应该拥有的东西。在11月5日,Joseph Rowntree基金会的调查者发现每小时工资提高到7.45英镑(约为11.90美元)。约翰逊政府的咨询机构——GLA经济研究协会做了一项独立的计算,得出伦敦的最低工资是7.45英镑。米利班德对那些小气的雇主冷嘲热讽,而商界人士则严肃警告说,员工失业对公司也会造成损失。孰对孰错?A mandatory national minimum adult hourly wage of 3.60 pounds was introduced in April 1999, and has been regularly uprated since. In October it rose to 6.19 pounds. The wage floor seems not to have cost jobs. A 2010 paper by researchers at the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics found the long-run effect was either negligible or positive (ie, jobs increased). That finding is echoed in studies of minimum wages in America.在1999年4月,强制实行成年人小时工资不低于3.6英镑的标准,到目前为止此项标准不断提高。到了10月就增加到每小时6.19英镑。薪资水平似乎还没导致失业。2010年,伦敦经济学院中心的一篇论文研究经济发现(最低工资)这一研究与美国的最低工资研究遥相呼应(即就业增加)。而这项研究在美国最低工资水平的研究中一直持续着。Such results might seem puzzling. If the price of something is forced upwards, demand for it should fall. Why might this not be the case for low-paid workers? The answer is that firms find other ways to absorb higher wage costs. The simplest is to raise prices. Fast-food restaurants in New Jersey did so when the state’s minimum wage was raised in 1992, according to a landmark study by David Card and Alan Krueger of Princeton University. Firms may also skimp on non-wage benefits, trim the number of hours worked by low-paid staff, or cut other costs. Even the best-run firms can find savings when pushed.这样的结果可能会令人费解。如果东西的价格被迫上升,那么他的需求将会下降。这样的情况难道不会难道不会出现在那些低工资者的身上么?是,公司将会寻找其他方式来减少高额的工资成本。最简单的就是提高价格。根据David Card和普林斯顿大学的Alan Krueger的一项里程碑式的研究显示,新泽西的快餐店在1992年国家的提出最低工资标准的时候就是这样做的。公司也可以克扣非工资福利,削减低薪工作人员工作时数以及其他的减少成本方式。运行得最好的公司甚至可以在强制的情况下找到解决的方式。They may even find benefits. Turnover of low-paid staff often falls in places where minimum wages go up, reducing hiring costs. Higher wages might also make workers more productive. The theory of “efficiency wages” says that well-paying firms can induce staff to work harder by improving morale or by making it costlier for them to risk being sacked. The well-heeled firms that have signed up to the living wage report a better standard of work. Bosses in less cosy workplaces know this, too. A study of prostitution in Chicago found that pimps paid above-market wages to retain the best street workers.他们甚至在其中有利可图。当最低工资上调时,低薪员工流通率也会同时上涨,这样将可以降低雇佣成本。而高工资也可能使得工人更有效率。“绩效工资”理论认为:高薪公司或可以激发员工士气,或使员工冒解雇之风险而投机牺牲代价变的更高,从而促使员工更努力工作。据报告显示,收入不错的企业都规规矩矩地执行最低工资标准,其工作质量都处于较高水平。而工作环境不怎么舒适的公司的老板都知道这一点。芝加哥的一项研究发现,老鸨们付高于市场的薪水来留住最好的街头工作者。These are comforting arguments for those who think firms should be cajoled into paying the living wage. They apply only up to a point. Efficiency-wage theory was devised to explain high unemployment. Wage floors in America are low by European standards. Britain’s minimum wage is carefully set to avoid demolishing jobs. When it was introduced it affected fewer than 2 million workers. But the national living wage is 20% higher, the London rate almost 40% higher. If applied to all those currently in work, they would raise the pay of around 5m employees. It is hard to believe that would have no effect on jobs.对 那些认为公司应该被连哄带骗地付最低生活工资来说,这些都是令人欣慰的参数。但是他们只用到了一个方面。效率工资理论被用来解释高失业率。美国的最低工资标准低于欧洲水平。英国的最低工资的设置是十分谨慎的,以防带来失业,受影响的人数应控制在200万之内。但是全国最低生活工资高出(实际水平 的)20%,伦敦率更是高出近40%。如果推广到所有的行业,约有500万人将会提高最低工资。那么,很难相信这对就业没有任何影响。Indeed, large cuts in real wages help explain why the jobs market has hummed along in an otherwise sluggish economy. Employment growth has been stronger in low-paid industries—in shops, hotels, bars, office services and so on—than in higher-paid work. The law firms, banks and accountants who have embraced the living wage can afford it, as they employ few low-paid workers.事实上,实际工资大削减有助于解释为什么就业市场在萧条的经济中仍高歌猛进。例如像商店、酒店、酒吧、办公务,如此等等低收入行业往往比报酬更高的的工作的就业率要高。律师事务所、和会计等行业可以承受起最低工资标准,因此他们很少雇佣那些低薪劳动者。A living wage implies a wage level that keeps up with prices, at least in part. But British workers have had to settle for a lower standard of living in recent years, because of a weaker pound, the rising cost of oil across the world and higher taxes. As a result, surprisingly few have lost their jobs. Brits, it seems, much prefer the hardship of low wages to the misery of no wages.一个最低生活工资至少要与部分物价水平保持一致。然而,由于英镑疲软,世界范围内石油价格上升以及税收提高,英国工人最近几年不得不过着水平相对较低的生活。但是,令人惊讶的是,很少有人失去了工作。与没有工资相对比,收入低一点对英国人来说没什么关系。 翻译:周颖译文属译生译世 /201608/461378。
  • The Beatles Yesterday is widely considered one of the most iconic songs of all time.On the track, you can hear Paul McCartney playing his famed Epiphone Texan.For nearly four decades, the Epiphone has sported a Red Wings decal, all thanks to Mike Kudzia of Clinton Township.Kudzia tells us he was just swinging by Olympia Stadium the night of the Wings concert in 1976 to pick up a paycheck when his coworkers invited him to stay for the rest of the show.;It was a great show, I was really enjoying it,; he says. And then he was struck with an idea.;Here was a band thats called Paul McCartney and Wings, and hes at the stadium of the Red Wings … So I thought the two kind of went together and I thought it would be kind of nice to present him with a Red Wings sticker to put on his guitar.;Using the knowledge he gained as an employee of the stadium, Kudzia worked his way backstage where he found McCartney.After he presented the sticker, Kudzia says McCartney ;looked dumbfounded at me.;;He had a blank look on his face, like, why would we do something like that?; he says.Kudzia tells us he didnt find out that McCartney actually did end up using the sticker until 2011, when a Facebook friend went to the artists concert and posted a picture showing the guitar.;For a moment I was like, in a shock,; Kudzia says. ;I had to go back 40 years in my memory to remember that night that I actually did it.;He did some digging online and soon discovered that a sort of urban legend had sprung up concerning where McCartney got the sticker.;I realized, Im the only guy that really knows how he got it,; he says. ;It was kind of funny to me, thinking that, yes, here I gave it to him and he had that blank look on his face … and then he actually did do it.;201510/405306。
  • He didnt mind! - No.So Jeremy Renner You present with Jeremy, he got so much flack for what he said,他一点都不在意 -没错 杰瑞米·雷纳 你和杰瑞米一起上台颁奖 他说的话引起了不少议论He said something about your ;Golden Globes;.Yeah, I know, I said I have the nails.他提到了你的;一对金球; 对 我知道 我说我有指甲Cause he was supposed to open the envelope,and I said ;you want to open the envelope?;因为本来应该是他开信封的 所以我说;你想打开信封吗;He goes ;no, you open it.; and I said ;yeah, I have the nail;他说;不 你开吧; 然后我说;好吧 我有指甲;So I opened it with my nails, and then he said,然后我用指甲划开信封 然后他说;Yeah, you have the Globes;Meaning my... - Globes.;没错 你有球; 指的是我的 -一对球And so I thought that was funny. - It was.我觉得还蛮搞笑的 -是挺搞笑的I was gotta to be little bit warm cause I was embarrassed,我还因为尴尬觉得有点热Butt of the joke, or the boob of the joke.But, um, yeah, its funny.玩笑不是关于屁股就是关于胸 但是 呃 对 还蛮搞笑的I didnt think he should get flack for that No, he shouldnt. - Yeah我想他不应该因为这个被别人指责 对 不应该 -没错I think those are the things that happen at the Globes.我觉得这样的事只会发生在金球奖中that dont happen at the Oscars.Funny? Right? - You should be able to be in the moment.奥斯卡就不会有这样的事 很有趣 对吧 -你应该能享受每一刻Its a loose setting there. Anyway,And now you were with your co-Star in the new movie,不管怎么说整个氛围都很轻松 你现在正在拍一部新电影Ryan Guzman?Ryan Guzman, yeah.Alright, he is a good-looking guy. - He is very cute.Yeah, have you seen this guy?和瑞安·古兹曼一起对吧 瑞安·古兹曼 对 他是个帅气的小伙 -他蛮帅的 对 你们见过他吗 /201511/412608。
  • In its latest twice-yearly global assessment, the OECD warned that the world economy is “stuckin a low-growth trap”. The organisation said monetary policy alone could no longer be relied on to deliver growth and governments should be using the fiscal tools at their disposal, such as increases in investment spending, to stimulate demand. It also pointed to several downside risks to global growth, the most immediate of which would be if Britain votes to leave the European Union in a referendum on June 23rd.经济合作与发展组织(经合组织)(OECD)日前发布最新的全球评估,警示人们世界经济“正处于低增长的泥潭”。该组织称,仅凭货币政策已不足以挽救经济增长,政府应在所能控制的范围之内使用财政工具来刺激消费需求,例如增加投资出。该组织还指出了几处不利于全球发展的风险,其中,如果英国6月23日公投决定退出欧盟,将对全球发展造成最直接的影响。该评估每年进行两次。The OECD forecast that Brazils economy will shrink by 4.3% this year. Official data this week showed that the countrys GDP contracted by 5.4% in the first quarter compared with the same period last year. Although bad, many economists were expecting the figure to be much worse.经合组织预计巴西经济今年将下降4.3%。本周公布的官方数据显示,巴西今年第一季度的国民生产总值(GDP)同比下降5.4%。尽管已足够糟糕,很多经济学家预测巴西的国民生产总值将进一步降低。Shinzo Abe, Japans prime minister, delayed a controversial rise in the countrys sales tax until 2019. The increase, from 8% to 10%, was supposed to take place next April, having aly been postponed once. An initial rise in the tax in 2014 was widely blamed for throwing Japan into recession.日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)把消费税的上调时间从明年四月推迟至2019年,而这个备受争议的上调已被推迟过一次。此前,日本政府在2014年首次上调消费税,该上调曾引起各界的谴责,被看做是日本经济衰退的原因。本次上调将把税率从8%调至10%。Indias economy grew by 7.9% in the first three months of the year compared with the same quarter in 2015. For the fiscal year ending March 31st GDP rose by 7.6%, the fastest pace in five years. The government was quick to take the credit, pointing to its pro-business reforms. But Indias impressive figures came with the usual warnings about their reliability. Other indicators, such as weak private investment and exports, suggest the economic picture is more mixed.印度经济今年一季度同比增长7.9%。在今年3月31日结束的财政年里,印度国民生产总值增长7.6%,是近五年来增速最快的一年。印度政府迅速揽过功劳,并将经济增长归因于利于商业发展的改革。但同往常一样,印度的这些可观数据同时也包含有警示,即经济的迅速增长可能存在不稳定性,而其他诸如小型私人投资和出口等指标也表明,印度的经济情况具有复杂性。Consumer spending in America grew by1% in April compared with March, the biggest increase in nearly seven years. The data will be taken as more evidence that the economy is racing ahead by those who want the Federal Reserve to lift interest rates again this month.同三月份相比,美国四月份消费者开增长1%,这是近7年来最大幅的增长。对那些希望美联储(Federal Reserve)于本月再次提高利率的人来说,这一数据进一步明了美国经济正领跑全球。Martin Senn, who stepped down as chief executive of Zurich Insurance in December, committed suicide at his holiday home in Klosters. Three years ago the companys finance director also took his own life, prompting soul-searching about the stresses faced by busy executives. An independent investigation into that incident concluded that the insurers leadership was not putting undue pressure on management.马丁·塞恩(Martin Senn)在其位于克洛斯特斯(Klosters)的度假住宅里自杀身亡。他曾于去年十二月辞掉其在苏黎世保险(Zurich Insurance)的首席执行官一职。三年前,该公司首席财务官的自杀曾引起人们深思高管所承受的压力,而这些高管往往公务繁忙。一项针对该事件的独立调查显示,保险公司的领导阶层并没有向管理人员过度施压。 译文属译生译世201606/448693。
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