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2019年07月23日 00:34:57 | 作者:康泰分类 | 来源:新华社
Two stem-cell researchers have won this year#39;s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their groundbreaking work in cellular reprogramming, a technique that unleashed a wave of advances in biology, from cloning to the possible treatment of diseases using a patient#39;s own cells.两位干细胞研究者因其在细胞重新编程方面的开创型工作,获得了今年诺贝尔生理或医学奖。细胞重新编程技术引发了一轮生物学进步浪潮,其中包括克隆以及有可能使用病人自身细胞来治愈疾病。Experiments by John B. Gurdon of the ed Kingdom and Shinya Yamanaka of Japan showed that mature cells taken from the body could be changed to an embryonic-like state in a laboratory dish, a head-spinning discovery that is the biological equivalent of turning back time.英国人格登(John B. Gurdon)和日本人山中伸弥(Shinya Yamanaka)的试验表明,取自人体的成熟细胞可在实验室培养皿中转变为类似胚胎状态的细胞。这是一项令人震惊的发现,在生物学上相当于将时光倒转。Their work #39;has changed the accepted dogma#39; that mature cells are condemned to exist in a specialized state, said Martin Evans, a British stem-cell pioneer who shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for medicine, in an interview.英国干细胞研究先驱、曾于2007年分享诺贝尔医学奖的埃文斯(Martin Evans)在接受采访时说,他们的工作改变了人们认为的成熟细胞只能存活于特定状态下的固有看法。Cellular reprogramming triggered the rewriting of biology textbooks and spawned thousands of new experiments in labs around the world. It led to the first cloned animal-a frog-and to the first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep. It also paved the way for deriving embryonic-like stem cells without destroying human embryos, sidestepping an ethically contentious approach.细胞重新编程引发了生物教科书的改写,在世界各地的试验室里催生了成千上万项新试验。这项技术带来了世界上首只克隆动物──青蛙,进而又出现了首只克隆哺乳动物──绵羊多莉。此外,该技术还为在不破坏人类胚胎的情况下获取类胚胎干细胞铺平了道路,从而避免采用具有伦理争议的干细胞提取方法。Once cellular reprogramming is used to turn mature cells into embryonic-like ones, those cells can be further manipulated and turned into heart, nerve, muscle and virtually all other tissues types. This freshly made tissue-from an Alzheimer#39;s patient, for example-could be inexpensively grown and studied in a lab dish.一旦细胞重新编程被用于将成熟细胞转变为类胚胎细胞,这些细胞就可以被进一步培养成心脏、神经、肌肉等几乎一切组织细胞。例如,从患阿尔茨海默病的人身上新获取的组织可在试验室经培养和研究,且花费不多。Drug firms have aly started to test drugs on human tissue made through reprogramming. Next year, fresh retinal cells derived in this way will be transplanted into people for the first time, in a Japanese trial for patients with an eye disease known as macular degeneration.制药企业已开始对通过重新编程获得的人体组织进行药物试验。明年,用这种方法获得的新生视网膜细胞将首次被移入人体,在日本对患有黄斑病变眼疾的病人进行临床试验治疗。Scientists used to believe the fate of our cells was a one-way trip. We start as a fertilized egg; become an embryo consisting of immature, undifferentiated cells; then gradually develop into a body of specialist cells, including blood, bone, muscle and skin.科学家过去认为,细胞的生长是不可逆的。我们始于一个受精卵,然后成为由不成熟、未分化的细胞组成的胚胎,再逐渐发育为由专门细胞构成的个体,包括血液、骨骼、肌肉和皮肤。In 1962, Dr. Gurdon, while trying to understand how simple, undifferentiated cells became all the other cells in the body, performed an audacious experiment. He removed the DNA from a frog egg and replaced it with the DNA of a mature cell taken from a tadpole. The egg developed into a healthy, cloned tadpole. (The same approach would be used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996.)1962年,格登还在努力了解未分化的简单细胞是如何变成人体内所有其它细胞的,那时他就做了一项大胆的试验。格登从一枚青蛙卵子中移除DNA,再将从蝌蚪身上提取的成熟细胞的DNA放入这枚卵子内,后来该卵子发育成一只健康的克隆蝌蚪。(1996年克隆羊多莉的诞生也是用的这种方法。)The frog experiment was an effort to answer #39;a pure scientific question about how we came to be formed. There was no foreseeable therapeutic benefit,#39; said Dr. Gurdon in an interview. Now 79, Dr. Gurdon is a professor at the Gurdon Institute, part of Cambridge University.格登接受采访时说,那个青蛙试验其实是在努力回答有关我们是如何形成的纯科学问题,当时并没有可预见的治疗益处。如今,79岁的格登是英国剑桥大学(Cambridge University)格登学院(Gurdon Institute)的一名教授。Dr. Yamanaka, 50, was born in the year Dr. Gurdon did his frog experiment. Dr. Yamanaka would eventually ponder a related question: Could the Gurdon reprogramming trick be done without using eggs-which, in human cases, can be hard to come by?山中伸弥今年50岁,他出生的那年格登正在做青蛙试验,而他也终将思考一个相关问题:格登的重新编程技术能否在不用卵子的情况下完成?具体到人类试验上,这一点很难做到。Dr. Yamanaka had the answer a few years later. He demonstrated that by adding just four genes to a mature cell, he could turn it into an embryonic-like state. He first achieved this with mouse cells, and in 2007 he reported the same result for human cells. He transformed those cells, in turn, into heart, nerve and other human tissue in a lab.山中伸弥在几年后得到了。他向世人明,只需将四个基因引入一个成熟细胞,就可将该细胞转变为类胚胎状态。他首先用老鼠细胞成功做到这一点,然后在2007年又宣布用人类细胞成功完成了这一转变。他将那些细胞在试验室里依次培养为了心脏、神经和其它人类组织细胞。#39;Without [Dr. Gurdon#39;s] work we would never have started this risky project 12 years ago,#39; said Dr. Yamanaka, who is a professor at Kyoto University and affiliated with the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, in an interview.山中伸弥在接受采访时说,没有格登的工作,我们永远不会在12年前着手这项有风险的项目。山中伸弥是日本京都大学(Kyoto University)教授兼美国旧金山格莱斯顿研究院(Gladstone Institutes)高级研究员。 /201210/203212

China#39;s official news agency says the government has tightened controls on Internet users by enacting rules requiring them to register their real names.中国官方通讯社报道,政府通过要求网民实名注册加强了对互联网用户的控制。The state Xinhua news agency said lawmakers approved the measures Friday at the closing meeting of a five-day session of the Standing Committee of the National People#39;s Congress.官方的新华社说,历时五天的全国人大常委会在星期五的闭幕会议上通过了这项措施。Beijing says the regulation is aimed at protecting the personal information of Web users and cracking down on abuses such as junk e-mail.中国官方说,这项规定是为了加强保护网络用户的个人信息,并打击垃圾邮件等滥用行为。However real-name registration will also curtail people#39;s ability to report, often anonymously, corruption and official abuses.然而,实名登记制还将限制人们在网上举报官员腐败和滥用职权,这些举报通常是匿名进行的。Many Internet users in China have turned to so-called virtual private networks (VPNs) to gain access to websites that are otherwise blocked by China#39;s Internet censorship, but Duncan Clark, a Beijing-based consultant who is also a senior adviser to Stanford University#39;s Graduate School of Business, tells VOA#39;s Victor Beattie Chinese authorities are limiting access to those, too, and that could hurt business:中国境内很多网络用户使用“虚拟个人网络”(VPN)登陆被中国审查人员封锁的网站。不过,在北京的咨询商、同时担任斯坦福大学商学研究生院做高级顾问的邓肯·克拉克对美国之音记者贝蒂说,中国当局也在限制人们获取VPN的途径,这可能会伤害到公司企业。;On the one hand we have a lot of multi-national companies who depend on, and that includes Chinese multi-nationals who are trying to go global, who depend on access to sites outside and secure ways of exchanging data. But also we have a number of small to medium size enterprises who use cloud computing or things like Google Drive to access say you know shared accounting or invoicing software, and once that#39;s blocked, of course people have been shifting to these VPNs, but if the VPNs aren#39;t working, then you#39;re out of luck.;克拉克说:“一方面,我们有很多跨国公司,包括那些想要走向全球的中国跨国公司,它们必须能够登陆境外网站并以安全方式交换数据。可是,我们还有一些中小型企业,它们利用计算机云技术或者谷歌的Google Drive这样的途径来获取财务共享或者账单共享等软件。而一旦这条途径被封,人们就转向这些VPN,而如果VPN也不灵了,那你就倒霉了。”Beijing promotes Internet use for business and education but bans material deemed subversive and blocks many Web sites.北京推动商务或教育性的互联网使用,但禁止被视为具有颠覆性的内容,并封锁了许多网站。 /201212/217543

Here#39;s what Apple told investors about its business Tuesday: Margins, revenues, and profits in the next quarter all will be worse than investors had expected. Here#39;s what Apple didn#39;t address Wednesday: Specific plans for any new product categories or personnel moves, either among its long-serving management team or to fill at least one long-vacant hole. The stock rallied in after-hours trading.本周二,苹果(Apple)这样告诉投资者:下个季度的利润率、收入和净利润都会低于投资者此前的预期。苹果没有谈到的是:没有任何关于新的产品品类或人事变动的具体计划,既没有对长期务的管理团队进行调整,也没有填补什么长期空缺职位。随后,苹果股价在盘后交易中反弹。Oh yeah, one more thing: Apple (AAPL) said it will dramatically increase its dividend, its share buybacks, and, for the first time, that it will borrow significant amounts of money to fuel this return of capital to shareholders. Apple actually bragged on its earnings call with investors that it will be one of the biggest payers of dividends in the world. Think: Insanely great … dividends·哦,对了,还有一件事:苹果宣布将大幅增加派息和股票回购,还将首次借入相当的资金来提高股东的资本回报率。事实上,苹果在这次面向投资者的业绩电话会议上甚至夸口,苹果将成为全球派息最高的公司之一。想想:超高……派息?There#39;s more. Tim Cook, the man with the most unenviable task in the history of business, that of following Steve Jobs, said Apple planned to release ;great; new products in the ;fall and throughout 2014,; and, eventually, new categories. The fall· If true, meaning that if Apple#39;s big meeting with developers in June is a ho-hum event from a new-product perspective, then Apple will have gone a year without new product introductions.还有,从史蒂夫·乔布斯手中接过苹果公司CEO一职、怎么干都吃力不讨好的蒂姆·库克还宣布,苹果计划在“今秋和2014年”推出“非常出色”的新产品,并最终推出新的产品品类。今年秋天?如果是这样,那么6月份的苹果开发人员大会从新产品角度而言将毫无亮点,苹果将经历没有新产品推出的一年。New products at Apple is the only thing that matters. Margins are eroding because new products cannibalize older products. The success of the iPad Mini is a financial penalty for Apple: It#39;s a less profitable product than its bigger cousin. But that is beside the point. Apple said a significant number of iPad Mini buyers are first-time iPad buyers, and this is what is important, adding new Apple customers to its lists of people to market the next great products -- whatever their configuration. Remember, Apple has done this before. iPod Shuffle customers spent less than they did on iPods. They also had to have an iPhone when it came out.新产品对于苹果是唯一真正重要的东西。利润率也在下降,因为新产品侵占了老产品的市场和消费者。iPad Mini的成功对于苹果的财务是一项灾难:iPad Mini的利润率低于比它大一号的iPad。但这只是一方面。苹果称,相当一部分的iPad Mini买家是首次购入iPad产品,这很重要,因为它为苹果带来了新客户,所有现有客户都会是下一款杰出产品的目标客户——不管新产品是啥样。记得吗,苹果早就这么干过,当初iPod Shuffle用户就比iPod用户的花费要低。但iPhone出现后,他们都得要一台。In some ways, Apple sounds delusional when it talks about itself. Asked, as he has been many times before, for his take on the trend to pack bigger screens into smartphones, Tim Cook said he thinks Apple#39;s iPhone 5 has the best screen in existence and that big screens aren#39;t for everyone. He#39;ll keep saying that until Apple offers a phone with a bigger screen. And we#39;ll see how that sounds when we witness customer reactions to the new Samsung Galaxy S4, a product whose media blitz has just begun.在某种程度上,苹果说起自己的时候有些妄自尊大。问起他对智能手机屏幕越来越大这个趋势怎么看时(这个问题他显然已经被问到过很多次了),蒂姆·库克表示,他认为苹果iPhone 5的显示屏是现有产品中最好的,大屏幕并不适合所有人。估计在苹果能够提供一款大屏手机之前,他会一直这么说。我们会关注随着消费者对三星(Samsung)新款Galaxy S4手机的反应变化,他的言辞有何变化。围绕Galaxy S4手机的诸多报道才刚刚见诸媒体。In other ways, Apple shows that it is very much in tune with reality. Cook knows keeping 5 billion lying around is too much. So he#39;ll give more back to shareholders. He knows that with interest rates as low as they are it makes no sense for a company with Apple#39;s balance sheet not to borrow money and share the benefits with shareholders. So he#39;s taking on debt -- Steve Jobs#39;s aversion to the stuff be damned.其他方面,苹果的自我表述与现实相当吻合。库克知道持有1,450亿美元现金实在是太多了。因此,他打算增加对股东的回馈。他知道,在当前利率这么低的情况下,像苹果这样优质的资产负债表,不贷款,不把利润与股东分享,是没有意义的。因此,他准备举债——这可是史蒂夫·乔布斯最不愿做的事了。The world stops and listens when Apple talks. The problem is that Apple doesn#39;t always have something to say, and Tuesday was one of those days. It would be foolish to assume Apple isn#39;t ever going to have anything to say again. But the pressure certainly is building.一旦苹果开口,世界都会停下来倾听。问题是苹果不是总有东西可以讲,周二就是这样。当然,不能假定苹果将来也不会有什么可讲。改变的压力显然正在不断加大。 /201304/237141

US police must obtain a warrant to search a suspect’s smartphone after the Supreme Court ruled on Wednesday that constitutional privacy protections apply to the often extensive data people keep on the devices in their pockets.美国最高法院(US Supreme Court)周三裁定,那些装在人们口袋里的设备上存储的大量数据也适用宪法隐私保护条款。今后,美国警方必须取得授权才能搜查嫌疑人的智能手机。In a unanimous ruling praised by privacy campaigners, the court decided that searching a smartphone was more like downloading the contents of a computer than leafing through someone’s address book.该法院一致做出的这一裁决得到了隐私保护人士的赞扬。在这一裁决中,美国最高法院认定,对智能手机的搜查更像是从电脑上下载内容,而不是翻翻某人的电话本。The fourth amendment bans “unreasonable searches and seizures” but police are usually allowed to search the personal belongings a suspect is carrying. Lower courts had been divided on whether to ban searches of smartphones without a warrant.美国宪法第四修正案禁止“无理搜查和扣押”,不过通常美国警方搜查嫌犯携带的个人物品是允许的。而对于是否应禁止在无授权情况下搜查智能手机中的内容,美国下级法院始终存在分歧。Chief Justice John Roberts said the “immense storage capacity” of smartphones made them different from anything else a suspect is holding.首席法官约翰#8226;罗伯茨(John Roberts)表示,智能手机的“巨大存储量”令其有别于嫌犯携带的其他任何物品。“Modern cell phones are not just another technological convenience. With all they contain and all they may reveal, they hold for many Americans ‘the privacies of life’,” he wrote. “The fact that technology now allows an individual to carry such information in his hand does not make the information any less worthy of the protection for which the Founders fought.”他写道:“当代手机并不仅仅是又一种技术上的便利工具。以所存储和可能泄露的内容而言,对许多美国人来说,它们就是‘生活隐私’的载体。如今,科技的发展令个人可以将这类信息带在手中,但这并不代表这些信息的保护价值有任何减少——这种保护正是我们的建国者曾为之奋斗过的。”The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy rights campaign group, described the ruling as “groundbreaking”. Hanni Fakhoury, staff attorney, said: “This should have implications for other forms of government electronic searches and surveillance, tightening the rules for police behaviour and preserving our privacy rights in our increasingly digital world.”该案源于两起警方搜查电话的事件。在“赖利诉加利福尼亚州案”(Riley v California)中,警方在一个智能手机上发现了能够明嫌疑人有罪的照片及其他信息,这些内容能将嫌疑人与一起击案联系起来,州法院表示这么做是合法的。然而波士顿发生的另一个案件却得出了相反的结论,在该案中嫌疑人普通功能电话(不是智能电话)上的一个通话记录被用来推断他的居住地。该案中的这一据被联邦上诉法庭排除。The Constitutional Accountability Center, which like the EFF filed a brief in the case, said it was a good day for the “Bill of Rights”. Doug Kendall, CAC president, said searching cell phones without a warrant was “even more intrusive” than “similar searches of colonial-era homes, which the Founders fought against in the Revolutionary War”.美国最高法院驳回了加州一案中的判决。The case originated from two incidents where police searched phones. In Riley v California, police found incriminating photos and other information on a smartphone connecting a suspect to a shooting, which state courts said was legal. But another case in Boston reached the opposite conclusion, where a call on a suspect’s feature phone (not as advanced as a smartphone) was used to discover where he lived. The evidence in that case was thrown out by a federal appeals court.罗伯茨表示,这一裁决对于执法机构打击犯罪的能力可能会有影响。他写道:“手机已成为犯罪团伙成员协调和沟通的重要辅助工具,能够提供极有价值的危险罪行定罪信息。但保护隐私还是要付出代价的。” /201406/308361

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