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郴州好的男科医院郴州北湖区看泌尿科怎么样Science and technology科学技术Birds magnetic sense鸟类的磁性感知能力Columbarian Columbuses禽类新发现Birds can navigate by the Earths magnetic field. How they do it is still a mystery鸟类能够利用地球磁场导航。机理尚不明确WHERE would people be without magnetic compasses?人类没有指南针会怎样?The short answer is: lost.很简单:迷失方向。By giving human beings a sixth sense—an ability to detect the hitherto invisible magnetic field of the Earth—the compass proved one of the most important inventions ever.指南针给了人类第6感,使人能辨别地球无形的磁场,成为最重要的发明之一。It let sailors navigate without sight of the night sky.海员不用观察夜空便可以辨识方向。And that led to the voyages of discovery, trade and conquest which created the political geography of the modern world.人们用它进行海上探索,海上交易,攻城掠地,进而开创了现代世界的政治版图。Imagine, then, what animals which had their own, built-in compasses could achieve.有些动物有自己内嵌的指南系统。可以想象得出这些动物的能力。They might spend their summers doing the English Season in Glyndebourne or Henley, and then overwinter in the warmth of Mombasa.它们可以在戈林德伯恩或亨利镇消暑,享受自己的英格兰夏日。然后在温暖的蒙巴萨岛过冬。They might strike out, like intrepid pioneers, from Angola to Anchorage.它们可以像无畏的开拓者一样,从安哥拉独闯安克雷奇。They might even, if truly gripped by wanderlust and a hatred of the darkness, live in near-perpetual daylight by migrating from Pole to Pole.假如它们为旅行所牵绊,为黑暗而烦恼,它们会穿梭于两极之间,过着永远有光亮的生活。And that is just what some birds do.以上这些只是鸟类能力的一部分。Swallows travel between Europe and Africa. Northern wheatears fly from Africa to Alaska, and back.家燕在欧洲和非洲之间迁徙。石栖鸟在非洲和阿拉斯加之间迁徙。Arctic terns each year make the journey from one end of the planet to the other.每年,北极燕鸥都会从地球的一端飞到另一端。And they can do it, at least in part, because they do have a magnetic sense denied to humans.它们能这么做的原因之一便是鸟类可以感知磁性,而人类不行。The most familiar avian navigation trick is that pulled off by homing pigeons.人类最为熟知的鸟类导航技巧就是通过研究信鸽而得到的。As a consequence pigeons have often found themselves at the sharp end of investigations about how bird navigation in general, and magnetic sense in particular, actually work.鸽子便处在了人类研究的尖端。人们用它研究鸟类整体的导航机能,用它特别研究磁性感应机制。That pigeons have such a sense was shown more than 40 years ago, by William Keeton of Cornell University, in upstate New York, who attached magnets to pigeons to see if they could still home.鸽子显示出此种能力是在40年前。当时,纽约州北部康乃尔大学的William Keeton把磁体系在鸽子身上,观察它们是否能够回家。They could not, though birds fitted with non-magnetic dummies managed perfectly well.结果是它们不能,但是那些带有仿磁体的鸽子却回家。Since then, experiments on other species have shown magnetic sensitivity is common among birds. What these experiments have not shown, however, is how the birds manage it.此后的实验表明,磁性感知能力是鸟类共有的,但并没有解释是如何操作的。See it? Hear it? Smell it?视觉?听觉?嗅觉?There are two theories.理论上的说法有两种。One is that the magnetic sensors are grains of magnetite, a form of iron oxide which, as its name suggests, is easily magnetised.一种是鸽子具有磁感应器,这是一种以氧化铁形式存在的磁铁矿粒子。顾名思义,这种物质极易磁化。The other is that the Earths magnetic field affects a particular chemical reaction in the retina in a way that reaches into the arcane depths of quantum mechanics.另一种说法认为,地球磁场能对视网膜里特定的化学反映产生影响,在某种程序上可以达到神秘量子力学的深度。The magnetite hypothesis concentrates on birds beaks.磁铁矿假说的焦点是鸟类的喙。Magnetite grains are common in living things, and are known to be involved in magnetic sensing in bacteria. In birds they are particularly abundant in the beak.磁铁矿粒子是生物共有的,广泛存在于鸟的喙中。So last year David Keays of the Institute of Molecular Pathology, in Vienna, dissected the beaks of nearly 200 unfortunate pigeons, to find out more.去年,维也纳分子病理学研究所的David Keays对将近200只鸽子进行了解剖,以期得到更多发现。What he discovered was not encouraging.但是,他发现的并不令人鼓舞。There were, indeed, lots of magnetite grains.大量铁磁矿粒子确实存在。But he had expected they would congregate in some sort of specialised sensory cell akin to the taste buds of the tongue or the hair cells of the ear.他原以为铁磁矿粒子会聚集成为专门的感觉细胞,类似于舌头上的味蕾和内耳毛细胞。Instead, he found that the beaks magnetite is mostly in macrophages.但是,他发现,喙部的铁磁矿主要以巨噬细胞的形式存在,These are cells whose job is to wander around amoeba-like, chewing up bacteria and debris from other body cells as they go.这些细胞的职能是以游离细胞的形式对细胞残片及病原体进行噬菌。Not, then, likely candidates as magnetic sensors.因此,巨噬细胞不可能具有磁感应功能。Other experiments, though, do suggest the beak is involved.其它的实验也包含了对喙的研究。The nerve that connects it to the brain is known as the trigeminal.联结喙与脑的神经叫三叉神经。When Dominik Heyers and Henrik Mouritsen of Oldenburg University, in Germany, cut the trigeminals of reed warblers the birds ability to detect which way was north remained intact.德国奥尔登堡大学的Dominik Heyers和Henrik Mouritsena切断了苇莺的三叉神经,保留了它们辨别北方的能力。They did, however, lose their sense of magnetic dip.然而,这些鸟却失掉了磁倾角的感应力。Dip indicates latitude, another important part of navigation.磁倾角可以指示纬度,是导航的重要组成部分。To confuse matters further, some people accept Dr Keayss interpretation of what is going on in the beak,Keays对鸟喙解释使情况更加复杂。但有些人还是接受了他的说法。but think that the relevant magnetite grains are elsewhere—in the hair cells of the ear, which are also rich in iron oxide.但是这些人认为鸟身体的其它部位也存在磁铁矿粒子—内耳毛细胞。氧化铁也富含这种粒子。If they are right, then from the birds point of view they are probably hearing the magnetic signal.假如这些人的假定正确,从鸟的角度来看,它们可能听得到磁信号。The main alternative to the nasal-magnetite hypothesis, though, is not that birds hear magnetic fields, but that they see them.鼻腔内存在磁铁矿的假说 并不是鸟类可以听到磁场,而是能看到磁场。One line of evidence for this is that part of a birds brain, called cluster N, which gets its input directly from the eyes, seems to be involved in magnetic sensing.关于此的明是,鸟大脑中有一部分叫cluster N,可以直接得到眼部输送的信息,好像跟磁场感应有联系。Experiments Dr Mouritsens team conducted on robins showed that destroying cluster N destroys a birds north-detecting sense, and other experiments, on meadow pipits, show that cells in cluster N are far more active when the birds are using their magnetic sense than when they are not.士Mouritsen研究团队对知更鸟进行了实验,得出推断。实验显示破坏知更鸟的cluster N,也就破坏了它们识别北方的能力。研究团队又对草地鹨进行了实验。实验显示,鸟类使用磁感应能力的时候,cluster N细胞异常活跃。The problem with this idea is that birds eyes do not have magnetite in them.此种假说的问题在于鸟类的眼部没有磁铁矿。If they do house magnetism detectors, those detectors must be something else.假如它们真的起到了磁探测器的作用,那么肯定另有他物。That something, according to a hypothesis advanced by Klaus Schulten, who works at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is a type of retinal protein called a cryptochrome.在伊利诺斯大学香槟分校工作。据Schulten,这种他物是一种名为cryptochrome的尿视黄醇蛋白。When hit by light, a cryptochrome produces pairs of molecules called free radicals that are electrically neutral but have unpaired electrons in them.当受到光照时,就产生名为自由基的分子对。这种自由基呈电中性,其中含有未配对电子。Electrons are tiny magnets, so they tend to attract each other and pair up in a way that neutralises their joint magnetic fields.电子就是微小的磁性体。因此,当它们的联合磁场中合之时,电子就会相互吸引,就会形成组对。Unpaired electrons, however, remain magnetic, and thus sensitive to the Earths field.但是,那些不成对电子仍具磁性,对地球磁场很敏感。Moreover, because the unpaired electrons in the free radicals were originally paired in the molecule that split to form the radicals, quantum mechanics dictates that these electrons remain entangled.因为自由基中的那些不成对电子最初存在于分裂成为自由基分子之中,量子力学规定这些电子依然是绞缠的。This means that however far apart they move, what happens to one affects the others behaviour.也就是说,无论双方离得有多远,一方的行为会影响另一方。Calculations suggest the different ways the two radicals feel the Earths field as they separate is enough to change the way they will react with other chemicals—including ones that trigger nerve impulses, and that, via entanglement, they can transmit this information to each other, and thus affect each others reactions.此种假设表明,当两种自由基分离时,它们感知地球磁场的相反作用足够能够改变它们与其它化学物质相互反应的方式――包括那些能产生神经脉冲的化学物质。同时,通过绞缠,它们彼此能互相信息,从而产生相互影响。This, the calculations indicate, would be enough for a birds brain to interpret the magnetic field.此种假设表明,这足可以让鸟脑识别磁场。It would probably see a pattern of spots before its eyes, which would remain stationary as it scanned its head from side to side.鸟眼可能会看到眼前有某种样式的斑点图案,当鸟类对其识别之时,眼睛是固定的。And some birds do, indeed, scan their heads this way when assessing the direction of magnetic north.其实,当鸟类辨别地磁北极之时,确实能够用此法扫描头部。It is possible, of course, that both hypotheses are right, and that birds have two magnetic senses, with one perhaps concentrated on north detection and the other on detecting dip.当然,两种假说都有正确的可能。鸟类也有可能有两套磁感应能力,一种集中在北方,另一种集中于磁倾角。But there is something particularly poetic about the idea that even part of this mysterious sixth sense depends on a still-more-mysterious quantum effect—one that Einstein himself described as spooky action at a distance.这种神秘的第六感觉依赖于更加神秘的量子力学效应。对此还有一种诗意般的解释,即爱因斯坦自己说的鬼魅般的超距作用。 /201310/262650湘南附属医院前列腺炎多少钱 Afghanistans election阿富汗选举A useful crisis有效的转折A fudge between two feuding presidential candidates may offer a political road map两个长期不和的总统候选人相互挤兑,这或许能提供一个政治路线图HOLDING a presidential election in Afghanistan only months before the withdrawal of Western combat forces was bound to be risky—even before one of the candidates, Abdullah Abdullah, reacted to preliminary results showing a suspiciously big lead for his opponent, Ashraf Ghani, by alleging “industrial-scale” fraud. The political crisis could have plunged the country into chaos and even war.于西方作战部队撤离前几个月在阿富汗举行总统选举注定是充满风险的。候选人之一的阿卜杜拉断言,对手阿什拉夫的持率远远领先于他是可疑的,是“工业”欺诈。这场政治危机可能会使该国经济陷入混乱甚至战争。Yet this dangerous moment could turn out to be oddly productive. Disaster has been averted thanks to the banging-together of heads by Americas secretary of state, John Kerry, and to the good sense of the presidential candidates, who stared into the abyss and retreated. Their deal points towards a political structure that should work better than the current one.然而,这一危险时刻可能会出奇地有效。由于美国国务卿约翰·克里的群策群力和陷入深渊和撤退时总统候选人们的理智,灾难得以避免。他们的策略指向更有效工作的政治结构。Come on, its Afghanistan来吧,这就是阿富汗In the first round of the election to replace Hamid Karzai as president, nearly 7m Afghans turned out to vote. But in the second, Dr Abdullah made no gain at all from the 45% of the vote he had secured in a crowded field; meanwhile, the share of his rival, Mr Ghani, leapt from 31% to 56%. Suspiciously, turnout increased by more than 1m votes. Mr Ghani has the backing of Mr Karzai, who stole the election from Dr Abdullah in . This time Dr Abdullahs backers threatened to establish a breakaway government. That might lead to civil war.在第一轮选举中,近700万阿富汗人持替换哈米德·卡尔扎伊总统。但在第二轮中,阿卜杜拉并没有在他有把握的45%领域中获得选票,与此同时,他的竞争对手阿什拉夫的持率从31%上升到56%。可疑的是,选票增加了100多万。卡尔扎伊是持阿什拉夫的,他在年的选举中从阿卜杜拉手中窃取了选举的胜利。这一次阿卜杜拉的持者们扬言要建立独立政府,这可能导致内战。Barack Obama called Dr Abdullah and threatened to stop all American military and financial aid. Dr Abdullah backed down. In return, America has promised a full, internationally supervised audit of every vote cast. The inauguration of a new president has been postponed from August 2nd to the end of the month. In truth it is not at all clear how much fraud an audit will pick up. But both candidates have promised to accept the result, and that matters more than the actual tally.巴拉克?奥巴马同阿卜杜拉联系,威胁称美国将停止所有军事和经济援助。阿卜杜拉做退缩了。作为回报,美国已承诺对投票过程进行完全的国际监督审查。新总统的就职典礼已从8月2日推迟到这个月底,事实上,还不清楚在审查过程中会发现多少舞弊行为。但两位候选人都承诺接受结果,这比实际数字更重要。As well as being a short-term fix, the deal holds out the promise of a solution to the structural problems of Afghanistans politics. Too much power resides in the office of the president. In 2004, when the constitution was ratified, extreme centralisation—for example, all provincial governors and police chiefs are appointed by the president—seemed the best way to hold the country together. Now it is pulling it apart. Political loyalties and social ties require local expression. But Mr Karzais ability to bypass institutions by forming his own network of patronage has stunted the development of Afghan democracy and done nothing to cut corruption. A bizarre voting system, crying out for reform, has prevented the formation of real political parties and resulted in a weak and fractious legislature.作为一个短期的解决方案,该协议同时提供了解决阿富汗政治结构性问题的方法。总统办公室拥有太多的权力。2004年宪法生效时,极度的中央集权—例如所有省长和警察局长由总统任命—似乎是将整个国家团结在一起的最好方式。现在,中央集权却使国家分裂了。政治忠诚和社会关系需要地域表达。但卡尔扎伊绕过机构形成自己的资助网络,阻碍阿富汗民主的发展并且未能削弱腐败。一个奇怪的迫切需要改革的投票系统,阻碍了真正的政党形成,并形成了脆弱又难以控制的立法机构。Under the deal brokered by Mr Kerry, there will be a government of national unity. The election-winner will be president, but the loser (or his nominee) will be “chief of the executive council”, a new position implying power-sharing. Then, after two years, there will be a loya jirga (a gathering of tribal elders, local power-brokers and elected officials) to approve constitutional changes that include the creation of the post of prime minister. He would rank below the president but have executive powers.根据克里的谈判交易,将会成立一个民族团结的政府。选举获胜者将成为总统,但失败者(或其指定人)将作为执行委员会的主席,,新职位意味着分权。两年之后,将会有一个尔格大会(部落长老们、地方政治掮客和民选官员们的聚会)来批准修改宪法,包括建立总理一职,该头衔低于总统但有行政权力。Such a structure would better reflect the reality of a country that is ethnically diverse, corrupt, Byzantine and more comfortable with give and take than a winner-takes-all politics. It might also offer a route out of violence for those Taliban who are not implacable ideologues but feel shut out by the present system. If Afghanistans leaders can make it work, they will be doing their country a huge service.这样的结构可以更好地反映一个国家的现状—多民族的、腐败的、拜占庭式的、更适合平等交换而不是赢者通吃的政治。它还可能给那些觉得被现有制度拒之门外的塔利班们一条远离暴力的道路。如果阿富汗领导人能使之生效,它们将会为这个国家做出巨大贡献。As so often happens in Afghanistan, everything could still go suddenly wrong. But Mr Kerry has helped ensure that a good crisis has not gone to waste.这种事情在阿富汗时有发生,一切都仍有可能突然失败。但克里确保了这个良好的转折点还没有被浪费。 /201407/314008郴州肾病医院

郴州泌尿医院哪家好资兴市中医院男科预约 Artificial intelligence and psychology人工智能和心理学The computer will see you now现在电脑能给你看病了A virtual shrink may sometimes be better than the real thing有时候,虚拟缩小版反而比实际事物更好ELLIE is a psychologist, and a damned good one at that. Smile in a certain way, and she knows precisely what your smile means. Develop a nervous tic or tension in an eye, and she instantly picks up on it. She listens to what you say, processes every word, works out the meaning of your pitch, your tone, your posture, everything. She is at the top of her game but, according to a new study, her greatest asset is that she is not human.Ellie是一名心理学家,而且长于此道。面带职业化微笑的她,清楚滴知道你每个笑容的含义。即便是简单的神经抽搐或者眼神紧张,她也能立刻注意到这个细节。她仔细聆听你的表达,分辨每一个字词,研究你每个音调、口音、手势等所有小动作的含义。最新研究认为,她处在行业顶端的最大优势在于,她不是人类。When faced with tough or potentially embarrassing questions, people often do not tell doctors what they need to hear. Yet the researchers behind Ellie, led by Jonathan Gratch at the Institute for Creative Technologies, in Los Angeles, suspected from their years of monitoring human interactions with computers that people might be more willing to talk if presented with an avatar. To test this idea, they put 239 people in front of Ellie to have a chat with her about their lives. Half were told they would be interacting with an artificially intelligent virtual human; the others were told that Ellie was a bit like a puppet, and was having her strings pulled remotely by a person.当面临艰难决定,或可能尴尬的问题的时候,人们一般并不会告诉医生他需要听到的内容。然而来自洛杉矶的创新技术研究所的研究人员,在Jonathan Gratch的领导下,根据多年使用电脑监控人际交流的结果,认为人们更愿意对着虚拟头像吐露真心。为测试这一想法,他们请了239人同Ellie当面交流他们的生活。其中一半被告知实情,即他们同人工智能在互动;同时误导另外一半,告诉他们Ellie就像是一个傀儡,被某个人远程操控。Designed to search for psychological problems, Ellie worked with each participant in the study in the same manner. She started every interview with rapport-building questions, such as, “Where are you from?” She followed these with more clinical ones, like, “How easy is it for you to get a good nights sleep?” She finished with questions intended to boost the participants mood, for instance, “What are you most proud of?” Throughout the experience she asked relevant follow-up questions—“Can you tell me more about that?” for example—while providing the appropriate nods and facial expressions.为研究心理问题而设计的Ellie以相同的方式同每个参与者互动。每次会谈她都以拉家常的问题开始,比如“你从哪儿来?”然后继以更医学性的问题,比如“你晚上睡眠质量如何?”最后她的问题会刺激参与者的情绪,比如“你最骄傲的事是什么?”在整个过程中,她会问到相关的后继问题,比如“能不能多聊聊这个?”同时还会适时地点头,做出恰当地面部表情。Lie on the couch, please请躺在沙发上During their time with Ellie, all participants had their faces scanned for signs of sadness, and were given a score ranging from zero to one.Also, three real, human psychologists, who were ignorant of the purpose of the study, analysed transcripts of the sessions, to rate how willingly the participants disclosed personal information.在同Ellie共处的时候,所有的参与者的面部都会被扫描,以寻找悲伤的特征,并评以0到10分。同时,三位真正的人类心理学家,在对此研究的目的一无所知的情况下,分析会谈的视频,并排出参与人员披露个人信息的意愿。These observers were asked to look at responses to sensitive and intimate questions, such as, “How close are you to your family?” and, “Tell me about the last time you felt really happy.” They rated the responses to these on a seven-point scale ranging from -3 to +3. All participants were also asked to fill out questionnaires intended to probe how they felt about the interview.这些观察人员要注意对敏感而亲密的问题的回答,比如“你同你家庭有多亲密?”和“告诉我你上次觉得真的高兴是什么时候。”他们根据七分制对这些回答进行排序,-3表明完全不愿意表露信息,+3表示非常愿意。所有的参与人员也要填写调查问卷,以说明他们对此次会谈的感觉。Dr Gratch and his colleagues report in Computers in Human Behaviour that, though everyone interacted with the same avatar, their experiences differed markedly based on what they believed they were dealing with. Those who thought Ellie was under the control of a human operator reported greater fear of disclosing personal information, and said they managed more carefully what they expressed during the session, than did those who believed they were simply interacting with a computer.Gratch士及其同事在《人类行为同电脑》上报道称,尽管每个人都与同一个头像进行互动,他们的体验却显著地取决于他们认为自己所交流的对象。同认为仅仅是同电脑互动的人相比,那些认为Ellie是在人类控制下的参与者更担心揭露个人信息,并认为在会谈期间,他们对表达的内容更细心在意。Crucially, the psychologists observing the subjects found that those who thought they were dealing with a human were indeed less forthcoming, averaging 0.56 compared with the other groups average score of 1.11. The first group also betrayed fewer signs of sadness, averaging 0.08 compared with the other groups 0.12 sadness score.重要的是,监测这一过程的心理学家发现,那些认为是在同人类交流的参与者,确实更内向。相比于另一组的1.11的平均值,他们的平均值仅为0.56。第一组同样泄露出了较少的悲伤特征,平均0.08,而另一组的悲伤得分为0.12。This quality of encouraging openness and honesty, Dr Gratch believes, will be of particular value in assessing the psychological problems of soldiers—a view shared by Americas Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency, which is helping to pay for the project.Gratch士认为,鼓励开放和诚实的质量将在评估军人的心理学问题过程中起到重要作用。这一观点得到了美国国防高级研究计划局的认同。后者同时也是此项目的赞助方。Soldiers place a premium on being tough, and many avoid seeing psychologists at all costs. That means conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, to which military men and women are particularly prone, often get dangerous before they are caught. Ellie could change things for the better by confidentially informing soldiers with PTSD that she feels they could be a risk to themselves and others, and advising them about how to seek treatment.军人对表现坚强尤其看重,而且许多人竭力避免去看心理医生。然而许多军人都很容易产生创伤后应激障碍的问题。这意味着在发现的时候,往往这一问题已经变得危险。Ellie能够改变这一现状,秘密通知她认为患有创伤后应激障碍的军人可能对患者自身及其他人构成威胁,并建议他们如何寻求治疗。If, that is, a cynical trooper can be persuaded that Ellie really isnt a human psychologist in disguise. Because if Ellie can pass for human, presumably a human can pass for Ellie.这一切的前提是,玩世不恭的兵哥哥要相信Ellie真的不是伪装了的人类心理学家。毕竟如果Ellie能够欺骗人类,那人类也能欺骗他。 /201408/321924郴州那里有做包皮手术

郴州治疗性传播疾病多少钱Cuba and the outside world古巴及世界Rekindling old friendships旧友重拾Cuba is once again resorting to geopolitics to support a failing economy古巴再次诉诸地缘政治,以撑其低迷经济CARLITO, a wiry man with greying hair, sits under a palm tree in Mariel, a town on a bay 40km west of Havana, sipping rum and watching a container ship edge out towards the Caribean. He recalls seeing a flotilla of smaller boats leaving from this same spot in 1980, carrying thousands of opponents of the Castro regime to Florida in the “Mariel boatlift”.Carito满脸疲倦,头发花白,静坐在马里埃尔镇的一棵棕榈树下,这一海湾小镇距离哈瓦那40千米,他抿一口朗姆酒,目送着一只载着集装箱的货船起锚驶向加勒比海,1980年的回忆袭上心头,当时一组略小的船只同样从这里起航,满载着成百上千的卡斯特罗政权的反对者,偷偷从马里埃尔驶向弗罗里达,Those were politically charged times. Government trucks would come to his school to deliver eggs for him and his friends to throw at the people fleeing. About a decade and a half later, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 plunged Cubas economy into crisis, sources of protein were so scarce that Carlito recalled those wasted eggs with bitter regret. Some “Marielitos”, as those who fled are known, returned recently and Carlito was stunned at how prosperous they had become. “We used to call them traidores (traitors),” he chuckles. “Now we call them traedolares (bring dollars).”当时政治斗争风生水起,政府的卡车会装载着鸡蛋来到他的学校,供他和他的朋友扔向那些逃亡的人群,但15年后,苏联解体,将古巴的经济一举推向危机的深渊,连蛋白质也成了珍稀产品,一想到当年浪费的那些鸡蛋,Carlito无不扼腕叹息。近来,一些当年逃走的所谓Marielitos的人重回古巴,他们的富有让Carlito大跌眼镜,他打趣儿的说,当年我们损他们为卖国贼,现在则称他们是生财佬。Across the bay from where Carlito sits is a 900m container port, which was built with Brazilian money and inaugurated in January. There are plans to develop a special economic zone alongside it, modelled on the thriving export hubs, such as Shenzhen, that China developed from 1980 onwards. The port is part of a vision for Cuba that relies less on Cuban-American gusanos (worms) sending remittances to prop up the local economy, and more on an inflow of foreign investors.穿过Carlito静坐的海湾,一个造价9亿美元的集装箱港跃入眼帘,该港口以巴西货币为经费,1月投入使用,计划是在其周边建设特别经济区,以一些蒸蒸日上的出口中心如深圳——1980年后中国腾飞的城市为模板,这一港口是古巴减轻对古巴裔美国人依赖计划的一部分,不完全指望他们为当地经济发展投入经费着力引进更多的外来投资。But Carlito is keeping his excitement in check. Construction workers building the container terminal were paid a mere 250 pesos a month, he says, so the ramshackle town has yet to benefit from the development. None of the 23 firms who have sought licences to operate in the special economic zone has yet been granted one. Even Joaquín Infante, the 88-year-old vice-president of the slow-moving National Association of Cuban Economists and Accountants, urges speedier authorisation of investment. “We need to be more flexible and take more risks,” he says.但Carlito并未喜出望外而是坐而观望,他说,建造集装箱港口的工人的月薪仅为250比索,这相对于扶持起一个摇摇欲坠的城镇来说无异于杯水车薪,尽管已经有23所公司申请了特别经济区的经营执照,但无一成功。即使是在步履蹒跚的古巴经济学家和会计师协会,88岁的副会长也要求对投资尽快审批,他说“我们应更加灵活机动,不畏风险。”Despite reforms that have brought some big changes to Cuba in the form of private restaurants, bed-and-breakfasts and new co-operatives, the economy has virtually ground to a halt. In the first half of the year GDP grew by just 0.6%, leading the government to reduce its estimate for full-year growth to 1.4%. That is lower than the 2.7% annual average figure since Raúl Castro (pictured on the right, with Vladimir Putin) became president in 2008.虽然改革带来了很大的机遇,古巴迎来了一些私人餐馆,住宿早餐包揽的旅馆和新的企业,但其经济发展停滞不前,今年上半年古巴的GDP增长仅为0.6%,这促使政府将全年增长预期调低至1.4%,这比卡斯特罗自2008年上任以来的年均数据2.7%还要低。Investment is the root of the problem. In a report in July, two Cuban economists, Omar Everleny and Ricardo Torres, estimated that the growth in Cubas capital stock, such as machinery and buildings, fell to 7.8% of GDP last year, close to its level of 5.4% in 1993 when the economy was in serious trouble. From the 20th floor of the Habana Libre, a run-down hotel, not one crane can be seen on the skyline. “The economy is screwed,” says a Havana-based diplomat.问题的根源在于投资,在7月的一则报告中,两名古巴经济学家奥马尔和里卡多预测诸如在机械和建筑领域的股本下跌至占GDP的7.8%,与1993年该国经济正处泥潭中的水平基本持平,从哈瓦那棚户区的一家旅馆的20层楼上观望,目光所及的天际之下,无一架起重机,哈瓦那的一名外交人员说,放眼国家经济,只让人眉头紧锁Supporters of the regime argue that the reforms simply need more time. A profit-oriented reorganisation of state-owned behemoths, such as the sugar monopoly, could be promising; it is just that the bureaucrats who run them are slow to change. Critics, however, see a fundamental flaw in the reform model. Although it has sought to give some people more freedom in what they make and sell, the state keeps a stranglehold on the inputs they need for those businesses, such as seeds for growing crops, or sauces and spices for restaurants, or spare parts for taxis. It has cracked down on “mules” bringing in such goods on passenger planes from abroad.政权的持者说,改革不过是需要更多的时间,以盈利为导向重组例如制糖垄断的国企大亨前景甚好,只是运营的官僚机构老牛破车,然而,批评人士认为,改革方略中存在根本性漏洞,虽说国家给予了人们制作和销售的更多的自由,但却严格限制做生意所需原料的进口,如粮食种子,餐馆的调味汁和香料或出租车的备件,他也严厉打击用客机从国外偷运这些商品的人。Diplomats say such counter-measures will make it harder for Cuba to attract the 2.5 billion in annual foreign investment that the regime aims for. Some also reckon the financial squeeze on the island has tightened this year in the wake of the case against BNP Paribas, a French bank, for evading American sanctions on doing business with Cuba, among other places.外交人员称在这些打击措施下,古巴更难实现年外资吸收达25亿美元的目标,一些人估计,对抗法国BNP Paribas事件使得今年的财政困难雪上加霜,该事件是为了躲避美国对其他地区实施的与古巴通商的制裁。That is why Cuba-watchers have paid close attention to the visits of Russias president, Vladimir Putin, and Chinas leader, Xi Jinping, in recent weeks. Though both men offered few concrete investments in Cuba, they provide an opportunity for the Castro regime to start reducing its dependence on its closest ally, Venezuela, whose pro-Cuba government has been rocked by instability this year. Says Mr Infante: “We have to diversify and not depend on just one partner.” He hopes that means more Chinese and Russian investment in Mariel.因此,持观望态度的投资者对近几周俄罗斯总统普京和中国国家主席习近平的来访甚为关注,虽说两人提供的实际投资不过寥寥,但这至少给卡斯特罗政权提供机会,减少对他亲密战友委内瑞拉的依赖程度,但该国持古巴的政权今年也在动荡中下台,infante说,我们应建立多元伙伴关系而不是依靠单独一个,他希望马里埃尔港能迎来更多来自中国和俄罗斯的投资。One envoy says the regime also prefers such investments to Western capital because it sees neither China nor Russia as a “Trojan horse” working towards regime change. A Cuban economist sees uncanny parallels with the special terms offered to the Soviet Union in the cold war. “The mentality of the decision-makers is to talk to Russia, talk to China, and make them offers based on politics,” he says. “But this is the same mentality we had in the past…and it didnt do much for productivity.”一位使者称该政权也希望能给西部首都带来同样的投资,因为他认为俄罗斯和中国的投资都不是“特洛伊木马”,企图推动政权更替,一位古巴的经济学家称在冷战期间针对苏联的措辞与此如出一辙,不可思议,他说;“决策者希望与俄罗斯和中国实现交流,使他们基于政治因素作出投资,但这不过是老调重弹,鲜有成效。”Cubas courtship of Russia is particularly striking: a day after Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 was shot down, Fidel Castro publicly blamed Ukraines government. Such an overtly pro-Russian stance on Ukraine may hinder political negotiations that started this year between Cuba and the EU, diplomats say. It also makes it harder for Barack Obama to improve Americas relations with Cuba, let alone consider an end to the counter-productive 54-year-old embargo. Back in Mariel, Carlito wants good relations with everyone, especially America. “Luckily we Cubans have a lot of patience and patience is good,” he says. “Without it theres just frustration.”古巴对俄罗斯的巴结尤其让人嗔目结舌,马航飞机MH17击落一天后,卡斯特罗便公开谴责乌克兰政府,外交人员说,它在乌克兰问题上公开持俄罗斯的立场可能会影响今年他与欧盟的政治对话,此外,奥巴马会更不情愿改善两国关系,更别提结束长达54年的禁运,虽说其效果是适得其反。卡斯特罗希望马里埃尔能与所有国家建立友好关系,尤其是美国,他说,幸运的是我们古巴人民锲而不舍,否则便只有槁木死灰。 /201408/320721 The People’s Bank of China lifted restrictions on commercial interest rates, leaving lenders free to set the price of credit for the first time. By removing the floor on rates, previously set at 70% of the central bank’s benchmark interest rate, officials hope to increase competition among banks and spur lending to private companies.中国人民全面放开贷款利率管制。首次允许金融机构自行设定贷款利率。取消金融机构贷款利率0.7倍下限,官方希望增加间的竞争力,刺激贷款流向私企。The EU’s controversial Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive came into force. The AIFMD, which will be phased in over a year, aims to change the way hedge funds, buy-out firms and other alternative-investment companies in Europe deal with risk, market their funds and pay staff. The industry fears that the new rules will serve mainly to raise costs to investors.欧盟富有争议的另类投资基金经理指令生效。此指令会在一年多的时间里逐渐施行,目的在于改变对冲基金,收购公司和其他另类投资公司在欧洲风险管理,规范自己基金以及员工工资的方式。欧洲金融业害怕新规则会增加投资者的花费。The Financial Stability Board, which co-ordinates financial regulation for the G20, named nine insurers, including Allianz, MetLife and Prudential, as “systemically important”. The designation, hitherto reserved for big banks, entails closer regulatory scrutiny and higher capital requirements. The insurers argue that lumping them with lenders is unfair because of their fundamentally different risk profiles.协调G20金融管理的金融稳定委员会指名包括安联,大都会人寿和保诚集团在内的9个保险公司具有系统重要性。这个称号,迄今为止只有有,现在则意味着监管更加严格,资金要求更高。保险公司辩解道,将他们同相提并论对他们不公平,因为他们本质上截然不同的风险形象。The G20 endorsed a roadmap drawn up by the OECD, a rich-country club, for reforming the current patchwork of cross-border tax rules and treaties. Its 15 proposals should make it harder for companies to exploit the existing system’s many loopholes.G20签署了一个经合组织规划的路线图,经合组织是一个富国俱乐部,该路线图是为了改革现有拼凑起来的边境税规则。该路线图的15项提议会使得公司钻现有制度的空子变得困难。America’s Securities and Exchange Commission charged Steven Cohen in a probe centred on his hedge fund, SAC Capital. The SEC did not accuse Mr Cohen directly of insider trading, but filed a civil suit against him for failing “reasonably to supervise” two underlings, who now await criminal trial for it. SAC vowed to fight the charge.美国券交易委员会控告赛科资本的Steven Cohen,并对其对冲基金展开调查。券交易委员会并没有直接起诉Mr Cohen内幕交易,而是因其没能有效监督两位即将面临牢狱之灾的下属而对其提起民事诉讼。赛克资本说要应对诉讼。A federal appeals court upheld a verdict reached last year by a jury in Texas to invalidate two patents covering some of the internet’s basic interactive features. This put an end to a protracted legal battle which pitted a clutch of big web firms, including Amazon and Google, against the patents’ owner, Eolas Technologies, which was seeking damages of at least 0m.联邦上诉法庭对去年德州一名法官对两个涉及互联网基础交互的专利侵权宣告无效的判决予以肯定。这宣告了陷入官司的包括亚马逊和谷歌在内的网络巨头们同原告,即专利的拥有者Eolas Technologies的纠纷结束。Eolas Technologies公司索要至少6亿美元的赔偿。Yahoo said it will buy back 40m shares, valued at .2 billion, from Third Point, a hedge fund headed by Daniel Loeb. Shares in the internet giant have almost doubled in value since the activist investor helped to boot out Scott Thompson and install Marissa Mayer as boss a year ago. Third Point will keep a stake of less than 2% in Yahoo, worth around 0m, but Mr Loeb and two directors he nominated will leave the board.雅虎宣告要从Daniel Loeb领导的对冲基金Third Point回购4000万股股票,价值12亿美元。自从一年前维权投资者帮着解雇掉Scott Thompson,任命Marissa Mayer当老板以来,雅虎这一网络巨头的股价已经翻了一番。Third Point将持有雅虎不到2%的股份,价值5亿美元左右,但是Mr Loeb和他任命的两个主管将离开董事会。Michael Dell and Silver Lake Partners, a private-equity firm, raised their offer for the computer-maker Mr Dell founded by 10 cents, to .75 a share. A vote by Dell shareholders on whether to accept the buy-out bid, currently valued at .4 billion, was postponed for the second time.迈克尔·戴尔和私募公司银湖资本向戴尔公司提出收购提案。该电脑公司由戴尔先生创立,股价从每股10分增加到了现在的每股13.75美元。戴尔股东关于此次收购的投票再次推迟,此次收购金额达244亿美元。Apple made a profit of .9 billion in the second quarter, down from .8 billion last year but higher than many analysts had expected, thanks to soaring demand for iPhones. The gadget-maker shifted 31.2m smartphones in the three months to June, 5.2m more than a year ago. Sales of its tablet computers, though, were disappointing: only 14.6m iPads were sold between April and June, down from 17m last year.苹果第二季度利润达69亿美元,与去年同期的88亿美元相比有所下降,但高于很多分析师的预期。这得归功于iphone的强烈需求。该公司四到六月智能手机的销售量为3120万,比去年多520万。然而,其平板电脑的销售量则令人失望,同期只卖出了1460万台,相比去年的1700万有所下降。EasyJet flew 16.4m passengers in the three months to June, up 2.6% on last year. The budget airline’s revenue grew by 10.5% in the second quarter, to £1.14 billion (.75 billion), as frugal consumers snapped up cheap holiday flights well in advance.易捷航空二季度运送旅客达1640万人次,与去年同期相比增加了2.6%。由于节俭的旅客提前抢订假期机票,其二季度应收增加了10.5%,达到了11.4亿英镑,也就是17.5亿美元.SAP announced that it will not replace Jim Hagemann Snabe, one of its two joint chief executives, when he moves to the supervisory board in May 2014. That will leave Bill McDermott, an American, alone at the helm of the German software giant.SAP公司宣布在Jim Hagemann Snabe于2014年五月调任到监事会后,将不会有人接任其首席执行官的职务。这意味着美国人Bill McDermott将会自己掌控德国软件巨头。Caterpillar’s second-quarter sales fell to .6 billion, from .3 billion a year earlier, and profits sank by 43%, to 0m. The world’s biggest maker of earth-moving equipment benefited from a decade of insatiable demand for diggers in places like China but feels the pinch as growth in emerging markets slows.卡特皮勒二季度销售额从去年同期的173亿美元下降到了今年的146亿,利润也减少了43%,只有9.6亿美元。这个世界上最大的土方挖掘机械公司在受益于像中国这种地方对挖掘机的猛烈需求之后感到了新兴市场增长的放缓。Bentley Motors announced that it would invest £800m (.2 billion) in its factory in Crewe. The high-end carmaker, based in Britain but owned by Germany’s Volkswagen, plans to expand the plant to build its first sport-utility vehicle, which it says will be the “most luxurious and most powerful”, and probably most expensive, in the world.宾利汽车宣布将在其克鲁郡的工厂增加8亿英镑(12亿美元)的投资。这个高端汽车生产商位于英国,但是隶属于德国的大众,计划扩建工厂开发第一款SUV,这会是世界上最奢华动力最强劲,可能也是最贵的汽车。Mark Carney, the Bank of England’s Canadian governor, picked Jane Austen, the inventor of chick lit, as the next face to appear on the back of new £10 notes.英格兰的加拿大主管Mark Carney选了小妞文学的创造者,简奥斯丁作为新的10英镑的背面图案。201308/251079郴州前列腺炎要花多少钱郴州市妇幼保健院医院男科专家挂号

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