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武汉华夏男科咨询黄冈有治疗前列腺炎吗Science and technology科学技术The Brain Activity Map绘制大脑活动地图Hard cell棘手的细胞An ambitious project to map the brain is in the works. Possibly too ambitious一个绘制大脑活动地图的宏伟计划正在准备当中,或许有些太宏伟了NEWS of what protagonists hope will be Americas next big science project continues to dribble out.有关其发起人心中下一个科学大工程的新闻报道层出不穷。A leak to the New York Times, published on February 17th, let the cat out of the bag, with a report that Barack Obamas administration is thinking of sponsoring what will be known as the Brain Activity Map.2月17日,《纽约时报》刊登的一位线人报告终于泄露了秘密,报告称奥巴马政府正在考虑赞助将被称为大脑活动地图的计划。And on March 7th several of those protagonists published a manifesto for the project in Science.3月7日,部分发起人在《科学》杂志上发表声明实了这一计划。The purpose of BAM is to change the scale at which the brain is understood.大脑活动地图计划的目标是改变人们在认知大脑时采用的度量方法。At the moment, neuroscience operates at two disconnected levels.眼下,神经学的研究处在两个断开的层次。The higher one, where the dimensions of features are measured in centimetres, has many techniques at its disposal, notably functional magnetic-resonance imaging, which measures changes in tissues fuel consumption.在相对宏观的层次当中各个特征的规模用厘米来衡量,有很多技术可以使用,尤其是用来测量组织中能量消耗变动情况的核磁共振成像技术。This lets researchers see which bits of the brain are active in particular tasks—as long as those tasks can be performed by a person lying down inside a scanner.该技术可使研究人员找出在完成具体的任务时,大脑的哪些部分处于活跃状态。At the other end of the scale, where features are measured in microns, lots of research has been done on how individual nerve cells work, how messages are sent from one to another, and how the connections between cells strengthen and weaken as memories are formed.而另一个度量的层次则要求用微米来测量各种特征,这一层次的研究很多都是关于单个神经细胞是如何工作的、信息在神经细胞之间是如何传递的以及当产生记忆的时候神经细胞之间的联系是如何得到加强和减弱的。Between these two, though, all is darkness.然而,位于这两个层次之间的研究还处于一片漆黑当中。It is like trying to navigate America with an atlas that shows the states, the big cities and the main highways, and has a few street maps of local neighbourhoods, but displays nothing in between.这就好比当你要在美国寻找自己的前进方向时,手里却只有一副如下的地图册:上面只显示各州轮廓、各都市的坐落点、干线公路以及一些社区街道,除此之外别无它物。BAM, if all goes well, will yield plans of entire towns and villages, and start to fill in the road network.如果大脑活动地图计划进展顺利的话,就能得到完整的城市和村落规划图,道路网也将完善。It will also, to push the analogy to breaking point, let a user look at actual traffic flows on the roads in question, and even manipulate the road signs, in order to understand how particular communities work.它还能使用户能够看到自己备选道路的实际交通情况,甚至还能通过操纵道路标志来了解具体地区是怎样运作的,将脑图、地图这一类比给打破。The mappers aim is to find out how nerve cells collaborate to process information.制图者的目标是找出神经细胞是如何共同处理信息的。That means looking at the connections between hundreds, thousands and even millions of adjacent cells—and doing so, crucially, while those cells are still alive, rather than after they have been sliced and diced for microscopic examination.这就意味着要研究成百上千甚至上百万的相邻细胞之间有何种关联,关键在于这一研究还要在这些细胞存活的时候进行,而不是把它们切片后放在显微镜下观察。This will require a new set of tools.要做到这一点就需要一套新的工具。And the guts of the BAM proposal are that the American taxpayer should provide those tools.大脑活动地图提案的大胆之处在于它认为美国纳税人应该出钱提供这些工具。It is thus no coincidence that the lead author of the paper, Paul Alivisatos, the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a materials scientist, not a neuroscientist.因此,由材料学家保罗?阿里维萨多而非神经学家来主笔该提案并非什么巧合。Dr Alivisatos and his ten colleagues would like their new tools to be able to record, simultaneously, the activity of millions of nerve cells.阿里维萨多士和他的10个同事希望他们的新工具能同时记录数百万神经细胞的活动情况;Then, having done the recording, they would like a second toolkit that lets them manipulate each cell at will, to see what effect that has on the rest of the circuit.做完记录后,他们还想要能自由操纵每个神经细胞的第二套工具,以便找出这样的操作对细胞周围有何影响;Finally, to handle the unprecedented amounts of data that the first and second steps will generate, they would like a new set of computing hardware and software.最后,为了处理前面两个步骤所产生的空前的海量数据,他们还想要一套新的计算机软硬件。A modest proposal, then.如此看来这提案还不算过分嘛,And one which is inducing polite scepticism from many neuroscientists who are not part of the charmed circle, and who fear their subject is about to be sacrificed to a juggernaut.但它却也引来了许多此小圈子外的神经学家客气的猜疑,他们担心实验被试会成为这一计划的牺牲品。Such scepticism is reasonable.这种怀疑是合乎情理的。The third part of the project, the computer side, should be doable.该计划的计算机部分是可行的,不论如何,这只不过是提高计算机的原有水平而已。That is just a question of pushing harder in a direction things are, in any case, going.但是前面两部分你要怎么完成呢?谁都不知道。How you would do the first two, though, is anybodys guess—and Dr Alivisatos and his colleagues are pretty sketchy about the details.而且阿里维萨多和其同事对相关细节也说得相当笼统。Thinking big, thinking small高瞻远瞩也要低头看路What ideas there are draw heavily on the nascent field of nanotechnology.现在能想到的办法主要就是利用纳米技术这一新领域,This is Dr Alivisatoss particular province, and also that of the Kavli Foundation, which exists to advance fundamental research in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience and theoretical physics.这是阿里维萨多的专攻领域,也是美国科威利基金会专门持的领域。该基金会的宗旨是推动天体物理学、纳米技术、神经学和理论物理学等领域的基础研究,A brain map would push two of those buttons, which accounts for the fact that five of the manifestos authors work for institutes sponsored by this foundation.一个大脑地图计划就会涉及到里面的两个领域,这也解释了《科学》杂志上的声明人中有五个在该基金赞助的机构工作这一事实。But any successes that nanotechnology has enjoyed so far have been small beer compared with the devices that would be needed to interrogate nerve cells, record the results and transmit them back to base, let alone tell those nerve cells what to do.但是,和审问神经细胞、记录审问结果并将审问结果传回大本营所需要的设备相比,目前纳米技术领域所取得一切成果都是些小把戏,就更别指望能用它来控制神经细胞的行为了。The protagonists would, they say, build up slowly, using humbler creatures than human beings as experimental subjects to start with.该计划的发起人说,他们会慢慢推进,首先使用比人类低级的生物作为实验对象。This was the approach taken by the Human Genome Project, which began with bacteria and yeast, progressed to worms, flies and mice, and only then tackled people.人类基因组工程当初便是采取的这一途径:一开始是细菌和酵母,再升级到蠕虫、苍蝇和老鼠,最后才是人类。But the analogy is not quite a fair one.但拿它做类比还不大合适,When the genome project started,genomicists aly had a basic understanding of how to go about it.因为在基因组工程启动时,遗传学家对该如何进行已经有了一个基本理解,That understanding was vastly refined and improved by the application of several billion dollars.这一理解在花费了数十亿美元后得到了大大的提炼和改善。But it was there from the beginning.但人家一开始就有理解啊。Going from existing methods of recording and manipulating cell activity, which rely on large electrodes, often connected to the outside world by physical wires, to the massively parallel, wireless system envisaged by Dr Alivisatos, is a different proposition.记录和操纵细胞活动的现有技术要依靠一些很大的电极,从这些技术跨越到阿里维萨多士所设想的无线平行体系,相对基因组计划而已,则是一个不同的命题。It may be possible. But it requires a leap of faith.这也许是可能的,但要让人相信则需要信心的大飞跃。The next few weeks will reveal whether that faith is shared by a cash-strapped president.囊中羞涩的总统是否也有这种信心呢?将会在后面的几周内揭晓。 /201312/267747武汉华夏医院泌尿科几点上班 Science and technology科学技术3D printing三维压制A third-world dimension第三世界的发展空间A new manufacturing technique could help poor countries as well as rich ones一项新的制造技术能够对贫困国家有所帮助,就像对那些富有国家的帮助一样。EVERY summer, Seattle holds a raft race in Green Lake, a park that is the eponymous home of the water the rafts must cross.每年夏天,西雅图都会在绿湖举行一场木筏比赛,参加比赛的木筏必须渡过这个湖,这里的公园因其湖水而闻名。Entries for the Milk Carton Derby have to be made from old plastic milk bottles.参加这场同城牛奶盒比赛的木筏必须是由旧的塑料牛奶盒制成。The result is a wonderfully Heath-Robinson collection of improvised craft.结果,你就会看到一场奇妙的希思-鲁宾逊简易工艺展。But this year one stood out: the entry from the University of Washingtons engineering department actually looked like a boat.但是今年,有一个参赛的木筏特别引人注目:这个木筏是华盛顿大学工程系做的,看起来真的像一只船。The students who built it, Matthew Rogge, Bethany Weeks and Brandon Bowman, had shredded and melted their bottles, and then used a 3D printer to print themselves a plastic vessel.制造这个木筏的学生—马修罗格、伯斯尼威克斯和布兰登伯曼,把他们收集的塑料盒切碎后再熔化,再使用一种三维压印技术压印成一种塑料容器。No doubt the Milk-Carton-Derby rules will be tightened next year—though in the end, the team came only second.毫无疑问的是,同城牛奶盒比赛的规则明年会更加严格—虽然最后,这个队只赢得了第二名。But they did come first in a competition that mattered more.但是,他们在比赛中首次出现的意义却更重大。On October 19th they won 0,000 in the 3D4D Challenge, organised by a charity called techfortrade.在10月19日,他们在由一个称为技术为了贸易更美好的慈善组织组织的三维-四维挑战赛中赢得了十万美元的奖金。3D printing is all the rage at the moment.三维压印目前正是风靡一时。Several varieties of the technique exist, using a wide range of materials as the ink.利用几种不同的现有技术,再加上大范围的原料—称之为墨水就可以操作了。One of the most popular methods, though—and the one used by the team—works by extruding a filament of molten plastic.尽管,最流利的一种方式—就是那个参加比赛的队伍使用的,只是挤压成一条熔化后的塑料细丝。In the case of the teams printer, this plastic was high-density polyethylene from milk bottles.就这个参赛队伍的印刷技术来说,这种塑料是由牛奶盒提炼出的高密度聚乙烯。The print head makes repeated passes over the thing being printed, leaving a plastic trail as it does so.打印头重复地打压着半成品,当它重复这样的过程后,只留下一条塑料丝。It thus builds up a three-dimensional structure.最后,就生产出了一个三维产品。3D printing is now taken seriously by manufacturers as an alternative to cutting, bending, pressing and moulding things.制造商们正在认真考虑三维压印技术,想用它来替代切割、弯曲和压制成型机器。It is also a popular hobby among those of a geeky disposition.而且,它在那些古怪的配制中也算比较受欢迎了。What it has not been used for so far is to help people in poor countries improve their everyday lives.只是,到目前为止它还没被应用于贫困国家,帮助那里的人们改善他们的生活。Mr Rogge, Ms Weeks and Mr Bowman intend to employ their prize money to do precisely that.罗格先生,威克斯女士和伯曼先生打算用他们的奖金去实现这个目标。They plan to form a firm that will, in partnership with a charity called Water for Humans, custom-build composting toilets and rainwater collectors.他们打算与一家称为为人类提供生活之水的慈善组织合作,创建一家专门生产自动堆肥厕所和雨水收集容器的公司。The partnership will look for suitable local entrepreneurs in poor countries and will train them how to build, use and maintain the printers.他们的合伙人将会在那些贫困国家中寻找当地合适的企业家,并且会训练他们怎样组装、使用和保养压印机器。Once the technology is established for toilets and water collectors, other products will be introduced.一旦这种技术应用于厕所和集水箱,那么将会产生一系列的其它附属产品。The local partners will know what products are needed and how much people are prepared to pay for them—and therefore what is worth making.当地的合作者瘵会了解,这里需要什么样的产品,这里的人们愿意花多少钱来购买—因此这是值得试试的。The operation will thus run on a commercial basis.这种运作将会基于一种商业操作模式。But the software that controls the printers will be open-source and available to all, as will many of the designs for things the printers can make.但是,控制压印机器的软件将会成为公共资源,所有人都可以使用,就像当时设计这种压印机器时的设想一样。That way, the technology can sp.这样的话,这种技术将能很快传播开来。A trial will begin soon in Oaxaca, Mexico.墨西哥的瓦哈卡将会很快进行这种试验。The crucial point about the teams printer is that it combines size and cheapness.威克斯小组的压印机最关键的一点是,它的大小正合适而且价格很便宜。Printers used by hobbyists are not expensive, but they are small.供业余爱好者使用的压印机并不贵,而且很小巧。Many would find it hard to make anything larger than a coffee cup.许多人发现这个机器做出的东西都没一个咖啡杯大。Those used by engineering companies cost serious money—and even they might balk at printing an object the size of the Milk Carton Derby boat.那些工程公司使用的压印机成本很高—甚至他们也无法压制出像同城牛奶盒比赛中那样大的木筏。The teams printer is built around a second-hand computer-controlled plasma cutter.那个参赛队伍的压印机是由一台二手电脑控制的空气等离子切割机做出来的。This directs the movement of an extruder that melts flakes of plastic into a thin stream which can be squirted out as required.电脑控制着挤压机里的一切运作—即先熔化塑料,再挤压成细细的液体状,当需要时就可以喷射出来进行压制。It is able to create things with dimensions of up to 2.5 metres by 1.2 metres by 1 metre.这种机器可以生产出长2.5米,宽1.2米,高1米的物品。Appropriately, many of its parts were themselves manufactured on a desktop 3D printer.产品的许多部分还是来自于原材料,只是经过了一台台式三维压印机的处理而已。The ink is cheap, too. High-density polyethylene is as common as muck—literally, for a lot of it ends up on refuse tips.墨水也很便宜。高密度聚乙烯很常见,就像随处可见的泥土一样—就是这个意思,因为垃圾堆中有大量这种材料。Chop it up, though, and it is grist to the mill.但是,一定要记得剁碎它,这对压印机很重要。Mr Rogge estimates that if he and his colleagues had printed their boat from commercial plastic filament it would have cost them 0.罗格先生估计,如果他和他的同事利用商业塑料丝来制作这条船的话,那么成本会高达800美元。Instead, 250 clean, empty milk bottles set them back just .20.相反,他们用250个干净的,空牛奶盒只花了3.2美元。Some technical questions remain.不过,还有一些技术问题。High-density polyethylene shrinks when it cools.高密度聚乙烯遇冷会收缩。That stresses the object being printed and can sometimes tear it apart.这个不足也反应到了压制出来的产品上,产品有时都能完全扯开。The students are therefore working on a second prototype that prints things faster, allowing the layers of plastic to cool almost simultaneously.因此,这些学生们正在努力制作第二个样品,以提高压制速度,而且确保让塑料层几乎能同时冷却下来。They are also experimenting with making things from other types of waste plastic that suffer less from shrinkage.他们也在试验用其它类型的废塑料制作产品,以减少收缩性。And until a production version of the printer is y and priced, it remains to be seen how competitive its output really will be with mass-produced items.在压印机生产出来的成品已经完全没有问题,而且定出合理的价格以前,这种产品与大批量生产的成品的竞争力谁高谁低还有待观察。Mr Rogge doubts, for example, that a 3D-printed bucket—even one made from milk bottles—will ever be cheaper than one made in a factory.罗格先生还不确定,比如说,一个三维技术压制出来的水桶—即使原材料是牛奶盒—的价格会低于工厂生产出来的水桶价格。Boats, though, could be a hit.虽然,木筏可能会是个创举。One of the judges at the 3D4D Challenge noted that many small vessels in West Africa are made from trees, such as teak, that are becoming scarce.在三维-四维挑战赛中的一位评委说,在西非,许多小容器就是由树木,比如柚木制成的,而这种木材也越来越少了。Making them from waste plastic instead would be an environmental twofer: rare species would be conserved and less rubbish thrown away.如果用废塑料制作这些容器将会对环境是一举两得:珍稀物种得到了保护,而且还减少了垃圾 /201401/272528武汉割包皮手术哪里比较好

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武汉男生殖器硬了痛Business商业报道Biotechnology生物科技Fever rising持续升温There are reasons to hope that the latest biotech boom will not be followed by another bust 我们有理由相信此次生物技术的繁荣不会伴随一次衰退 AS INVESTORS and executives crammed into a New York ballroom for a conference held this week by the Biotechnology Industry Organisation, the mood was jittery.本周,生物科技产业组织举行了一场投资者大会,当业界投资人和高管鱼贯进入舞厅充当的会场时,气氛颇为紧张。The previous week eight biotech firms had launched initial public offerings in America, together raising more than 500m.就在上周,有八家生物技术公司在美国上市,募集的资金总和超过一亿美元。In a discussion panel on whether the industrys latest boom will last, a prominent investor, Oleg Nodelman, joked that he still had suitcases of cash for any firm that wanted it. 在一个关于此次生物科技产业的热潮是否会延续的小组讨论中,知名投资人奥列格?诺德曼开玩笑说:如果还有哪家公司需要资金,我这还有几皮箱现钞可以供应。 Biotechnology is the creation of drugs and other useful products by making use of natures toolkit—that is, by adapting or exploiting processes found in living organisms.生物技术是一种使用自然的工具箱,即通过来改造或利用生物体内的过程来创造药物及其他有用产品的技术;For example, Argos Therapeutics, one of the latest batch of firms to raise money, is working on ways to trigger patients own immune systems to fight kidney cancer or HIV infection. 比如说,最近上市的众多生物技术公司中的Argos Therapeutics,现在正在研究的通过激活患者自身的免疫系统来治疗肾癌和艾滋病的疗法。The industry has undergone cycles of boom and bust since its inception in the 1970s, pioneered by firms such as Genentech.由基因泰克等公司开创于上世纪70年代的生物技术产业自从其建立以来就不断经历繁荣与衰退的循环。As the chart shows, last year more biotech firms joined American stock markets, raising more money, than at any time since the golden year of 2000.如上图所示,自2000年以来,去年是美国生物技术公司上市最多、募集资金总额最多的一年。在In the past 12 months, even as the Samp;P 500 share index has risen by 20%, shares in biotech firms have surged by almost three times as much. 过去的12个月中,尽管标准普尔500股票指数已经上涨了20%,生物技术公司的股价飙升幅度还是有其三倍之多。 One of the main causes for the millennial boom was that investors, flush with money they had made from internet firms, became excited about the Human Genome Project.千禧年生物技术股市繁荣的一个重要原因是,在互联网行业赚得盆满钵满的投资者们对人类基因组计划感到兴奋不已。They hoped that this massive, government-backed effort to lay out the entire genetic code of Homo sapiens would lead to a proliferation of profitable new treatments.他们希望这项由政府持的,旨在铺陈出现代人类整个遗传密码的宏伟工程能够催生出海量有利可图的新疗法。Biotechs flowering is taking some time, however. Biology is complex.但是,生物学是很复杂的,药物搞不好不是毒性太大就是疗效不佳。Drugs have a habit of being too toxic or not working as well as they should. 生物技术的开花结果往往需要很长时间。 Indeed, creating new drugs through biotechnology is at the risky end of a business in which superhuman stamina and bottomless pockets are minimum requirements.事实上,通过生物技术制造新药物是风险最大的行业,超人的耐力和充裕的资金只是最低要求。The Boston Consulting Group reckons that 90% of the money spent researching new treatments, conventional or biotech, goes on drugs that ultimately fail.据波士顿咨询公司估计,用于研制新药的资金,有90%都打了水漂。把之前的试错的损失算在内,After spending as much as 2 billion, accounting for all the failures, a company just might have a medicine that works.一个公司在花了20亿美元后,则有可能获得一种有效的药物。But then it must win the favour of the worlds most stringent regulators, and convince governments, insurers and patients that the drug is worth paying for. 然后你还必须通过世界上最严格的监管程序,最后还要费尽心思向政府、保险公司和患者推销你的药物。 Overcome these obstacles, however, and the returns can be fabulous.然而,在克层层磨难后,得到的回报会高得难以置信。Stelios Papadopolous, a veteran biotech investor, argues that much of the recent rise in share prices is due not to froth, but because the industry is beginning to deliver promising treatments.以为生物科技界的资深投资人斯特里奥斯帕帕多普洛斯认为最近该行业股价的上升大多不是泡沫引起的,而是因为有一批有前途的新疗法开始涌现。In December Americas Food and Drug Administration approved Sovaldi, a treatment for hepatitis C.去年12月,美国食品和药物批准了治疗丙型肝炎的药物Sovaldi,It could now earn revenues of more than 3 billion this year for its maker, Gilead, a biotech firm from California.这项药物今年可为其制造者,加里福利亚州的吉利德公司创造30亿美元的营收。Biogen Idec, a firm based in Massachusetts, is expected to earn more than 1 billion a year from Tecfidera, a pill for multiple sclerosis that the FDA approved last year. The firms shares rose by almost 90% in 2013.百健艾迪一家是总部位于马萨诸塞州的制药公司,有望凭借其去年通过FDA审查的治疗多发性硬化症的小药丸每年盈利10亿美元。But the question is whether such triumphs are aberrations or hints of other victories yet to come. 去年,百健艾迪在的股价上涨了接近90%。但问题是,这些公司的成功究竟底是个例,还是生物技术领域整体繁荣的前兆。 There are several reasons to hope that even if the current share-price and IPO frenzy subsides, biotech firms will continue to prosper.有几点理由能让我们认为即使现在生物技术行业的股价开始下降,IPO狂潮开始平息,生物技术公司依然会继续勇往直前。First, many smaller firms have become the research engines for bigger ones, explains Kevin Starr of Third Rock, a venture-capital firm.首先,三石风险投资公司的凯文?斯塔尔解释称,如今很多小型公司已经变身为大公司的研发引擎。For example Sanofi, a French pharmaceutical giant, now depends on Regeneron, an American biotech company, to help drive its growth.比如说现在的法国制药业巨头赛诺菲,现在依靠美国的生物技术公司Regeneron来推动自身的发展。This year alone, Sanofi will pump about 1 billion into Regenerons research programme.单单今年,赛诺菲就向Regeneron的研发计划注入了10亿美金。The goal is not to Sanofise Regeneron or any other partner, says Christopher Viehbacher, Sanofis chief executive.我们的目的并不是将Regeneron或我们其他的合作伙伴赛诺菲化。Rather, it is to combine Regenerons capabilities in researching new treatments with Sanofis skill in bringing them to market. 赛诺菲得的首席执行官解释说,而是将Regeneron的研发能力和赛诺菲将信品导入市场的能力结合起来。 Celgene, one of Americas larger biotech firms, has a similar distributed model of research. It helps finance the scientific work at smaller companies, then usually takes over a drugs development as it moves into clinical trials.塞尔基因公司,美国的一家大型生物技术公司在研发环节同样使用这种分包模式。Besides being costly, these require expertise that younger, smaller firms often lack. 它先是资助小公司的研发工作,然后在药物开发进入到临床试验阶段是接手,因为此阶段的开发不仅费用高,而且要求小公司缺乏的专门技能。 Second—and more important—firms are at last starting to reap the rewards of studying the human genome.第二点,也是更重要的一点,生物技术公司终于开始在人类基因组的研究上有所斩获。As researchers illuminate the underlying genetic causes of a disease, they open up new routes to developing treatments.一旦研究人员弄清导致一项疾病隐蔽的遗传学原因,就同时为此疾病的治疗提供了一种新途径。For example, Vertex has a drug to treat a subset of patients with cystic fibrosis, thanks to a better understanding of the faulty gene that causes it.比如说福泰制药公司有一种可以治疗患有囊胞性纤维病的特定人群的药物,就是得益于对导致这一疾病的缺陷基因更好的理解。Bluebird bio, one of Celgenes small partner firms, which Third Rock also financed, is working on a treatment for sickle-cell disease that inserts into the patients blood cells a properly functioning version of the faulty gene that causes the inherited ailment. 又比如塞尔基因的一个合作公司蓝鸟生物,同样也是三石风投投资的公司,现在正致力于一种治疗镰状细胞病的疗法:把造成此种遗传疾病的缺陷基因的校正后再插入患者的干细胞内。 Advances in genomics are making clinical trials smaller and cheaper, since it is now easier to identify which patients have the specific genetic trait that a new drug is aimed at.基因组学的发展史的临床试验的规模更小和成本更低,因为现在若要确甄别出具有试验药物针对的那种特定遗传学特征的患者变得更加容易了。This makes it more worthwhile to research diseases that are rare, and those that have so far proved intractable.这样就使得那些对经被罕见的和一直被认为难以治愈的疾病的研究变得更有价值了。The FDA gives special consideration to drugs that treat such ailments, so companies can expect a speedier path to approval. FDA对治疗这类疾病的药物会给予特殊的考虑,所以制药公司会有望快速拿到批准。 Learning from mistakes 吸取经验教训The venture capitalists who back biotech firms are trying to avoid the mistakes they made in the past.投资生物技术的风投家们也正努力避免以前犯过的错误。Index Ventures, based in Geneva, does not shower companies with cash to build lavish headquarters.总部位于日内瓦的指数创投没有挥金如土去盖奢华的总部大楼,Instead it assembles a tiny team of scientists and executives to oversee the research on a promising new line of treatment, outsourcing the bulk of the work to external contractors.而是召集一个有科学家和高管组成的小组来监控有前景的新疗法的研发,并把大部分的工作外包出去。This makes the costs more predictable. It also makes it easier for Index to halt a project when it looks like failing. 这样不仅使得成本更具可预见性,也能方便指数创投叫停可能失败的项目。 Despite all these reasons for optimism, there is no guarantee that the current boom will last.尽管有这么多令人乐观的理由,我们不能肯定这次的繁荣会一直持续。In these sunny times, it is tempting to forget the dark days that companies have endured.快乐的日子总是会诱使人忘却曾让你备受煎熬的黑暗往事。Twenty-five years later, quips Leonard Schleifer of Regeneron, Im an overnight success.我等了25年,Regenron的CEO莱纳德?施莱弗尔自嘲道,我终于一夜暴富了。It is also uncertain that insurers and governments will continue to pay biotech firms high prices.我们同样不能确定保险公司和政府是否会继续高价购买生物技术公司的产品。Vertexs treatment for cystic fibrosis costs a staggering 294,000 for each course. 福泰制药的治疗囊胞性纤维症的药物疗程的费用就高达骇人的294,000美金。 The most important question is whether research has indeed become more productive.最重要的问题是,我们不知道生物科技领域的研究工作是否真的变得极富成效。More than 80% of those recently polled by Mark Schoenebaum, an analyst at ISI Group, said yes.国际战略投资集团的分析师Mark Schoenebaum在调查了80%的生物科技公司后,得出的是肯定的。Mr Schoenebaum himself, however, is unconvinced. Im not arguing definitively that it hasnt happened, he muses, but I havent been entirely persuaded.但他本人却对此结果存疑。我不是否认这一结果,Schoenebaum沉思道,我只是没有被完全说。There are no data yet, he says, to draw firm conclusions. And for all the advances in genomics, and the increased sophistication of biotech firms and their investors, there is still a lot of luck involved in Ramp;D.尽管基因组学取得长足进步,生物技术公司与其投资者的经验也在不断增长,但医药研发极富不确定性的情况不会改变。 /201402/276031 Beyond them, silver belly fish never let down their guard. 除了它们以外,银钓饵鱼也从不放松警惕。They shimmer like a thousand tiny mirrors, swilling as one of more to confuse any attackers. 它们就像许多面小镜子一样闪闪发光,像一团无形云雾一样形成旋涡,迷惑袭击者。Its their only defense against this, a shark macro. 这是它们唯一的,抵御鲭鲨的方式。These are the great hands of the ocean. 鲭鲨是海洋中的猎犬。They need all their speed and agility against these ghostly spook that is here one moment and gone the next.它们需要速度与灵活并存来应对这幽灵般的族群。前一秒还在此,下一秒便无影无踪。Despite the dangers, small fish have to risk leaving the protection of reef to feed. 尽管危险,小鱼还是要离开礁石去觅食。And perhaps none is bothered than this little rass. 但是没有比这小濑鱼更胆大的了。This gigantic grouper is many thousands of times of her size and an aggressive territorial predator, with one of the largest mouthes on the reef.这条巨大的石斑鱼是它体积的数千倍,是一种守株待兔的凶猛掠食者。带着一张超级大嘴。201409/326416武汉哪儿割包皮较好咸宁看泌尿科怎么样

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