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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月17日 05:14:07
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What this means is that our lips have little to no protection from the environment, and their main source of moisture is the saliva that comes from our mouths.这就说明嘴唇易受环境影响,而嘴唇水分大多是来自嘴里的唾液。What’s more, unlike much of the rest of our body, our lips are almost always on display, and rarely covered by clothing.此外有别于身体其他部位,嘴唇直接暴露在外面。As a result, the moisture on our lips is continually evaporating.结果就造成嘴唇的水分一直在蒸发。And that’s before we take into account exposure to sun, wind, cold, and air-conditioning.我们的嘴唇还要暴露于阳光、大风、冷空气及空调环境。Plus, if you’re sick or have allergies, and your nose is congested, your lips end up drying more quickly because you tend to breathe through your mouth.此外,如果你生病或者过敏而鼻塞,嘴唇会干得更快,因为你不得不大口呼吸!201503/362015

;When the dew is on the grass, rain will never come to pass;When grass is dry at morning light, look for rain before thenight.”“如果早晨青草上有露珠,当天就不会下雨;如果青草上没有露珠,傍晚前就会下雨。”Whats the science behind this old aphorism?这句古老的格言背后有什么样的科学依据呢?Is the amount ofdew in the morning a good way of predicting the weather forthe rest of the day?朝露的数量是一种很好的方式来预测当天天气情况吗?As a matter of fact, this saying is roughly accurate, at least in the spring and fall, but the reason itworks is more complicated than we might initially think.事实上,这句话大致是准确的。至少在春季和秋季是准确的。但是这句话成立的原因要比我们想象的复杂得多。We might imagine that the saying works because on a dewy morning, much of the atmospheresmoisture has aly condensed out as dew, so there isnt a lot left over for a rain storm.我们也许会这样想,早晨的露珠已经把空气中大量的水分凝结成露水,所以没有足够的水分产生暴雨。This isnt the case.然而情况并非如此。The amount of water in dew is usually much less than what would fall in a storm, and besides, that dew is likely to evaporate back into the atmosphere as the morning progresses.露水中含的水分量远少于暴雨所降的雨量。另外,在早晨这段时间里,露水可能会蒸发回到大气中去。As it turns out, the formation of dew is linked to the amount of cloudiness in the sky at night.事实明,露水的形成是与晚上天空中云的数量有联系的。On a clear night the ground cools, radiating its heat away into space.在晴朗的夜晚地面冷却后,将热量散发到空气中。When the ground gets cool enough, dew forms, like beads of condensation on a can of cold soda.当地面冷却充分后露水就形成了,就像装着冰苏打水瓶罐表面形成的水珠一样。If the sky is cloudy at night, however, the Earths surface doesnt cool as much.如果夜晚天空多云,可是,地球表面冷却不充分。Some of the heatradiates into space, but much of it bounces off the cloud layer and goes back into the ground.一些热量就会散发到空气中,但大部分的热量会弹出云层,回到地面。If there are lots of clouds, the ground wont get cool enough to form dew.如果有大量云层,地面冷却不充分,就不会形成露水。The saying worksbecause, chances are, all those nighttime clouds might also cause a rainstorm during the comingday.这句格言成立是因为可能所有这些夜间的云也许会在即将到来的一天制造一场暴雨。201409/332029

  

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  The results of this two-tier system have been meagre so far. The frenzy in the biggest cities stems from the central bank’s steady loosening of monetary policy over the past 18 months. Although warranted from an economic perspective, it was inevitable that low interest rates would drive asset prices higher. Initially, much of the credit pumped out by banks ended up in the stockmarket, but following its crash last summer, property beckoned as one of the few decent investment options in China (capital controls, which have been further tightened recently, make it hard for Chinese savers to invest their money abroad).这种分而治之的房地产政策目前看来收效甚微。大城市房价飙涨的根源是央行在过去18月来逐步放宽的货币政策。尽管该政策的目的是为了拉动经济,但低利率不可避免地会拉升固定资产价格。一开始,释放的大部分信贷涌向了股市,然而经历了去年夏天的股灾之后,房地产成为了投资者们为数不多的上佳选择(资本管制最近也逐步收紧,这让中国人很难把他们的存款投资到境外市场)。For speculators looking at property, the excess supply in smaller cities was all too evident, so they turned instead to the megalopolises. Du Jinsong of Credit Suisse describes it as a form of groupthink. “Everybody—investors, developers, policymakers and bankers—thinks that first-tier cities are safe,” he says.对于把目光投向房地产的投机客而言,小城市的房屋供给过剩太明显,所以他们转而看向大城市。瑞士信贷的杜劲松把这种情况描述为集体迷思:“每个人——投资者、开发商、政策制定者和家——都认为投资一线城市更加安全。”Even as the government tries to restrain the excesses, however, it does not want to snuff out the rally in the big cities altogether, for they tend to influence sentiment elsewhere. There are signs that this is beginning to happen. Housing prices started rising month on month in the biggest cities a year ago. In midsized cities (in China, those with populations of 5m-10m), prices have been rising for the past four months. In smaller cities (mere hamlets of 1m-5m), gains have been evident only for the past two months (see chart).即使政府希望抑制这种过量投资,但并不打算把涌进大城市的各路资金全部赶走,以防他们对其他敏感领域施加影响。这种趋势已经可见端倪。大城市的房价在过去的一整年中连月增长;中等城市(人口在五百万到一千万之间)的房价在过去四个月持续增长;而小城市(人口在一百万到五百万之间)的房价只在过去两个月有明显增长。If this upturn lasts, some investors reckon it will spur construction. Commodities used to build apartment blocks, such as iron (girders) and copper (wires), have recovered slightly from their recent swoon, partly in the hope that China’s property market is also stirring (see article). Indeed, a series of mini-cycles in the Chinese housing sector over the past decade followed this sort of pattern: rising housing sales led to new building starts, which in turn pushed commodity prices higher.如果情况能持续好转,一些投资者认为它将会刺激建筑行业。如铁梁、铜线这类用于建造公寓的材料商品,都已渐渐从最近的低迷期得以复苏。部分以期中国房地产市场也将处于动荡。的确,中国房地产行业过去十年一系列小周期活动都遵循这种模式:房产销售上涨带动新建筑的开发,新建筑的开发反过来推动材料价格上升。Figures from the China Index Academy, a data provider, show that the stock of unsold homes has decreased recently, from nearly 30 months’ worth of sales early last year to 15 now. “A housing market with rising volume and prices clearly does not support the view that, on a macro level, China’s housing market is oversupplied,” notes Liang Hong of China International Capital Corp, an investment bank.根据中国指数研究院提供的一官方数据显示,未售房屋的存量在最近得以减少,从去年初近30个月的销售量,减少至目前的15个月。“这个存量和价格并升的房地产市场显然并不能从持宏观上中国房地产市场产能过量的观点,”中国国际金融公司(投行)梁宏如是说道。But there is a further vast increment of supply on the verge of coming to market, because developers slowed the pace of construction in recent years and in some cases halted it altogether.但是大量的供房即将上市,因为开发商近年放缓了大兴土木的节奏,一些建筑都已全部停工。 译文属译生译世 /201604/437565

  The cat in the hat can be merged with a verb phrase to create a new object, a sentence: The cat in the hat came back. And that sentence can be merged into bigger sentences: You think the cat in the hat came back. And so on.”the cat in the hat”再与动词短语结合就能组成句子” The cat in the hat came back”。短句继续结合组成长句” You think the cat in the hat came back”。以此类推。Why would this be of any use? No one else had Merge. Whom did Prometheus talk to? Nobody, at least not using Merge. (Humans may aly have been using cries and gestures, as many animals do.) But Merge-enabled, hierarchically structured language, according to Mr Chomsky, did not evolve for talking at all. Rather, it let Prometheus take simple concepts and combine them in sentence-like ways in his own head. The resulting complex thoughts gave him a survival advantage. If he then passed the mutant Merge gene on to several surviving children, who thrived and passed on the Merge gene to their children, Messrs Chomsky and Berwick believe that they must have then come to dominate the population of humans in Africa. Only later, as Merge came to work with the vocal and hearing organs, did human language emerge.这能有什么用呢?别人又没有“合并”。“普罗米修斯”与谁去谈话?没有人,至少不用“合并” 。(人类可能正如许多动物一般,一直使用叫喊还有手势。)但是根据乔姆斯基,合并型的、纵向结构的语言并不是为会话而进化。确切地说,这种语言使得“普罗米修斯”采取简单概念,并自己思考用句子的方式把它们结合起来。结果这些复杂思维给了他生存上的优势。如果他当时将这一突变的“合并”基因遗传给自己几位幸存的孩子,而他们继续繁衍并将“合并”基因传递给他们的小孩,乔姆斯基与贝里克认为想必他们那时已经主导了非洲人类。之后只有当“合并”与发音、听力器官相结合,人类语言才得以出现。 Many scholars find this to be somewhere between insufficient, improbable and preposterous. The emergence of a single mutation that gives such a big advantage is derided by biologists as a “hopeful monster” theory; most evolution is gradual, operating on many genes, not one. Some ability like Merge may exist, but this does not explain why some words may merge and others dont, much less why the worlds languages merge so differently. (Not a single non-English example appears in “Why Only Us”, nor a single foreign language in its index.)许多学者认为依靠具有“合并”大优势的单一突变体的这一语言进化理论是不充分、不恰当,而且荒谬的。同时这一观点也被生物学家讽刺为“有前途的怪诞”理论;就生物学上认为大多数进化是渐进型,需要很多基因共同作用,而不是单独一个。一些像“合并”的能力可能确实存在,但这不能解释为何一些词汇可能合并而其他不能,更不能解释为何这个世界的语言合并地如此不同。(《为什么我们是唯一的》书中所举的例子都是英语的,在索引里也没有一门外语)Mr Chomsky says those who disagree with his ever-more contentious ideas are either blind or hucksters. Critics refer to a “cult” of “acolytes” around a “Great Leader”, unwilling to challenge him or engage seriously with the work of non-Chomskyan scholars. (One critic has said “to be savaged by Chomsky is a badge of honour.”) Linguistics is now divided into a Chomskyan camp, a large number of critics and many more still for whom the founder of the modern discipline is simply irrelevant. He is unlikely to end up like Freud, a marginal figure in modern psychology whose lasting influence has been on the humanities. Mr Chomskys career is more likely to end up like Einsteins—at least in the sense that his best and most influential work came early on.乔姆斯基表示,那些不同意他曾更具争议的想法的人都是瞎子或是跳梁小丑。批评家们把这些解释为一群围着“伟大领导者”打转的信徒们对乔姆斯基的狂热崇拜,他们不愿意挑战他或从事非乔姆斯基学派的学术工作。(一位批评家曾说过“被乔姆斯基抨击也荣幸之至”。)语言学如今被划分成乔姆斯基阵营、大量的批评者以及还有更多是与现代语言体系建立者不相关人等。乔姆斯基本身是不可能像心理学家佛洛依德那样结束他的学术生涯——在现代心理学被边缘化,但却能一直对人性产生持续的影响。乔姆斯基最有可能像爱因斯坦那样—至少在狭义上,他在初期就开始推出最佳且最有影响力的学术著作。翻译:邓小雪 amp; 颜琪琳 校对:杨霭琳 译文属译生译世 /201604/435412Lexington莱克星顿Mr Castro goes to Washington卡斯特罗来到华盛顿A rising Hispanic star ponders how to reconcile Americans with the federal government一颗冉冉升起拉美裔的新星思考如何协调美国人与联邦政府之间的关系WHEN it came to selling the Great Society, President Lyndon Johnson did not hold back. In his telling he was offering a new republic, shriven of racial hatreds and purged of poverty, built by farsighted technocrats and legislators upon mountains of federal cash. As he signed one of several laws to create and fund a Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Johnson called it “the Magna Carta to liberate our cities”. He promised model housing to replace slums, rent subsidies for the poor and loans to turn working men into homeowners. HUDs work, declared LBJ, would “raise up a new America”.当要推销伟大社会计划时,林登·约翰逊总统没有退缩。他在演讲中提出了一个全新的共和国,由远见卓识的技术专家和立法者建立在联邦政府资金之上,那里没有种族仇恨,也没有贫穷。约翰逊签署了几部法律,建造并投资了住房和城市发展部 (HUD),并把它叫做“解放城市的大宪章”。他承诺将贫民区变成模范住宅,为穷人提供房租补贴,为工人提供贷款使他们拥有自己的住房。约翰逊总统声称HUD的 工作将会“振兴美国”。The euphoria did not last long. Half a century on, the Great Societys legacy is bitterly contested. The left shudders to imagine America without its welfare schemes and anti-discrimination rules. The right calls LBJs legacy a failed experiment in social engineering, trapping millions in listless dependency.这种精神上的愉悦没有持续多久。半个世纪过去了,伟大社会构想的成果备受质疑。左翼不敢想象,没有福利计划和反歧视规则,美国会是什么样子的。右翼把约翰逊的遗产叫做社交工程中的失败体验,使数百万计的人深陷倦怠和依赖之中。As a result, an interesting political test faces Julián Castro, a young Texan Democrat summoned this summer to Washington as HUD secretary, joining Barack Obamas cabinet a few weeks before his 40th birthday. Mr Castro has been a label-defying prodigy since he was elected mayor of San Antonio, the second-most-populous city in Texas, in . He is Hispanic, brought up by a single mother who was a fiery campaigner for Mexican-American rights. Yet Mr Castro is no radical. Giving the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in 2012 (prompting comparisons with Barack Obama, who secured instant fame at the convention eight years earlier) he spoke of his immigrant grandmother who dropped out of school to support her family as a maid and cook, and taught herself to and write. For Mr Castro, this was not a sob-story but a lesson about hard work and American opportunity. Texas is a place where people actually still have bootstraps, he told delegates, and—with a bit of help from society—“we expectfolks to pull themselves up by them.”结果就是,朱利安·卡斯特罗面对着一场有趣的政治测试,这名年轻的德克萨斯民主党人于今年夏天被召唤到华盛顿担任HUD部长,在他四十岁生日的前几周加入了奥巴马的内阁。卡斯特罗在年当选德克萨斯州人口第二大城市圣安东尼奥市的市长,是一名反抗标签的奇才。他是拉美裔人,由单身妈妈抚养长大,他的母亲是一名墨西哥裔美国人权利的激进活动家。但卡斯特罗并不激进。他于2012年在民主党全国代表大会上做了政策演讲(这场演讲一直被拿来与奥巴马相比,奥巴马在八年前的大会上一举成名),在演讲中他谈到了自己的移民祖母,她早早就退了学,做女仆和厨师养家,并自学读写。对于卡斯特罗来说,这不是一个令人悲伤的故事,而是关于努力工作和美国机会的一堂教育课。他对代表们说,德克萨斯州的人们仍然具有自力更生的能力,只要社会给予他们一点点帮助,“我们希望人们能靠自己的力量出人头地。”He credits affirmative action with helping him and his identical twin brother Joaquín (since 2013 a member of Congress for San Antonio) to travel together from a city high school to Stanford University, then Harvard Law School. But ethnic labels do not easily capture him. He grew up speaking English (he began discreet Spanish lessons as mayor). Dapper and a bit prim, he could be a corporate lawyer. He urges Democrats not to take a monolithic Hispanic vote for granted. That is good advice and, from him, heartfelt. Many saw him running for governor of Texas in 2018, by which time some glibly asserted that a soaring Latino population would turn the state Democratic. Yet in Novembers elections 44% of Texan Hispanic voters backed a Republican for governor: the state will be conservative for a while yet.他相信是平权法案帮助他和他的双胞胎兄弟华金(自2013年起就是圣安东尼奥市的一名国会议员)一起从城市高中读到斯坦福大学,然后是哈佛大学法学院。但他没有轻易被种族标签捕获。他说英语长大(他在成为市长后开始慎重地上西班牙语课程)。他衣冠楚楚而且有点一本正经,看起来像一名公司律师。他呼吁民主党人不要把拉美裔人的集体投票看成是理所当然。这是他衷心提出的好建议。很多人看到他在为2018年的德克萨斯州州长竞选做准备,那时有些油嘴滑舌的人声称不断增加的拉美裔人会将该州变成民主党的天下。然而在十一月份的竞选中44%的德克萨斯拉美裔选民持共和党做州长,该州暂时仍然会是保守派的天下。Mr Castro made his name in San Antonio by pulling off a progressives dream: persuading Hispanic and Anglo residents to back a new tax to finance pre-school classes for poor and immigrant four-year-olds. He built a coalition uniting low-income parents with business bosses, and held a referendum to secure an explicit mandate. To counter shrink-the-government types who grumbled about expensive “babysitting”, he promised to test the schemes outcomes, measuring pupils progress in future years.通过努力实现了一个进步分子的愿望:说拉美裔与盎格鲁居民持新税政策,为穷人和移民的四岁小孩的学前教育班提供资金,卡斯特罗一举成名。他建立了一个联盟,将低收入的父母和商业老板联合在一起,并举行了一场公投,以保明确授权。为了对抗那些抱怨政府“保姆式”管理代价昂贵、持政府权力收缩的人,他承诺今后会测试计划的结果,衡量学生的成果。His problem-solving style has caught the eye of Bill and Hillary Clinton. The couple invited the young Texan to dine at their home in Washington before his swearing-in as HUD secretary. That sparked headlines about a possible Clinton-Castro presidential ticket in 2016. Serving as a cabinet secretary will give Mr Castro national experience. And with 50m Hispanics in America, almost half of whom are eligible to vote, Latino stars are in demand (just ask such Republicans as Senator Marco Rubio of Florida). For all that, running a chunk of the Great Society carries risks, in an age when Washington is reviled and reformers call states and city halls the only places where interesting policies thrive. For almost 20 years Republican presidential candidates have growled about abolishing HUD. Conservatives call it an outdated backwater whose funds should be sent directly to the states, so that decisions are taken by politicians who live among regular folk, not Washington know-alls. Its budgets have been squeezed sincethe days of Ronald Reagan, who famously failed to recognise his own HUD secretary at a White House gathering, hailing him with a cheery-but-vague “Mr Mayor!”他的问题解决风格吸引了比尔和希拉里克林顿夫妇的注意。在卡斯特罗进行HUD部长入职宣誓之前,克林顿夫妇邀请了这名年轻的德克萨斯州议员拜访他们在华盛顿的家。媒体争相报道,认为在2016年总统大选中,克林顿和卡斯特罗很可能结成联盟。一名内阁部长的职位可以给予卡斯特罗国家经验。美国有五千万拉美裔人,其中几乎有一半符合投票的条件,拉丁裔明星很有市场(这要去问问这类共党人,如佛罗里达州的参议员马克罗·鲁比奥)。尽管如此,要运作伟大社会这样一个大块头也伴随着风险,在这个年代,人们都在骂政府,改革家们把州政厅和市政厅叫做有趣政策发展繁荣的仅有地方。20年来,共和党总统候选人都叫嚣着要废除HUD。保守派们把它叫做过时的死水,投进去的资金应该直接送还给各州,这样那些生活在民间的政治家们就可以做决定,而不是政府中那些自以为无所不知的人。自罗纳德·里根总统上任之后它的预算就被压缩了,这名总统很有名的一件事就是在白宫聚会上没有认出自己的HUD部长,向他打招呼,很模糊地称呼他为“市长先生”。Still a mayor at heart本质上依旧是个市长Mr Castro seems to be trying something intriguing: treating HUD like a city hall, which (like the government of any metropolis) must impress voters with very different world-views and needs. On a recent two-day visit to Austin, Texas he was frank about HUDs constraints. Every year, 10,000 public-housing units are lost to disrepair. Nowadays most restoration projects require private or charitable partners. But private buy-in is a positive sign, Mr Castro says. He sees the federal government as a “catalyst” and a “referee”, stepping in when some states fail those who need help. To secure broad consent for public investments, he wants HUD to measure outcomes better, for instance tracking high-school graduation rates of children in public housing. He enthuses about local innovations, telling a conference of city officials: “My business card may say HUD secretary, but Im still a mayor at heart.”卡斯特罗似乎正在尝试一些有趣的事情:把HUD当做市政厅,这给选民们留下了迥然不同的世界观和需求的印象(就像其它大都市的政府一样)。在最近对德克萨斯奥斯汀为期两天的访问中,他坦言了HUD的限制。每年都有一万个房屋单位失修。如今大多数恢复项目都需要私人或慈善的合作伙伴。但私人买进是个积极信号,卡斯特罗称。他把联邦政府看做“催化剂”和“裁判员”,当某些州无法帮助那些需要帮助的人们时,政府就进行干预。为了保对公共投资的广泛赞同,他希望HUD能更好地测量成果,例如追踪公共住房青少年的高中毕业率。他热衷于地方创新,并在一次市政官员会议上说:“我的名片上是HUD部长,但我本质上仍然是个市长。”As a national politician, Mr Castro is a work in progress. He can be oddly stiff. In Austin he toured a branch of a youth club active in tough inner-cities. “Youre in our Hall of Fame!” staff cried, noting that Mr Castro had used the club as a boy. “Thank yall for the great work yall do,” Mr Castro said earnestly. It was polite—but, oh, the tales Bill Clinton would have spun. Off-the-record he is candid, profane and shrewd, and should let more of that show. Still his data-driven, coalition-building instincts are timely: the national mood is too sour for LBJ swagger. While others yearn to tug his party far to the populist left, Mr Castro favours “aspirational, collaborative” politics. Democrats need more like him.卡斯特罗正在努力将自己变成一名国家政治家。他有时候会莫名其妙地固执。在奥斯汀他游览了一家青年俱乐部,这个俱乐部活跃在市中心平民区域。“您在我们的名人堂中!”员工激动地说,并注意到卡斯特罗在少年时期曾经是这家俱乐部成员。“感谢你们所做的一切,”卡斯特罗诚挚地说。一派彬彬有礼,完全符合比尔?克林顿常常编排的那种趣闻轶事。私底下他很坦率、世俗和精明,而且应该表现的更多。但他重视数据、主张建立联盟的本能仍然很及时:民族情绪已经对约翰逊的鼓吹失望。在其他人渴望把民主党更多地拉向平民主义左派的阵营时,但卡斯特罗更赞同“有抱负、合作性的”政治学。民主党需要更多像他一样的人。翻译:靳方方 校对:杨雪 译文属译生译世 /201412/347352

  Homelessness in Hawaii流浪夏威夷Paradise lost失乐园Catering to tourists comes at a hefty price for locals为迎合游客当地人付出沉重代价THE sun is setting on Waikiki Beach, and Koa still has a few hours before his 9pm shift cleaning the food court at the Ala Moana mall. “Im trying to better myself,” he says, but being homeless makes this tough. He finishes work at 3am, well past curfew at most shelters, and police keep people off the beach from 2am to 5am.维基基海滩,日暮西沉。Koa是阿拉莫阿拉购物中心美食街的保洁,现在距他9点的换班还有几个小时。“我试图不断提升自我” ,Koa称,但是无家可归的现状让这种提升举步维艰。他结束工作一般就是凌晨3点,绝大多数的庇护所早已宵禁,凌晨2点至5点警察也不允许人们在海滩逗留。Hawaii has one of the worst rates of homelessness in the country. Though its jobless rate is below 5%, pricey housing keeps even many workers on the streets. The median monthly rent for a two-bedroom apartment in Honolulu is more than ,800—one of the highest in America.夏威夷的无家可归率在全美也是颇有名气,是最严重之一。尽管该地区的失业率低于5%,但是昂贵的房价让更多的工薪阶层无家可归。火奴鲁鲁两室的商品房房租中值也超过1800美元,是美国房租最高的地区之一。On the island of Oahu, where three-quarters of Hawaiis homeless live, sleeping rough has just got rougher. On December 2nd Honolulus mayor, Kirk Caldwell, signed a bill that bans people from sitting or lying on the busiest public pavements between 5am and 11pm. Those who do so can be fined up to ,000 and jailed for up to 30 days. This is part of a plan that Mr Caldwell calls “compassionate disruption”. The aim, he says, is to get the homeless into shelters. Businesses in Waikiki, the centre of Hawaiis .5 billion tourism industry, support the policy.在欧胡岛,夏威夷75%无家可归者聚集的地方,露宿变得更加艰难。12月2日,火奴鲁鲁市长柯克·卡德维尔签署了一项禁令,禁止无家可归者在早上五点至晚上十一点这一时间段在最繁华的街道逗留。若有人违反这项规定将罚款1000美元拘留30天。这是卡德维尔所谓的“富有同情心的瓦解”计划的一部分。他声称,目的是让无家可归者居有定所。维基基的企业,夏威夷核心产业价值145亿美元的旅游业持该项政策。Similar crackdowns can be seen around the country, even as the stock of affordable housing—defined as costing no more than 30% of a familys income—declines. (Nearly 13% has been lost since 2001.) Laws banning camping, sleeping in cars, begging and loitering in public spaces are increasingly common, according to the National Law Centre on Homelessness amp; Poverty. In the past two years, more than 20 cities have made it illegal to feed homeless people in public.尽管经济适用房(定义为购房款仅占家庭收入30%的住房)的股票价格下降,类似的“镇压”在整个美国随处可见(自2013年以来,将近13%的人失去自己的房子)。根据处理无家可归及贫困事务的国家法律中心的信息,禁止人们在公共场所露营、以车为家、乞讨、游荡的法律越来越常见。在过去的两年,超过20个城市认定在公共场所为无家可归者提供食物为非法行为。Such laws are counterproductive, says Jerry Jones, the director of the National Coalition for the Homeless, an advocacy group. Otherwise law-abiding people end up with criminal records, making it harder for them to get back on their feet. A night in jail can cost three times more than a night in a shelter. Honolulus ban on rough sleeping has made the homeless more transient and harder for social-service agencies to find. Many are sleeping at the airport, ensuring that they are the first thing visitors see.国家流浪者联合会(一个倡导团体)的主管杰里·琼斯称这样的法律智慧产生反作用力。不然,遵纪守法的人们最终将会被逼犯罪,使他们自力更生难上加难。在监狱里呆一晚的花销是庇护所的3倍。火奴鲁鲁有关露宿的禁令让无家可归者流动性更大,社会务机构更难找到他们。许多无家可归者谁在机场,确保他们是游客们最先看到的事物。Several cities have reduced homelessness by using a different approach, called Housing First. Whereas typical schemes aim to get homeless people “housing y”—that is, off drugs and in work—before placing them in homes, Housing First provides the home up front and then delivers the support needed to stay there. This saves money, says Matthew Doherty of the US Interagency Council on Homelessness, as the homeless otherwise tend to ricochet between expensive services, such as jails, emergency rooms and detox centres. A study from Los Angeles found that the public saves over ,000 a year for every person in such a programme.有几个城市采用一种截然不同的措施,即“住房优先”项目来减少无家可归人群。特定的计划已实施从而让无家可归者在得到住房前具备“有房资格”,即没有疾病且有工作。与此同时,住房优先项目预先提供住房,之后为人们顺利入住提供必要的持。美国无家可归者跨机构委员会的马修·道尔蒂称,这样更省钱。否则,这些无家可归者将会在教委昂贵的务机构间奔波,比如监狱、急诊室以及戒毒中心。洛杉矶的一项研究发现在该项住房优先项目中,一人接受该项目国家将至少节省27000美元。Even in Hawaii, officials are taking steps towards a Housing First plan. In Honolulu, Mr Caldwell has promised m to house 100 of the citys homeless and another m for more housing. But the city has offered few details, and the new homes will not be y for years. In the meantime, there is talk of sending the homeless to an encampment on nearby Sand Island—far from the tourists of Waikiki.甚至在夏威夷,官员们也正在采取措施实施住房优先计划。在火奴鲁鲁,卡德维尔承诺将为该市100个无家可归者提供300万美元住房基金,另出4300万美元提供更多的住房。但是该市并未提供更多的细节,并且新的住房何时竣工入住也要好几年。同时,也有人声称将这些无家可归者送到邻近沙岛的露营地,那个远离维基基游客视线的地方。译者:占文英 译文属译生译世 /201412/350292John Bellezza and Tsering Gyalpo have their own ideas, ideas that take them to the infamous cave of the dead, could the bodies of the Chinese army saw more than 50 years ago be the corpses of the last royals of Guge?约翰·贝勒查及和嘉波才让有他们的想法,他们前往恐怖的干尸洞五十多年前人民解放军所看见的尸骸是否是最后的古格王朝贵族。The only answer is the overwhelming stench of more recent decay.回应他们的只有洞内强烈的尸臭。The cave unfortunately has once again become a burial site, and in recent years it remains of Tibetans have once again been deposited there, and this is actually complicating the archaeology about determining what was really there originally, and whats come after.很不幸的 这座洞穴一度成为弃尸的地点,直到最近几年仍旧有藏民将尸首放在那里,这使得考古的工作更加的复杂,哪些是原有的,哪些又是后来放的呢。In Tibet the dead receive a sky burial, this means corpses are carried away by birds, skilled morticians cut up the dead body to encourage eagles and vultures to consume the flesh, local tales suggest that at one time the cave may have held as many as 400 skeletons,西藏采行天葬由鸟类吃食尸体,负责处理尸体的殡葬人员将尸体切块让老鹰及秃鹰吃食,传说干尸洞内的尸骸多达四百具。but over time, bandits, scholars and the curious have taken much, leaving but a few remains, Tibetan rituals of the dead forbid any possible DNA studies, but John Bellezza believes this could very well be the resting place of the last king of Guge.随着时间推移,盗匪,学者及好奇的民众拿走多数的尸骸,现在只剩下几具,西藏葬礼拒绝DNA检测,但约翰·贝勒查相信古格王朝的最后一位国王葬在干尸洞中。There are some evidence that lends credence to the idea that indeed the corpses in the cave are those of the royal family, most of them seemed to have been beheaded, to have undergone execution, so that probably would not have been the case with the common soldiers who had been, who had fallen on battlefield.那里有一些可采信的据能明,洞内的遗骸的确属于古格皇族,他们大多遭到斩首,全数判处死刑,所以应该不可能是,一般战死沙场的将士的遗骸。译文属201605/444015

  It took years of negotiation and diplomacy to bring about todays historic deal between Iran and world powers. Iran has agreed to curb its nuclear program in exchange for the easing of economic sanctions.Now, the White House has to sell this deal to Congress and it could wind up being one of the biggest political fights of the Obama presidency. Congress has 60 days to dissect the terms of the agreement.U.S. Rep. Bill Huizenga, R-Zeeland, says that his initial thoughts on the deal arent encouraging.First, he tells us that Irans history of breaking and ignoring agreements is troubling.Additionally, Huizenga points out that Iran is viewed as the worlds leader in state-sponsored terrorism.;Im afraid that this may very well spark a nuclear arms race within the Middle East,; he says.President Obama has said that no deal would mean no lasting nuclear restrictions on Iran, and that could encourage other nations in the region to pursue their own nuclear assets, but as far as Huizenga is concerned the deal presented by the White House doesnt pass the smell test.;I just dont buy where the president is going with this, and theres just way too many pitfalls,; he tells us. ;We need to maintain that pressure rather than just turning it over wholesale and allowing, for example, arms to be imported.;Even as the two countries tentatively approach this deal, there are still American citizens being held captive by Iran.U.S. Rep. Dan Kildee, D-Flint Township, has been fighting for the release of former Flint resident Amir Hekmati and other Americans. Hekmati has been held prisoner since 2011 when he was arrested under suspicion of being a spy.But the release of Hekmati and others was not included in the nuclear deal. Kildee endorses this decision. While he has long been working toward their release, he doesnt want it to come at the cost of the U.S. giving into Irans demands.;We dont want to trade the freedom of an innocent American for a provision that makes the world a less safe place,; Kildee says.Instead, Kildee hopes the added spotlight on Iran will put pressure on them to release the individuals as a sign of their full intentions to adhere to the negotiated terms.Kildee says the captives freedom ;doesnt require any negotiations, it doesnt require a counter-party, it doesnt really require much other than their willingness to release these individuals.;Until Hekmati and others are released, Kildee intends to continue to sp their story, saying he wont allow it to be lost in the discussion of the deal.As for how he will vote, Kildee says he will be taking a closer look at the agreement ;to determine whether, in its totality, it makes the world a safer place.;;Well find out what exact details are in there to see where we can agree,; Huizenga says. ;Im just afraid in the broad brushstrokes at this point its headed in the wrong direction.;201507/385757

  Russias politics of memory俄罗斯的政界往事NemtsovBridge涅姆佐夫桥A fight over the site of a politicians killing is a proxy for a broader battle关于政治家遇刺之地的争论标志着论战范围扩大化Remembered with love以爱缅怀MEMORY has long been the subject of fierce and often deadly ideological battles inRussia. Those who control the past also control the present. Following the murder of Boris Nemtsov, a liberal opposition leader, on a bridge by the Kremlin, a fight for his memory, and for the Russian flag, is taking place. In Soviet times, purged Communist Party members were excised from photographs as though they never existed. Now it seems the Kremlin is trying similarly to airbrush Mr Nemtsov.追忆哀思已成为俄罗斯激烈之思想论战的永恒主题。曾经的执政者今日仍旧谋权在位。继自由党反对派领导人鲍里斯·涅姆佐夫于克里姆林宫大桥遇刺之后,俄罗斯正展开一场关于追忆涅姆佐夫以及俄罗斯国旗的论战。苏维埃时期,照片中要删掉被清洗出局的共产党员,仿佛他们未曾出现过一样。如今的克里姆林宫似乎正以同样的方式妄图抹去涅姆佐夫在大众心中的印记。First Kremlin spin-doctors tried to divert attention from Mr Nemtsovs murder to the “sudden” disappearance of Vladimir Putin, Russias president. Ten days later, Mr Putin re-emerged triumphantly and celebrated the anniversary of Russias annexation of Crimeaat the spot where Mr Nemtsov died. A frenzied crowd yelled “Ross-i-ya”, as if that could quash memories of Mr Nemtsov and his opposition to war inUkraine.起初,克里姆林宫的公关专家试图将公众视线从涅姆佐夫遇刺案,转向俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京“突然”失踪案上来。十天之后,普金总统又得意洋洋地再次出现在公众面前,并在涅姆佐夫遇害之地庆祝俄罗斯吞并克里米亚半岛之事。疯狂的人群高喊着“俄-罗-斯”,仿佛这样便能够淡去对涅姆佐夫的追忆哀思,淡化他对乌克兰之战的反对。In the middle of the night on March 27th, a month after Mr Nemtsovs murder, the authorities cleared the bridge of flowers and photographs. Thanks to Mr Nemtsovs friends and followers, the memorial was restored. People across the country ordered flowers online, and supporters took them to the bridge. Mr Nemtsovs photographs under Russian tricolours have been remounted on the balustrade. Volunteers guard the memorial day and night in snow and rain, sustained with tea and food by ordinary folk. They will not go away; they are being true to Mr Nemtsovs spirit.3月27日的午夜,也就是涅姆佐夫遇害的一个月后,俄罗斯当局清扫掉了大桥上的鲜花以及照片。多亏了涅姆佐夫的挚友以及追随者,这些纪念物品才得以保留恢复。俄罗斯全国人民从网上订购鲜花,由涅姆佐夫的拥护者带到大桥上。涅姆佐夫在俄罗斯三色旗下的照片已被重新装裱挂在了矮护墙上。志愿者不论风雪、夜以继日地坚守看护着纪念品,普通民众会送些茶水和食物以供他们充饥。他们不会离去;他们始终忠于涅姆佐夫灵魂。He managed to stay in politics despite state propaganda labelling him a “foreign agent” and “fifth column”. But fighting Mr Nemtsov after his death may prove even harder than it was during his life. Groomed to beRussias liberal president by Boris Yeltsin, the charismatic, honest Mr Nemtsov could turn into a symbol ofRussias unfulfilled promise. The display ofRussias national flag next to his name should be particularly troubling for the Kremlin.尽管国家宣传将涅姆佐夫扣上“外国特工”和“内奸”的帽子,他在政治上仍保有一席之地。不过,涅姆佐夫遇刺后的论战或许会比他生前的争议愈加激烈。鲍里斯·叶利钦赞誉他是俄罗斯魅力超凡、真诚坦率的自由派领袖,可谓是俄罗斯宏图未展的象征。在涅姆佐夫名字旁边悬挂俄罗斯国旗令克里姆林宫非常不悦。The bridge has aly been dubbedNemtsovBridge. It could now become a focal point of liberal opposition to a brutal regime, a role that after 1991 was played by the White House, then the seat of the Russian parliament. The Kremlin will try to clear the bridge of traces of Mr Nemtsovs murder. But the harder it tries, the more resonant the spot will become.这座大桥已被冠以涅姆佐夫大桥的名字。如今它成为自由党反对残酷券的聚焦点。俄罗斯议会统治中心与白宫1991年后充当的角色相同。克里姆林宫企图清除大桥上涅姆佐夫被害的据。然而,他们愈是如此大力地抹去记忆,这座大桥的名号愈是回声嘹亮。译者:陈思思 校对:石海霞 译文属译生译世 /201504/369866。

  I love your outift,you look fantastic.This is an honor of you我很喜欢你的外套 真漂亮 这是特意为你准备的I was hoping youd come out in a short sleeve dress,Oh really?Then I own you,yes我还以为你会穿短袖呢 当真 那太感谢你了 是的When I get to have arms like you,Im gonna come out in a short sleeve dress,I promise you that如果我胳膊和你一样漂亮 我就穿短袖 我保Ive dug my sneakers on and everything.Yeah,I konw,thank you so much,thats really great我把运动鞋都穿上了 准备齐全 是的 谢谢你 非常棒You y,you are y to get to move later.Thats what we are gonna do,right一会儿要运动运动 准备好了吗 我们待会儿要运动 是吧Awesome,yes,yes.Were gonna move later,yes,Were gonna move非常棒 等会儿活动活动筋骨 确实All right,now,you are,you really are a good dancer,and are Sasha and Malia good dancers as well你的 你跳舞非常好 Sasha和Malia也跳得一样好吗You know,theyre preetty good,I think they each got one of our genes她们很棒 她们分别遗传了我们两个的基因Sasha has my genes,Oh,thats not good for Malia.well you know,they do their best.Sasha继承了我的基因 这对Malia可不太好 但她们很努力I love your husband,I do.But you know,hes not as good a dancer as you are我爱你丈夫 但是 他舞可没你跳得好He can sing now.He can sing.Go figure.yes,he can.Ill take that,yeah.Yeah,he is.Oh yeah.他会唱歌了现在 当然 不信看看 他真的会 我保 是啊 他在 是的Well,you know.Thats so sweet.Its sweet.Now,do the girls know,like how cool it is that这真是太贴心了 确实如此 你们女儿 觉得这很酷吗I mean cause,what great parents to have,for all kinds of reasons孩子总是觉得他们的父母很酷 各种各样的原因But do they think you are cool when you dance?Oh,no,no你跳舞时他们觉得酷吗 一点也不No,thats the big threat,when we are at an event.you know,kids dont have a poker face,you know they are.at a performance,and they are like这点确实 我们参加活动的时候 你知道小孩没有一本正经的那种表情 看表演的时候 他们的表情是这样的So Im like,you gotta smile.Cause people need to know that you are happy.And they are like,I am smiling我就说 笑一笑 得让大家知道你很开心 他们就这种表情 我在笑啊So I usually lean over to SM and say Im gonna start dancing.No,no no.所以我经常靠过去给他们说 我要跳舞喽 不要不要不要啊Sasha and Malia wherever you are,you have to know,she is a good dancer and she is a cool moma.So appreciate her dancing.Thank you,thank you.Sasha Malia 不管你们在哪 你们要记住 她是个很好的舞者 很酷的母亲 所以要欣赏她的舞蹈 谢谢 /201609/466370

  

  Leaders Business in Africa Making Africa work社论精粹 非洲商业 让非洲发展起来The continents future depends on people, not commodities非洲的前途依赖人,而非大宗商品“IS ANYONE here actually hoping to make any money, or are you all just trying to minimise your losses?”“在座的有没有任何人希望能赚到钱,还是大家都只是想把损失降到最低?”The question, asked at a dinner in London for investors who specialise in Africa, showed how the mood has changed in the past year.这个问题在伦敦一个为专事非洲投资的投资者举办的晚餐会上提出来,体现出过去一年的情绪变化。The financiers around the table—mostly holders of African bonds—all said they were simply trying not to lose money.在座的各位金融家大部分手中都持有非洲债券,他们都说自己只是想不要亏钱。Only a few years ago people were queuing up to invest in Africa.然而仅仅在几年前,大家都还挤破头要在非洲投资。As recently as 2012 Zambia paid less than Spain to borrow dollars.就在2012年,赞比亚美元贷款的利息比西班牙还低。Private-equity funds dedicated to Africa raised record sums to invest in shopping malls and firms making everything from nappies to fruit juice.专注投资非洲的私募股权基金筹得破纪录的资金用于投资购物中心和企业,这些公司生产的产品从尿片到果汁一应俱全。Business folk salivated at the prospect of selling to the fast-growing African middle class, which by one measure numbered 350m people.非洲的中产阶级正在快速成长,一项数据显示其人数可达3.5亿,商界人士一想到这些人是他们未来的销售对象便垂涎三尺。Miners sank billions into African soil to feed Chinas appetite for minerals.矿产公司也向非洲的土地中砸入数十亿美元以满足中国对矿产资源的需求。Now investors are glum. In the short run, they are right to worry.但现在投资者们个个愁容满面。In the long run, as our special report on African business shows this week, the potential rewards from a market of 1.2 billion people are too juicy to ignore, despite the risks.短期来看,他们确实有理由担心。长期来说,我们本周对非洲经济的特别报道显示,这个有着12亿人口的市场潜在回报巨大不容忽视,尽管风险也不小。From oil in the gears to sand in the wheels从一路顺风到磕磕绊绊For decades, sentiment about Africa has followed commodity prices, rising and falling like a bungee-jumper at Victoria Falls.数十年来,对非洲的投资情绪一直随大宗商品价格波动,如同在维多利亚瀑布蹦极跳一样忽上忽下。The recent plunge has caused a 16% drop in sub-Saharan Africas terms of trade (the ratio of the price of its exports to that of its imports).最近大宗商品价格大跌已令撒哈拉以南非洲的贸易比率(出口商品与进口商品价格的相对价格比率)下降了16%。Growth across the region will slow to about 3% this year, predicts the World Bank, down from 7-8% a decade ago. That is barely ahead of population growth of 2.7%.世界估计整个地区今年的经济增长将会从十年前的7%到8%放缓至3%,勉强高于2.7%的人口增幅。Nigeria and Angola, two big oil exporters, will probably need bail-outs from the IMF within a year.石油出口大国尼日利亚和安哥拉恐怕年内就会需要IMF的紧急救助。Yet Afro-pessimists should remember two things about commodity busts.然而对非洲持悲观情绪的人们就大宗商品价格大跌的问题需要记住两点:They dont last for ever. And they dont hurt everyone:第一,价格不会永远下跌;第二,不是所有人都从中受害。17 African countries with a quarter of the regions population will show a net benefit from the current one, thanks to cheaper energy.由于能源价格低廉,非洲有17个国家(占非洲总人口四分之一)将会在这一轮大跌的情况下获得净收益。More important, by focusing on the minerals markets it is easy to miss some big trends that are happening above ground—and these are mostly positive.更为重要的是,过于关注矿产品市场会容易忽略矿产行业以外的一些大趋势—而这些趋势多数都令人乐观。The first is that Africa is far more peaceful than it was even a decade ago.首先,非洲要比十年前太平多了。The wars that ripped apart the Democratic Republic of Congo and sucked in its neighbours, causing millions of deaths, have largely been quelled. A few states, such as Somalia, South Sudan and the Central African Republic, are in chaos.内战曾一度令刚果民主共和国四分五裂,且波及多个邻国,令数百万人丧生。如今,战火已基本平息。But overall the risk of dying violently in Africa has tumbled.还有一些国家,如索马里、南苏丹和中非共和国,仍然处于混乱之中。The latest ranking of the worlds most violent countries by the Geneva Declaration includes just two African states (tiny Lesotho and Swaziland) among its top ten.但总体来说在非洲死于暴乱的危险已大为降低。《日内瓦宣言》最近列出的十个暴力情况最为严重的国家中,只有两个是非洲国家(小国莱索托和斯威士兰)。Africa is also far more democratic than it was.其二,非洲如今也更为民主了。In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, only one sub-Saharan government was peacefully voted out of office.在上世纪六十、七十和八十年代,在撒哈拉以南非洲只有一个政府通过投票和平下台。Now nearly all face regular elections, which are harder to rig thanks to social media. Voters have real choices—one reason why policies have improved.现在几乎各国都会定期选举,而且在社交媒体的监督下,操纵选举愈发困难。选民们有了真正的选择—这也是政策有所改善的一个重要原因。Old-style governments favoured nationalisation, printing money and (in some cases) rounding peasants up at gunpoint and forcing them onto collective farms.老派的政府喜欢国有化、印制钞票和(在有些情况下)用杆逼着农民加入集体农场。 /201604/440364

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