南充市中医院好嘛健社区

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 南充市中医院好嘛康分享
I’ll start with one of my favorite thoughts, by Alex Haley in his essay “The Shadowland of Dreams”:我想用我最喜欢的一个人的想法作为开头,这段话来自亚历克斯o哈里的文章《梦想的阴暗之面》(Shadowland of Dreams):Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there’s a big difference between “being a writer” and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at the typewriter. “You’ve got to want to write,” I say to them, “not want to be a writer.”“许多年轻人对我说他们想当一名作家。我经常给予他们鼓励,同时也告诫他们‘当一名作家’与写作完全是两码事。大多数怀抱作家梦的年轻人其实只为追名逐利,殊不知那打字机前的写作过程是如此漫长而孤独。‘你要有写作的欲望。’我告诉他们,‘而不是只想着当一名作家。’”The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune, there are thousands more whose longing is never requited. Even those who succeed often know long periods of neglect and poverty. I did.“其实,写作是一项需要孤军奋战,报酬甚微的工作。受到幸运之神眷顾、一举成名的作家仅是少数,更多的人壮志难酬。即便最成功的作家也会经历一段默默无闻和生活窘困的时期。我便是其中一位。”When the startup economy booms, like it did in 1999 and like it is again in 2014, many people suddenly discover they want to “be an entrepreneur.” Newly-minted MBAs who otherwise would have joined Goldman Sachs or McKinsey instead head west to San Francisco. Big company lifers from Oracle or HP abruptly jump ship, not wanting to “miss out” on the next gold rush.1999年和2014年,我们经历过两次创业潮,许多人突然发现他们“想做一名创业者”。刚毕业的MBA学生本可以加入高盛或麦肯锡,但他们却选择前往旧金山。甲骨文或惠普等大公司里的元老突然跳槽,原因是他们不希望与下一次淘金热“失之交臂”。Too often, these folks quickly find a like-minded co-founder who also wants to join the “startup scene”, brainstorm a few ideas, pick one that seems plausible, hack up a product, then buy a wheelbarrow they can use to take their money to the bank when the acquisition offers start to roll in.这些人往往很快就能找到志同道合的人,他们都怀揣创业梦想,一番头脑风暴之后产生一些想法,从中选出看起来合理的创意,据此设计一款产品,然后买一辆手推车,静等着收购要约蜂拥而至的时候,将大把的钱运到。They almost never need that wheelbarrow. Starting a company is as Alex Haley described writing: the best companies are usually not started by people who want to “be an entrepreneur.” They are started by people who are knowledgable and passionate about a specific problem, are driven to solve it, and then get busy building a company to bring it to life. They rarely go to tech conferences, can’t be found at launch parties, and they certainly don’t have a quick acquisition as their primary goal.但许多人的希望都会落空。创业就像亚历克斯o哈里描述的写作一样:由一心想“成为创业者”的人创立的公司往往做不到最好。最好的创业者通常对某个具体问题有见地并充满,有解决这个问题的动力,他们会全身心投入到公司建设,只想着让其发展壮大。他们很少会参加技术会议,公司成立派对上也看不到他们的身影,迅速被收购也不是他们的主要目标。In contrast, those who want to get rich by “being an entrepreneur” often come up with ideas that don’t really reflect any proprietary insight or interest. They’ll launch an undifferentiated e-commerce site with few barriers to entry, or they’ll a Gartner report about a new enterprise market predicted to be worth billions, and they’ll jump into it with a me-too product. When they hit the inevitable bumps in the road, they may not have the drive to power over them, or they may not have the proprietary insight to outsmart competitors.恰恰相反,那些希望“成为创业者”而一夜暴富的人,所提出的想法没有真正反映出独有的洞察力或兴趣。他们成立的电子商务网站大同小异,几乎没有准入门槛,或者他们在高德纳公司的报告中读到,一个新的市场预计会达到数十亿的规模,然后便拿一款山寨产品一头扎进去。他们一定会遭遇无力越过的障碍,或者没有独到的洞察力去打败竞争对手。The best entrepreneurs work on ideas that grow out of their personal experiences and aptitudes. Their ideas often are counter-intuitive and don’t seem likely to work at first. I highly recommend this essay by Paul Graham: How to Get Startup Ideas. One of Paul’s best thoughts is:最优秀的创业者,其创业灵感都源自个人的经历和天资。他们的想法往往有违直觉,最初看来似乎不可能实现。建议大家一定要读读保罗o格雷厄姆的经典之作——《如何获得创业灵感》。他最好的一个看法就是:The verb you want to be using with respect to startup ideas is not “think up” but “notice.” At YC we call ideas that grow naturally out of the founders’ own experiences “organic” startup ideas. The most successful startups almost all begin this way.”“创业的点子是被‘发现’的,而不是被‘发明’的。在 YC创业营,我们会把从创始人自身经历当中自然产生的灵感叫做‘内生的’创业灵感。最成功的创业公司几乎都是这样发展起来的。”Now, many of these “organic” founders also want to get rich, as do their investors and the employees who join them, but they also expect to spend years toiling away with lots of setbacks and trial and error. They know that if they get rich it will be because they are working on an idea where they have an edge in terms of knowledge and enthusiasm, not because they have joined a lucrative profession called “being an entrepreneur.”现在,许多内生型创始人也希望获得财富,他们的投资者和员工同样想获得回报,但他们也会用数年时间应付可能遇到的挫折,进行反复尝试。他们知道自己能够获得财富,这是因为他们在知识与热情方面具有优势,而不是因为从事了一种有利可图的职业——“创业者”。All that being said, I would never discourage someone who truly is interested in startups from pursuing one – I’d certainly rather have them here in Silicon Valley rather than send them back to Wall Street. Startup life can provide a career full of accelerated learning, great camaraderie and teamwork, and it will at least leave you with some great stories. If you really want to enter the startup world, and not only for a quick acquisition, you could try:尽管如此,对于真正有兴趣创业的人,我从来不会泼冷水——而且我宁愿他们来到硅谷,而不是回到华尔街。在创业过程中,你会加速学习,收获深厚的友谊和团队精神,你至少能积累一些了不起的经历。如果你真的希望创业,而不是单纯为了迅速被收购,你可以做以下尝试:o Get awesome at something. Become a great engineer. Designer. Product manager. Marketer. Sales rep. Growth hacker. It is hard to start or join a great company if you aren’t great at a job that most startups need done.o 在某件事上做到极好。成为一名伟大的工程师、设计师、产品经理、营销专家、销售代表或所谓的增长黑客(Growth hacker)。如果大多数初创公司都需要的工作,你做不到出类拔萃的话,不论是创业还是加入一家出色的公司都很难。o Go deep in an industry. Many of the best companies are started by founds with proprietary knowledge in a specific field, like ad technology, insurance, supply chain management, information security, or many others.o 深入研究一个行业。许多最好的公司最初都掌握了某个特定领域的专有知识,如广告技术、保险、供应链管理、信息安全等。o Join a great startup. If you don’t have an idea where you have proprietary knowledge or passion, follow founders who do. Join the team early, contribute however you can, learn as much as you can, and it may lead to your founding your own company in the future as you get exposed to more people and ideas.o 加入一家出色的初创公司。如果你还不知道自己在哪方面拥有专项知识或,那就追随一位已经确立自身专长的公司创始人。尽早加入团队,做出尽可能多的贡献,不断学习,等你接触到更多的人和想法的时候,你未来或许便能创立自己的公司。Good luck!祝你好运! /201502/361275A Chinese state-controlled technology group has terminated a .8bn plan to become the largest shareholder in data storage group Western Digital, after the investment was flagged for an investigation by US authorities.中国政府控股的一家高科技集团终止了成为美国数据存储集团——西部数据(Western Digital)最大股东的38亿美元投资计划。此前美国当局指明要调查这笔投资。Yesterday a unit of Tsinghua Unigroup, China’s most ambitious overseas acquirer in the chipmaking sector, said it would abandon a deal agreed last September that would have seen it acquire a stake of about 15 per cent.清华紫光(Tsinghua Unigroup)是中国在芯片制造领域境外收购最雄心勃勃的集团。昨天,该集团的一个部门表示,将放弃去年9月达成的一宗交易,按照协议该集团原本会收购约15%的股份。Shares in Western Digital had slumped more than 6 per cent by late yesterday morning, to .93. The California-based company said the deal with Tsinghua had fallen apart after a decision by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States (Cfius) to investigate the transaction.昨天接近中午时分,西部数据股价下滑逾6%,至每股42.93美元。这家总部位于加利福尼亚州的企业表示,在美国外国投资委员会(CFIUS)决定调查该交易之后,与清华紫光达成的交易已破裂。The move comes at a time when Chinese companies are striking large overseas deals at the fastest pace in history, even as concerns remain about their ability to close the transactions.这种局面出现之际,中国企业正以史上最快节奏在境外发起大规模收购——尽管有关它们能否完成交易的担忧挥之不去。Shares in Western Digital have fallen sharply in the past year. This has affected both the value of its bn cash and stock acquisition of SanDisk, a flash-memory disk maker, as well as the premium of the investment from Unisplendour, the Tsinghua subsidiary.过去一年里西部数据的股价急剧下滑。这不仅影响了该集团以现金和股票形式对闪存盘制造商晟碟(SanDisk)的190亿美元收购的价值,也影响了清华紫光子公司紫光控股(Unisplendour)对其投资的溢价。The deal would have seen Tsinghua given the right to nominate one person to the board of Western Digital. Neither company would incur a termination fee, Western Digital said.按照协议,清华紫光原本能通过该交易获得在西部数据董事会提名一位董事的权利。西部数据表示,双方均无需付解约金。One Washington-based lawyer said it was odd for Tsinghua to walk away from the deal as the government had only said it would investigate the investment, not that it would block the deal.一位驻华盛顿的律师表示,由于美国政府只是表示会调查(而不是封杀)这一交易,清华紫光退出该交易有点奇怪。“All that happened here was that Cfius said it was a covered transaction and that they would look into it,” he said. “The Chinese were getting a board seat and a joint venture was being formed, so of course they would review it.”他说:“CFIUS只是表示该交易属于其调查范围,他们会对其开展调查,这就是事情的全部。中国人将获得一个董事会席位,双方将成立一家合资企业。出于这个原因,他们当然会审查这一交易。”The collapse marks the second time this year such a transaction has collapsed due to scrutiny by Cfius, the US body which reviews foreign investments for national security concerns.这一交易的破裂是今年第二宗因CFIUS审查而破裂的交易。CFIUS是从国家安全角度对外来投资开展审查的美国机构。 /201602/428509

Google GOOG -1.13% is developing a ride-hailing service that could eventually rely on self-driving cars, Bloomberg reported Monday. The project would put it on a collision course with Uber, which in just a few years has seized a huge chunk of the existing taxi business.据彭社本周报道,谷歌正在开发一款最终有可能将依赖无人驾驶汽车的打车务。这一项目将让这家科技巨头与Uber正面交锋,后者仅用了几年时间就攫取了出租车行业的一大块市场蛋糕。There is no word on when a Google ride-sharing service would become available to the general public, though Bloomberg reported that the company is testing a version of the service with its employees.目前尚无消息显示,谷歌的打车务将在什么时候面向公众开放,不过据彭社报道,谷歌目前正在向其内部员工测试该务。Google’s potential move into the market comes two years after its venture capital arm, Google Ventures, led a massive 2013 investment in Uber that valued it around .5 billion. Subsequent funding rounds have valued Uber at more than billion.2013年,谷歌旗下风投机构Google Ventures领衔的财团向Uber投入巨额资金,使得这家打车务商的估值达到35亿美元,此后的几轮融资更使它的估值达到400亿美元以上。两年后的今天,谷歌决定亲自上阵,挺进这一市场。Concerned about Google’s possible entry, Uber is considering removing Google’s chief legal officer, David Drummond, from its board of directors, according to Bloomberg, which cited anonymous sources. Drummond has been a board member since 2013.据彭社引述匿名人士的消息,由于担心这家科技巨擘的潜在攻势,Uber正在考虑将谷歌公司首席法务官大卫o德拉蒙德请出董事会。德拉蒙德从2013年起开始担任Uber的董事会成员。Meanwhile, Uber is moving forward with plans to develop its own driverless vehicle technology and is building a research facility in Pittsburgh to explore the idea, TechCrunch reported. Autonomous cars would let Uber avoid having to share money from passengers with drivers.另据TechCrunch报道,与此同时,Uber也计划开发自己的无人驾驶汽车技术,该公司目前正在匹兹堡市建立一个研究技构,探索该创意的可行性。无人驾驶汽车将使Uber避免与出租车司机分享乘客的打车费用。Google and Uber did not immediately respond to requests for comment.谷歌和Uber都没有立刻回应《财富》的置评请求。A few months ago, Fortune wondered if Google and ride-sharing startup Uber might be on “a collision course” over dueling on-demand delivery services. But the two tech companies could be headed for an even bigger clash.早在几个月前,《财富》就曾预测谷歌与Uber有可能在打车务上进入“并行道”。但这两家科技公司也有可能面临更大的冲突。Uber has aly made more than its share of enemies in a series of controversies including by ignoring regulators and taking on taxi companies, some of which have sued to stop the newcomer. Uber and ride-hailing service rival Lyft have exchanged public accusations while competing for customers and drivers. A number of passengers have also accused Uber drivers of questionable conduct, including a woman in Los Angeles who accused her Uber driver of sexually assaulting her this week.人红是非多。Uber已经陷入一系列争议,树敌颇多。很多人指责它无视监管,对抗出租车公司,一些出租车公司甚至提起诉讼,要求“封杀”这位不速之客。Uber正在与另一个打车应用Lyft争抢顾客和司机,一直没有停止相互公开指责。此外,也有不少乘客指责Uber司机的个人素质有问题。比如,洛杉矶的一位女乘客本周就指控说,她通过Uber找到的一名司机对她进行了性骚扰。In other words, a battle with Google would only be the latest conflict for Uber.换句话说,对于Uber而言,与谷歌对抗只是一长串战役中的最近一次罢了。(财富中文网) /201502/358725Hernando de Soto, the Peruvian economist whose work centred on the informal economy and property rights, has much to contribute to the dialogue raging in the so-called developed world about privacy and data.在所谓的发达世界,一场关于隐私和数据的对话正如火如荼地展开。主要研究非正式经济和财产权的秘鲁经济学家埃尔南多#8226;德索托(Hernando de Soto),可为这场对话贡献不少真知灼见。Mr de Soto showed how enabling individuals to own property legally would drive economic prosperity. Many credit him with the surge of wealth creation happening in some parts of Latin America.德索托阐释了,为何让个人拥有合法财产权能够推动经济繁荣。许多人认为,拉丁美洲一些地方财富创造大大加快就要归功于他。Meanwhile, US technology platform companies and the European Union are engaged in an arms race around privacy. The issue is not whether my data are private. We lost that battle a long time ago. As Scott McNealy, the co-founder of Sun Microsystems said: “You have zero privacy#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;get over it.” The issue is over who owns my data and to whom the value accrues.与此同时,美国科技平台企业和欧盟(EU)正围绕隐私较劲。问题不在于我的数据是否隐私。这场战斗我们早已打输。如太阳计算机系统公司(Sun Microsystems)联合创始人斯科特 #8226;麦克尼利(Scott McNealy)所说:“你没有丝毫隐私……别纠结这个了。”问题在于谁拥有我的数据、这些数据的价值又属于谁。Google’s use of my data drives their business model and their multibillion-dollar market capitalisation. We get no economic benefit for that beyond free search and online stalking. My bank account does not benefit from its success.谷歌(Google)使用了我的数据,这推动其建立了商业模式,实现了巨额市值。除免费搜索和在线追踪之外,我们不从中获得任何经济利益。谷歌的成功不会让我的账户余额增加一分钱。I long thought an entrepreneur would develop a business model to incentivise individuals for the use of their consumer data. I found one such entrepreneur,John Paleomylites, who was running BeatThatQuote, a UK price comparison site that my firm Ariadne Capital advised.我早已设想过会有一位企业家,开发一种商业模式,激励个人允许别人使用自己的消费者数据。我曾发现过这样一位企业家,约翰#8226;帕莱奥米利提斯(John Paleomylites),他曾管理过一家英国比价网站BeatThatQuote,我的公司Ariadne Capital曾为这家网站提供过咨询。BeatThatQuote was providing cash back deals and discounts. Despite having less than #163;500,000 of earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation, it was sold to Google in 2011 for #163;37.7m, having articulated its strategic value (or threat) to its acquirer. Who says Goliath does not get scared?当时,BeatThatQuote提供返利和折扣。尽管这家网站的息税折旧和摊销前利润(EBITDA)还不到50万英镑,但在2011年,谷歌以3770万英镑的价格收购了它,因为它明明白白地展示了自己对谷歌的战略价值(或者说威胁)。谁说巨人歌利亚(Goliath)不会害怕?The battle is no longer about incentivisation. If we believe that my data — whether related to my finances, telecoms, health, transportation or property — are my data, than their use surely must accrue value to me.这场战斗已不再关乎激励机制。如果我们相信,我的数据——无论是关于我的财务、电信记录、健康情况、交通记录还是持有房产情况的数据——是属于我的,那么使用这些数据当然必须让我获益。Re-enter Mr de Soto. He changed the world for Peruvian farmers by establishing property rights for them. What if data were established as legal assets for everyone?再回到德索托。通过确立秘鲁农场主的财产权,他改变了这些人的命运(见上图)。如果数据被确认为每个人的合法财产,那会怎样?Those of us who have had property rights have the ability to build other assets on top of our property assets. If you are still securing your basic needs at the bottom of thepyramid described by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow — a model that features an individual’s survival at the bottom and their self-actualisation at the apex of the pyramid — then you advance more slowly and with less certainty, if at all.我们中已经拥有财产权的人,能够在我们的财产基础之上创建其他资产。美国心理学家亚伯拉罕#8226;马斯洛(Abraham Maslow)提出了需求层次理论,该理论认为人的需求呈金字塔形状,处于金字塔最底层的是生存需求,金字塔顶端是自我实现需求。如果你仍在努力满足处于需求层次底层的基本需求,那么你的进步速度会更慢、并面临更大不确定性,甚至根本无法进步。So if data are the new universal assets, instead of arguing about privacy, should we just argue about money?因此,假如数据是为人们普遍享有的新资产,那么我们是否应该仅争论钱的问题,而别再争隐私不隐私?If the starting point is “they are my data”, then there should be a corresponding accrual for their use in the financial accounts for any business whose model uses them. Data, and the cost of purchasing them, would become a “cost of sale” in transactions.如果以“那是我的数据”为前提,那么任何企业,只要它们的商业模式用到这些数据,那么就应该为使用这些数据向我们付相应的费用。数据,以及购买数据的成本,将成为一项“销售成本”。If a large bank or telecoms group opened up its customer data to start-ups for applications using that data and then sold those applications on, a percentage of the revenue would have to accrue to those customers, or be netted against any other monies they paid in. The value of what is owed to any one individual would be 1/N where N is the size of the customer base used.如果一家大型或电信公司向一些初创企业开发的应用开放自己的用户数据,供这些应用使用,并销售这些应用,那么就必须将所获收入的一部分交给那些用户,或者从用户缴纳的费用中扣除这部分金额。应付给每个用户个人的费用将为总收入的1/N,N为用户总数。At each point in history where power has shifted towards the individual from a hierarchy, power is forcefully taken. There is a net social gain for the common man and woman if their data are valued. Prosperity will rip across society if we set up the right data architecture for business.回顾历史,每次权力从特权集团转移到个人手中时,权力都被牢牢地抓住了。对普通民众来说,如果赋予他们的数据以价值,会为社会带来净收益。如果我们建立合适的数据商用结构,财富将迅速席卷社会各个阶层。The non-technology traditional business — whether retailer, bank, transportation company — has an ace to play. By engaging with entrepreneurs and embracing consumer data as a legal asset of the individual, the incumbents in all traditional industries could deliver singularly spectacular growth.无论是零售商、还是交通公司,各种非科技传统企业都有了一张可打的王牌。通过与初创企业合作,持让消费者数据成为个人的法定财产,所有传统行业的现有企业都能实现非凡的增长。This is a system-level challenge. A start-up is at best today a car — a revenue-generating algorithm — in need of a highway. What big companies have is distribution, audience and reach. They can be a very smart highway.这是一种系统级挑战。如今一家拥有能创造收入的算法的初创企业最多算一辆汽车,它们需要公路。大型企业有的是分销体系、听众和影响力。后者可能成为非常智能的公路。The judo move would be for large, traditional enterprises to recognise consumer data rights and proactively value them in their business models.关键的一步将是,大型传统企业承认消费者的数据权,主动在自己的商业模式中赋予这种权利价值。One can never win by playing by the rules of someone else’s game: you must change the rules of the game. Every successful entrepreneur knows this. It is time for the judo move.按照别人的游戏规则来玩,你永远不可能赢:你必须改变游戏规则。每个成功的企业家都明白这一点。是时候走出关键一步了。 /201505/374473

Cosmic superhero Stephen Hawking never ceases to amaze his admirers. At the age of 72 he is the world’s most celebrated scientist and the ultimate symbol of triumph over adversity, as he celebrates five decades of intellectual achievement while living with motor neurone disease, which kills most patients within two or three years.“宇宙之王”斯蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)从未停止让他的崇拜者惊叹。72岁高龄的他不仅是在世最著名的科学家,而且是战胜逆境的终极象征。50年来,他在患有运动神经元疾病(MND)情况下取得了非凡学术成就,而这种疾病的患者大多在两、三年内死亡。This week Professor Hawking enjoyed the limelight at the London premiere of the latest film about his life, The Theory of Everything, starring Eddie Redmayne. Last week he showed off a new communications system designed by Intel, which enables him to write and speak more efficiently — in his famous American android voice — by registering tiny movements of his cheek muscles.最近,霍金教授在《万物理论》(The Theory of Everything)伦敦首映式上成为公众瞩目的中心,这是最新一部刻画霍金生平的电影,由埃迪#8226;雷德梅尼(Eddie Redmayne)主演。更早些时候,他展示了由英特尔(Intel)设计的新通讯系统,通过捕捉他脸颊肌肉的微小抽动,这一系统使他能够更高效地写作和讲话——用他那著名的美国机器人的声音。At the same time Prof Hawking stirred up controversywith his views on artificial intelligence, which “could be a real danger in the not too distant future”, he told the Financial Times by email. “The risk is that computers develop intelligence and take over. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded.”同时,霍金对人工智能的看法激起了争议。他在发给英国《金融时报》的电子邮件中说,人工智能“可能在不太遥远的将来给人类带来真正的危险”。“风险在于电脑开发并掌控智能。人类受到缓慢生物进化的限制,可能无法与之竞争,并被取代。”Lord Rees, astronomer royal and fellow cosmologist, first met Prof Hawking in 1964 when both were graduate students at Cambridge university. “He was aly unsteady on his feet and spoke with great difficulty,” recalls Lord Rees. “I learnt that he might not live long enough even to finish his PhD.英国皇家天文学家、宇宙学家里斯勋爵(Lord Rees)第一次见到霍金是在1964年,那时两人都是剑桥大学的研究生。“他已经无法站稳,而且说话也非常困难,”里斯勋爵回忆说。“我意识到他可能活不了多长时间,甚至可能无法完成他的士学位。”“Astronomers are used to large numbers,” he adds. “But few numbers could be as large as the odds I’d have given, back in 1964 when Stephen received his ‘death sentence’, against ever celebrating this uniquely inspiring crescendo of achievement sustained now for more than 50 years.”他说:“霍金早在1964年就接到了‘死亡判决书’,而他还可以庆祝这一至今逾50年、不断发挥独特的鼓舞人心作用的辉煌成就,放在当年我会认为出现这一结果的几率无比之小。”Prof Hawking’s scientific reputation rests on his work on the relationship between gravity, space and time. “He has done as much to advance our understanding of gravity as anyone since Einstein,” says Lord Rees.霍金在科学领域的声誉建立在他对重力、空间和时间关系的研究上。“他是继爱因斯坦之后,在加深我们对重力的理解方面贡献最大的人,”里斯勋爵说。His most celebrated research concerns black holes, concentrations of matter so dense even light cannot escape their gravitational pull. Prof Hawking showed black holes are not just a bizarre theoretical construct but also play an important role in the development of the universe. His eureka moment came in the early 1970s, when he realised that black holes would not be completely black but would emit what became known as “Hawking radiation”, a key concept in mathematical physics.他最著名的研究成果与黑洞有关。黑洞是超高密度的天体,连光都逃不过他们的引力。霍金告诉人们,黑洞不仅是一种奇怪的理论建构,而且在宇宙的进化中发挥着重要作用。他的“尤里卡时刻”在上世纪70年代初降临,当时他认识到黑洞并不完全是黑的,而是会发射出被称做“霍金辐射“的能量,这个词后来也成为数学物理领域的一个重要概念。Although his subsequent work has not had such a strong scientific impact, he has continued to publish research papers on quantum cosmology, tackling questions such as what happened before the birth of our universe. His later output is doubly remarkable in a mathematical subject where most researchers peak at an early age.虽然霍金之后的研究没再产生那么大的科学影响,但他不断地发表关于量子宇宙学的研究论文,力图解答诸如宇宙诞生前发生了什么之类的问题。他后来在一个数学课题上取得了卓越成果,而在这一领域,大多数研究者在年轻时就达到了顶峰。He became a celebrity in 1988 with the publication of his first popular book, the bestselling A Brief History of Time. Ten further books have appeared, including four written for children with his daughter, Lucy. “The concept of an imprisoned mind roaming the cosmos plainly gripped people’s imagination,” Lord Rees says.霍金在1988年因其第一本畅销书《时间简史》(A Brief History of Time)成为名人。之后,他又出版了10本书,其中4本是为儿童以及他的女儿露西(Lucy)所写。“一颗身体被禁锢的心灵在宇宙中漫游的想法显然激发了人们的想象,”里斯勋爵说。Prof Hawking enjoys his fame, happily filling lecture rooms from London’s Royal Albert Hall to the White House. He has featured in Star Trek, The Simpsons and many other television shows. Several films have been made about him, including a notable portrayal by Benedict Cumberbatch in 2004.霍金享受他的声誉,他高兴地发表演讲,从伦敦的皇家阿尔伯特音乐厅(Royal Albert Hall)到白宫的演讲厅都挤满了他的听众。他在《星际迷航》(Star Trek)、《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)和其他许多电视节目中出演过。已有多部关于霍金的电影问世,其中包括本尼迪克特#8226;康伯巴奇(Benedict Cumberbatch)在2004年塑造的著名形象。The best account of Prof Hawking’s early life is his memoir, My Brief History,published last year. He grew up just north of London, the son of Oxford graduates. After three laid-back undergraduate years, also at Oxford, serious work began as a Cambridge postgrad. His illness started at that point, too.对霍金早年生活最好的记录是他的回忆录——去年出版的《我的简史》(My Brief History)。他在伦敦北部长大,父母都是牛津大学毕业生。他同样在牛津念大学,度过3年悠闲的本科时光之后,他成为一名剑桥硕士生并开始了严肃的研究工作。他的病情也是在那时开始发展的。The Theory of Everything focuses on Prof Hawking’s marriage to Jane Wilde, who looked after him and their three children with extraordinary devotion for more than 25 years. They broke up under the strain of 24-hour medical care — and in 1995 he married Elaine Mason, one of his nurses. That, too, ended in divorce and since 2006 he has depended on a team of helpers — and the best medical technology available.新片《万物理论》着重刻画了霍金与简#8226;怀尔德(Jane Wilde)的婚姻,后者为照顾霍金和他们的3个孩子做出了超过25年的非凡奉献。但在24小时医疗护理的压力下,他们离婚了。1995年,霍金与照看他的护士之一伊莱恩#8226;梅森(Elaine Mason)结婚,但这段婚姻也以离婚收场。自2006年以来,霍金一直依靠一个助手团队和当今最先进的医疗技术生活。Prof Hawking retains a strong sense of fun and adventure, though respiratory problems are curtailing his ability to travel and in particular to fly.霍金依然对和冒险保持强烈的兴趣,尽管呼吸道问题限制了他旅行,特别是坐飞机。“He is a fantastic symbol for people living with motor neurone disease,” says Belinda Cupid, research director of the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association, with his role in the 2012 London Paralympics opening ceremony particularly inspiring. “As patron of our charity, he is very generous with his time.” Why Prof Hawking has lived so much longer than other MND patients remains a medical mystery, however.英国运动神经元疾病协会研究部主任贝琳达#8226;丘比特谈到霍金在2012年伦敦残奥会开幕式上特别鼓舞人心的作用时说:“他对患有运动神经元疾病的人来说是一个神奇的象征。”“作为我们慈善机构的赞助人,他付出了很多时间。”但是,为什么霍金可以比其他运动神经元疾病患者多活如此之久仍是个医学谜题。In the past 15 years Intel engineers have looked after his communications needs. “They have redesigned my software and incorporated new word prediction algorithms that allow me to write faster,” he says. “Through my computer I can write, talk, scientific papers, make Skype phone calls and search on the internet. Recently I decided to join Facebook .”在过去15年中,英特尔的工程师一直在关注他的通讯需求。“他们重新设计了我的软件,并加装了新的单词预测算法,让我可以写得更快,”霍金说。“通过我的电脑,我能够书写、讲话、阅读科学论文、拨打Skype电话以及在互联网上进行搜索。最近,我决定加入Facebook。”Important as Prof Hawking’s own research has been, his role as a beacon inspiring young people to study maths and physics may be even more influential in the long run, says Professor David Wands, director of Portsmouth university’s cosmology institute: “The iconic figure of Hawking the celebrity is impossible to disentangle from his profound contribution as a scientist.”朴茨茅斯大学宇宙学研究所所长大卫#8226;万兹(David Wands)教授说,与霍金教授自己所做的研究同样重要的是,从长远来看,他作为鼓舞年轻人学习数学和物理的一盏明灯可能会发挥更大的影响。“霍金作为一个名人的偶像形象不可能脱离他作为一个科学家的巨大贡献。” /201412/349711Ray Tomlinson, the programmer credited with sending the world’s first modern email who is responsible for the use of the @ symbol in electronic communications, has died aged 74. 发出世界上第一封现代电子邮件的程序员雷#8226;汤姆林森(Ray Tomlinson)去世了,享年74岁。他让我们的电子通信中有了@标志。 Tomlinson wrote a program in 1971 that allowed messages to be exchanged between different computers on the ArpaNet, the precursor to the internet. Electronic messages had previously only been exchanged between people using the same mainframe machine. 1971年,汤姆林森写出一个程序,允许Arpanet计算机网上的不同计算机相互交换信息。Arpanet是互联网的前身。在那之前,唯有使用相同主机的人之间才能交换电子信息。 The programmer said the first email sent was a trivial test message, probably containing something along the lines of “QWERTYUIOP”. 这名程序员表示,他发出的第一份电子邮件并非重要的内容,可能包含键盘上“QWERTYUIOP”那一行中的字母。 At the time of his invention, Tomlinson was researching possible uses for the ArpaNet, the US military network that formed the basis of the internet, and was particularly interested in improving ArpaNet’s “mailbox” function, which allowed users to send messages to numbered mailboxes. Up to then this had involved someone printing out the message and physically placing it in the mailbox. 当时,他正在研究军方网络Arpanet的可能用途,尤其对改进该网络的“邮箱”功能感兴趣——该功能允许用户向标记了数字编号的邮箱发送信息。在那时以前,发送信息需要有人把信息内容打印出来,然后再亲自放入邮箱。 To resolve this problem Tomlinson wrote a file transfer program that allowed a message to be delivered electronically to a separate computer through ArpaNet. 为了解决这个问题,汤姆林森编写了一个文件传输程序,允许一条信息通过ArpaNet以电子方式发送给另外一部计算机。 Tomlinson also came up with the idea of using the “@” symbol to separate the name of the recipient from the name of the host, creating the standard still used today. 汤姆林森也想出了使用@符号来隔开收信人姓名和主机名的主意,创建了如今仍在使用的标准。 In spite of a history of more than four decades, Tomlinson said email had not changed much since its invention. 尽管有了40年以上的历史,汤姆林森表示,电子邮件自问世以来并无太大变化。 Born in New York State, Tomlinson studied electrical engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic and then earned his masters at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 汤姆林森出生于纽约州,先在伦斯勒理工学院|Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)攻读电子工程专业,接着在麻省理工学院(MIT)获得了硕士学位。 He joined Bolt, Beranek, and Newman in 1967 in Massachusetts, and stayed there the rest of his life. BBN was later acquired by Raytheon and known as Raytheon BBN. 1967年,汤姆林森在马萨诸塞州加入了BBN公司,并一直在那里工作。后来,BBN被雷神(Raytheon)收购,改名为雷神BBN。 “It is with great sadness we acknowledge the passing of our colleague and friend,” Ratheon said in a statement. “A true technology pioneer#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;his work changed the way the world communicates.” “我们的同事和朋友去世了,我们对此感到巨大的伤悲,”雷神发表声明称。“一位真正的技术先驱……他的工作改变了世界的沟通方式。” /201603/430561

BYD, the Chinese electric-car company part-owned by Warren Buffett, is poised to raise up to .9bn through the issue of new shares.沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)持股的中国电动汽车公司比亚迪(BYD)正计划通过发行新股募集至多19亿美元。Trading in the company’s shares in Hong Kong was halted yesterday, and in Shenzhen on Monday, pending the announcement of the deal, which the company described as a private A-share placement. The number of shares and the price would be revealed after the deal was completed, BYD said.比亚迪在深圳和香港上市的股票已分别于周一和周二停牌,等待发布有关A股私募的公告。比亚迪称,新股的数量和价格将在交易达成后对外披露。The company counts among its investors Mr Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway, and has benefited from the frothy share prices seen across China’s tech sector.比亚迪的投资者包括巴菲特的伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway),该公司还获益于中国科技行业全线虚高的股价。The company did not elaborate about what funds from the private placement will be used for, but analysts said timing would enable the group to take advantage of the ramp-up of its share prices. The cash would potentially be used for investment in research and development and gain an edge against rival Tesla, analysts suggested.比亚迪并未阐明此次私募所得将用于何处,但分析师称,此次发行的时机选择将使该集团从股价上涨中受益。分析师表示,募资所得很可能被用于投资研发,以期获得相对于竞争对手特斯拉(Tesla)的优势。BYD’s Shenzhen-listed shares have nearly doubled this year, pacing the overall Shenzhen market, while China’s tech stocks have overall been some of the best performing in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges.今年以来,比亚迪深圳上市的股价已近乎翻了一番,领跑整个深圳股市,而在上海和深圳的券交易所,科技股总体来说都属于表现最好的一类。BYD started out two decades ago making mobile phone batteries, but has since evolved into the production of electric and hybrid vehicles. The group has outlined plans to take on Tesla in the electric automobile market, where its own advantage is mainly in batteries. High energy, lightweight and efficient batteries are judged to be the most important component of successful electric automobiles.比亚迪20年前以制造手机电池起家,自那以来逐渐涉足电动及混合动力汽车的生产。该集团已宣布计划,要在电动汽车市场与特斯拉一争高下。比亚迪的优势主要在于电池。高能、轻质而高效的电池被认为是任何一款成功电动汽车的最重要组件。 /201505/377490

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