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Heres a neat experiment:做一个简单的实验:Find an open doorway and standinside it, facing into the room.找一扇开着的门并站在门口,面向房间。Now press your arms outward until the backs of your hands arepressing into the door frame.接下来向外伸展手臂直到手背是被压入门框。Go ahead and try it.试一试吧,Keep pressing outward, as hard as you feel comfortable with, for the next minute or so.努力向外伸展手臂,接下来的几分钟你将会感到很舒。In the meantime, lets talk about what your muscles are doing.一起来讨论一下这期间你的肌肉发挥了什么样的作用。In order to maintain the rightamount of stiffness, your muscles need to know how much resistance theyre up against.人体肌肉需要了解他们所承受的阻力是多少以便能够保持适当的刚度。To check this, your muscles have sensory receptors inside the muscle tissue itself which tell yournervous system just how stiff or relaxed these muscles are.由此,肌肉组织内部有感觉感受器,通过这些感受器向神经系统传达肌肉的僵硬度或者是松弛度。For example, muscle spindles are thin,fluid filled sacks that measure your muscles stretch.例如肌梭是体内感觉肌肉伸展的细长梭形本体感受器,Receptors in the tendons measure yourmuscles contraction.肌腱中的感受器感觉肌肉的收缩。With this information feeding back from the muscle, your body can figureout how tight the muscle needs to be in order to keep it in the same place.有了这些从肌肉中反馈的信息,本体才能计算出为了使肌肉保持在相同位置需要多大的松紧度。Which, right now asyou press the doorway, is pretty tight.在按住门口时,肌肉绷得很紧。What will happen, though, if you suddenly take the resistance of that door frame away?如果突然移除门框的阻力会发生怎样的事情?Lets findout.一起来寻找。Step into the room again and completely relax your arms.走进房间,彻底放松自己的手臂。If youve been pressing hard enough,youll be surprised to find your arms now drifting effortlessly upward, as though you had heliumballoons tied to your wrists.如果您之前压得足够紧,您会惊讶的发现您可以毫不费力的向上抬起手臂,仿佛有一只氦气球绑在您的手腕上。Whats going on is this: While you were pressing, your muscles learned that they needed to bepretty stiff to stay in the same place.一切缘由如下:在您用力压的时候,肌肉感知到需要崩得很紧才能处于同样的位置,Stepping out of the doorway changed all that–and verysuddenly.而走出门口之后一切在瞬间改变,It takes your muscles a few moments to learn about this new situation.肌肉感受新情形需要花费一些时间,Until thathappens, your arms will continue to press outward against a door frame thats no longer there.在这期间,手臂仍然保持在一种向外继续按压已经不存在的门框的状态。 201410/339264New data from NASA indicates that Pluto has a massive amount of water on the surface frozen as ice.美国航空航天局的新数据表明,冥王星表面存在大量冻结水。A false-color image map derived from infrared observations shows an abundant area of water ice on Plutos surface.来自红外观测的假色图像显示,冥王星的表面有大面积水冰。Using a spectral array instrument, NASA discovered that the water on Pluto is also mixed with frozen methane, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide.使用光谱阵列仪器,美国航空航天局发现,冥王星上的水也混合冻结的甲烷、氮和一氧化碳。The data was collected during a July fly-by of the distant celestial object by the New Horizons spacecraft.数据收集于“新地平线号”宇宙飞船,其在七月对这个遥远的天体进行近飞探测。译文属。201601/424797Ticket scalping, or reselling concert or sports tickets for more than their face value, is illegal under state law. State Rep. Tim Kelly, R- Saginaw Twp., wants to change that.He reintroduced a bill this month to lift the ban on scalping after a similar effort stalled last year when the legislation didnt pass the state Senate.;This is a simple decriminalization of a law that is often overlooked or not paid attention to,; Kelly says.Ticket sites like Stubhub are contractually allowed to sell tickets above face value, and Kelly believes this is unfair.;It either should be illegal for everybody, or legal for everybody,; he says.And Kelly says the change hes proposing will ultimately be better for consumers.;Under a free market system,; he says, ;the more buyers and more sellers out there will bring the cost down.;201503/364785

What else is going on?Supreme court weighing gay marriage.Thinking about gay marriage.还有什么 最高法院在商榷同性恋婚姻一事 在思考同性恋婚姻问题This week supreme court deliberations on gay marriage have apparently revealed great divisions between justices Antonin Scalia and Anthony Kennedy.本周最高法院针对同性恋婚姻的审议据称出现了很大分歧 分歧在安托尼·斯卡利亚和安东尼·肯尼迪两位大法官之间产生yeah,So I guess their engagement is off.That was silly.看来他俩的婚是结不成了 二死了Apple watch,is the apple watch out yet?You hear about the apple watch?Im not sure.苹果手表 发售了吗 你听说苹果手表的消息了吗 不知道I think the apple watch is about to come out or its out aly.苹果手表好像要发售了 要么就是已经在发售了No one knows.Does anyone here have an apple watch yet?People are just yelling at me,its out.没人知道 在座有人已经有苹果手表了吗 大家都在冲我喊 已经发售了Those are the people that dont exercise.Theyre like,its out.Apple watch is out.那些不锻炼的人 大喊 发售了 苹果手表已经在发售了Thats not a great ad for apple.Peoples attitude,its out.这可不是什么好广告 大家就这个态度Theres no sense of excitement there.No,no.毫无兴奋感 是啊Heres the latest on the apple watch,kids.Apple,hey,gang,gather around,you see.这是苹果手表的最新消息 孩子们 各位 过来啊Apple has banned fart sound apps from being downloaded to the apple watch.You cant do that.苹果屏蔽了放屁声应用软件 不可将其下载到苹果手表上 不能这么做Which is why I will be buying the Samsung fart watch myself.Thats what one Im going to get.所以我要去买三星的放屁手表 我要去买那个its actually the fart series four.Sure.Its fart-o-clock.其实是放屁系列第四代 嗯 屁点了Hey Andy,really,its that time?yeah,its half past fart.very nice.Were adults.安迪 真的 都这时候了吗 是啊 屁点半了 很好 我们是成年人201608/463005

Europe Georgian politics欧洲 格鲁吉亚政治A stunning victory惊人的胜利A billionaire has unexpectedly won Georgia’s elections亿万富翁出人意料地赢得了格鲁吉亚大选Bidzina Ivanishvili made a bold promise a year ago. Georgia’s richest man promised to assemble a coalition to win the parliamentary elections in 2012 and unseat the “dictatorship” of President Mikheil Saakashvili. On October 1st Mr Ivanishvili’s Georgian Dream coalition won 55% of the vote. Mr Saakashvili gracefully conceded that his ed National Movement (UNM) had lost, and welcomed Mr Ivanishvili into power.一年前,格鲁吉亚首富毕齐达·伊万尼舍维里许下了一个大胆的承诺,他将组建一个联合政党来赢得2012年的议会大选,从而废除总统米哈伊尔·萨卡什维利的“独裁统治”。10月1日,伊万尼舍维里领导的格鲁吉亚之梦联盟以55%的选票赢得了选举。萨卡什维利优雅地承认他的格鲁吉亚民族联合运动失败了,同时欢迎伊万尼舍维里掌权。But not just yet. Georgia remains a presidential republic for another year, when constitutional amendments take effect. Until then Mr Ivanishvili’s scope will be limited. He called for the president to resign at once, then rescinded. Mr Saakashvili is not budging. The coming months may be bumpy.但是目前看来,事情并不是这样。在宪法修正案生效之前,格鲁吉亚仍将保持总统制共和国一年之久。在那之前,伊万尼舍维里先生的影响范围将会受到限制。他呼吁让总统立刻辞职,随后被撤回。萨卡什维利先生不肯做出丝毫让步。接下来的几个月将会非常艰难。Despite the bickering, the election is a landmark. Never in Georgian history has a government changed so peacefully and lawfully. That crowns other achievements of the past eight years. Modern Georgia is a far cry from the ill-run backwater that Mr Saakashvili took over in 2003. Transport systems and other public buildings have been transformed. Petty corruption has vanished. The economy is growing fast. But unemployment and poverty are high and life for many is hard.尽管争论不断,但是本次大选已经成为一个里程碑。这是格鲁吉亚历史上最和平,最合法的政权转换,是近八年来最伟大的成就。2003年,萨卡什维利开始接手这滩经营不善的死水,如今的格鲁吉亚已经完全不同。运输系统和其他公共建筑得到了改善,少数腐败行为消失不见,经济迅速增长。但是失业人数和贫困人口仍居高不下,许多人的生活依然非常艰难。How Mr Ivanishvili’s disparate coalition will deal with this legacy is unclear. He has no political record and was all but unknown until a year ago. His main policy is better relations with Russia. It defeated Georgia in a short war in 2008 and occupies a fifth of its territory: the self-proclaimed states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. A change of personality at the top should make a thaw easier. Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, once said he wanted to hang Mr Saakashvili “by the balls”.伊万尼舍维里领导的迥然不同的联合政党将会如何处理这些遗留问题,我们不得而知。他没有任何从政历史,直到一年前才为人所知。他的主要政策就是改善与俄罗斯的关系。2008年,两国之间发生了一场短暂的战争,俄罗斯取得了胜利并占领了格鲁吉亚五分之一的领土,宣布阿布哈兹和南奥赛梯地区为独立国家。国家高层领导人态度的转变将会更有利于改善两国之间的僵硬的关系。俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普金曾怒气冲冲地声称要“牢牢地”绞死萨卡什维利先生。The cause of the row was Georgia’s pro-Western orientation: its bid to join NATO was anathema to Russia and regarded with deep scepticism in much of the alliance. Mr Ivanishvili says he too wants to support membership of the alliance. His first trip abroad may be to America. But the new premier’s real priority will be to revive trade with Russia. Kremlin sanctions have strangled Georgian exports such as wine, fruit and mineral water.引发争端的原因是格鲁吉亚的亲西方化的倾向:他们申请加入北大西洋公约组织,这在俄罗斯看来是对其的一种诅咒,北约也怀疑其图谋不轨。伊万尼舍维里先生表示他也持格鲁吉亚成为北大西洋公约组织的一员。他就任后首次出访的目的地将是美国,但是新总理真正的首要任务是恢复同苏联的贸易。俄罗斯政府的制裁扼杀了格鲁吉亚酒类,水果和矿泉水的出口。On other issues Mr Ivanishvili has been full of spleen about misrule, but hazy about what he would do differently. He has promised that he will be prime minister for no more than two years. Some doubt his coalition, of liberals, nationalists and eccentrics, will stay together once the euphoria of victory has passed. David Usupashvili, head of the Republican Party, says that Mr Ivanishvili’s business success shows he has the “ability necessary for a leader”. Such wealth “cannot be assembled by an unwise person”.在其他问题上,伊万尼舍维里一直对暴政深恶痛绝,但是他却不太清楚如何做得与众不同。他承诺他只担任两年的总理。一些人担心一旦胜利的喜悦过后,他领导的由自由主义者、爱国主义者和怪人组成的联合政党会不会保持团结。共和党领导大卫·乌苏帕什维利认为伊万尼舍维里的商业成功表明他具备“一个领导所需的能力”。不明智的人是无法积累如此多的财富的。Mr Saakashvili has some thinking to do, too. Nobody from his camp, or among election-watchers in Tbilisi, foresaw this outcome. Their big worry was how to keep Georgian Dream loyalists, perhaps backed by Russia, from avenging defeat with violence. The surprise highlights the complacency that is the ruling elite’s big weakness. Many in Mr Saakashvili’s party came to believe that they were destined to rule and that criticism was treachery. Now it has to play a new role of a strong loyal opposition. That may test its unity.萨卡什维利先生也该好好思考一番了。无论是在他领导的阵营,还是第比利斯的观察团中都没有人预见到这个结果。他们巨大的担心是如何防止可能得到俄罗斯持的格鲁吉亚之梦党的拥护者以暴力报复战败。这个出人意料地结果凸显了统治精英的一大缺点—自鸣得意。萨卡什维利领导的政党里许多人都认为他们注定会是统治者,批评意味着背叛。现在,他们要扮演一个新的角色,强大的忠实反对派。这是对他们凝聚力的考验。The decisive factor in the election may have been s of abuse in prison, including a man apparently being raped with a broom. Though their provenance was unclear, for many the footage crystallised resentment against the arrogance and impunity of Mr Saakashvili’s rule.决定选举的关键因素可能是监狱里虐待犯人的视频,其中包括用扫把殴打犯人的非常明显的镜头。虽然他们的出处尚不明确,但是一个个连续镜头具体化了许多人对萨卡什维利执政的傲慢和不受惩罚的怨恨。Neither side will find the post-election period easy. Giga Bokeria, Mr Saakashvili’s influential National Security Adviser, has said that Mr Ivanishvili has introduced “poison” into the political system.选举结束后的这段时期对双方来说都不容易。萨卡什维利的颇具影响力的国家安全顾问吉佳·克里亚声称伊万尼舍维里已经将“毒药”引进了政治体系。For his part, Mr Ivanishvili said during the campaign that Mr Saakashvili and his officials would face unspecified “justice” once Georgian Dream came to power. Among other wild talk, he suggested that any supporter of Mr Saakashvili’s was an “accomplice in the cruellest crime”. Even the election result is open to challenge. Mr Saakashvili’s UNM claim that Georgian Dream activists are pressing local election commissions to change results in their favour. The NATO observation mission in Georgia has expressed “serious concern” about that.而伊万尼舍维里在大选运动期间表示一旦格鲁吉亚之梦党上台,萨卡什维利和他的官员们将面临未指定的“法律制裁”。他在其他轻率的对话中也暗示任何萨卡什维利政党的持者都是“最残酷的犯罪的共犯”。即使选举结果面临着挑战,萨卡什维利领导的格鲁吉亚民主联合运动党声称格鲁吉亚之梦党的积极分子在对当地的选举委员会施压,试图改变选举结果,从而对他们有利。北大西洋公约组织驻格鲁吉亚观察使团对此表达了“深切关注”。It is all still fragile. But by admitting defeat, Mr Saakashvili handed his country a victory and wrong-footed Mr Ivanishvili, who had said that he would never be allowed to win elections. Now that he has, he has a great responsibility to the system that has vaulted him to power.虽然一切都还很脆弱,但是通过承认失败,萨卡什维利先生传递给他的国家胜利的讯号,并使伊万尼舍维里大乱阵脚,他曾表示从未被允许赢得选举。既然他赢得了选举,那么他就该对这个持他掌权的系统担负起应有的责任。 翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201608/457843

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