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襄阳南漳县人民医院做血常规检查襄阳市人民医院有取环吗襄阳樊城区妇幼保健院中医院专家预约 Science and technology科学技术Marine ecology海洋生态学Welcome to the plastisphere欢迎来到塑料圈What is pollution to some is opportunity to others对有些生物是污染物的塑料对另一些生物却是机会SINCE 2008 geologists have been mulling over the idea of the Anthropocene,自2008年起,地质学家便一直在琢磨人类世这个概念。a proposed new epoch in the history of the Earth that would encompass the years in which people have had profound effects on the planets workings.人类世是新近提出的一个地球纪元,囊括了人类的改造对地球产生深刻影响的时期。Most often, discussion of the Anthropocene revolves around how atmospheric chemistry has changed since the beginning of the industrial revolution.大多时候,对人类世的探讨以工业革命开始后大气的化学性质如何变化为主。Sometimes the effects of new terrestrial ecosystems, in the form of fields, pastures and plantations, are also considered.间或还会考虑对田地,牧场及种植园等形式的新型陆地生态系统产生的影像。To date, though, how the Anthropocene has created new ecosystems in the oceans as well as on land has not been much examined.然而人类世是如何与在陆地上一样在海洋中创造新生态系统的问题迄今为止还未有深入研究。Such ecosystems are, nevertheless, emerging—as Tracy Mincer of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, in Massachusetts, and Linda Amaral-Zettler of the Marine Biological Laboratory, also in Woods Hole, describe in Environmental Science and Technology.然而正如马萨诸塞州的伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所的特雷西·明瑟以及伍兹霍尔海洋生物学实验室的琳达·阿马拉尔-赛特勒在《环境科学技术》上所说的,这类生态系统正在慢慢浮出水面。The malign effect of floating plastic debris on seabirds, turtles and other sea creatures is well known.漂浮在海洋中的碎片对于海鸟,海龟以及其它海洋生物的有害作用已经广为人知。But, as Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler have discovered, plastic debris also provides a new habitat for organisms small enough to take advantage of it.但是,明瑟和阿马拉尔-赛特勒两位士发现,塑料碎片还为小到足以栖身其上的微生物提供了一块新的栖息地。The two researchers collected pieces of plastic from various sites in the North Atlantic.这两位研究人员在北大西洋上的多个区域搜集了许多塑料片。They then examined each using DNA analysis, and also an electron microscope, to see what was living on it.然后使用DNA分析及电子显微镜对每一块碎片进行了检测,来观查上面有什么生物。Lots of things were. Altogether, they discovered about 50 species of single-celled plant, animal and bacterial life.上面确实有很多生物,他们一共发现了大约50种单细胞植物,动物及细菌生命体。Each bit of debris was, in effect, a tiny ecosystem.实际上,每块碎片都是一个微型生态系统。As with many ecosystems, the bottom of the food chain was occupied by things that photosynthesise.与许多生态系统一样,位于生物链底层的是进行光合作用的生物,These included unicellular algae called diatoms and dinoflagellates, and photosynthetic bacteria known as cyanobacteria.包括叫做硅藻及鞭毛藻的单细胞藻类以及被称为蓝藻细菌的光合细菌。Usually, such creatures swim freely in the ocean.通常情况下,这些生物在海洋中随波逐流,They therefore have to work hard to stay near the surface, where light for photosynthesis is abundant.然而它们必须努力停留在海面附近,以获得充足的阳光进行光合作用。By hitching a ride on a piece of floating plastic, they can stay near the surface without effort.要是能搭上一块浮在水面上的塑料片,它们就能毫不费力地停留在海面附近。Where plants abound, herbivores will not be far behind.植物丰沛之地,食草动物也不会少。These, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found in the form of dinoflagellates, some of which like to snack on smaller creatures to supplement their photosynthesis.明瑟和阿马拉尔·赛特勒两位士发现的食草动物的形式是鞭毛藻类,其中有些会将更小的生物当成点心,作为自己光合作用外的加餐。They also found predators on the herbivores, in the form of ciliates and predator bacteria, which feed on other bacteria.两位士还发现了以这些食草动物为食的捕食者,存在形式是纤毛虫和以其他细菌为食的捕食性细菌。Except for top predators—the type that themselves prey on predators—the two researchers thus discovered a classic web of food chains of the sort familiar from ecology text books.要不是没发现顶层捕食者-捕食其他捕食者的捕食者-两位研究人员便会发现一张那种经常在生态学教科书中见到的典型食物网。And they also, and perhaps most pertinently from the human point of view, found evidence for one other part of such a food web: the decomposers.他们还发现了这种食物网中另一个部分-分解者-的存在迹象,这或许是最为符合人类立场发现。Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so ily.塑料是富含能量的物质,这正是许多塑料都极易燃烧的原因。Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene.所有可以将其中的能量取出食用的微生物都能在人类世中过得不错。Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are aly familiar to experts in the field.该领域的专家已经对能做到这点的陆生细菌及真菌如数家珍。Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found evidence of them on their marine plastic, too.明瑟和阿马拉尔·赛特勒两位士也在他们的海中塑料上发现了这类微生物的迹象。They noticed many of their pieces of debris sported surface pits around two microns across.他们注意到许多自己手上的塑料片表面上都生有许多约两微米宽的凹点。Such pits are about the size of a bacterial cell.这种凹点差不多和细菌细胞一样大。Closer examination showed that some of these pits did, indeed, contain bacteria, and that in several cases these bacteria were dividing and thus, by the perverse arithmetic of biological terminology, multiplying.进一步的检测发现这些凹点中有一部分确实含有细菌,并且在一些样本中,这些细菌还在不断分裂,按照与算术上的称法相反的生物学术语来说,即正在增殖。Though the two researchers have not yet proved the bugs in the pits are actually eating the plastic, that hypothesis seems a good bet.虽然这两位研究人员还未明这些凹点中的细菌确实在以塑料为食,但这一假设似乎颇有成立的可能。And if they are, it suggests plastic pollution in the ocean may not hang around as long as has often been feared.如果这些细菌确实以塑料为食,这说明海洋中的塑料污染物有可能并不会像人们通常担忧的那样一直在海中飘来荡去。Less encouragingly, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler also found cholera-like bacteria in their tiny floating ecosystems.遗憾的是,明瑟和阿马拉尔-赛特勒两位士还在他们的微型漂浮生态系统里发现了类霍乱细菌。Both fish and seabirds act as vectors for cholera, so anywhere that such creatures might pick up cholera bugs is something worth keeping an eye on.鱼和海鸟都会成为霍乱的携带者,所以任何可能会让这类生物带上霍乱菌的地点都值得密切关注。The researchers paint an intriguing picture of the adaptability of nature, and provide another piece of the jigsaw that is the Anthropocene.这两位研究人员为自然适应性描绘了一幅引人入胜的图画,又在人类世的拼图上添上了一块。Conservationists intent on preserving charismatic megafauna have reason to lament the sp of plastics through the ocean.致力于保护受人喜爱的大型动物的环境保护主义者有理由为塑料在海洋散布而痛心疾首。But those interested in smaller critters have been given a whole, new sphere—the plastisphere—to study.但这些塑料却带给那些兴趣在于微型生物体的人一个全新的生态圈-塑料圈-用于研究。 /201310/259341Science and technology科学技术Flu流感How to make bird flu fly, part one怎样让禽流感在人间传播:步骤一The first of two controversial research papers is published两个关于禽流感研究的论文一直备受争议,现在其中之一已经公开发表了ON APRIL 27th, after much toing and froing, the Dutch government gave Ron Fouchier of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam permission to submit his paper on bird flu to Science.今年4月27日,经过长久的等待之后,荷兰政府批准了罗恩·富希恩在《科学》杂志上发表他关于禽流感研究的论文。罗恩·富希恩效力于鹿特丹的伊拉兹马斯医学院中心。Dr Fouchier is the head of one of two groups studying how bird flu might become transmissible between people.富希恩士是两个研究禽流感如何变得可以在人间传播的团队的领导者。In December the authorities in America and the Netherlands prevented both his group and the other, led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, from publishing their findings, lest they get into the wrong hands.去年12月,美国和荷兰有主管部门,由于担心被误用,而不允许了他的团队和另一个由威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校的河冈义裕领导的团队发表他们的研究成果。This official fear stemmed from the deadly nature of bird flu.官方的恐惧来自于自然界禽流感的致死性。Of the 602 human cases reported since 2003, 355 have been fatal.从2003年起,已有602例人感染禽流感的安全,其中355人已经死亡。The factor that has stopped the death toll being worse is that people have to catch the virus directly from a bird.为了阻止死亡人数增长,人们一不得不直接从鸟类身上提取病毒,这一点使得恐惧加深了。It rarely, if ever, passes from one person to another.尽管禽流感在人间传播的情况十分罕见,但并非没有。Science has yet to publish Dr Fouchiers manuscript, but its rival Nature has gone ahead and published Dr Kawaokas.《科学》杂志已经公开了富希恩士的手稿,但这之前它的老对手《自然》杂志已经抢先公开了河冈士的论文。This paper got clearance from the American authorities on April 20th.美国的主管部门于4月20日发出了放行令。So it is now possible to see what all the fuss was about.因此我们现在可以了解其中的争论是些什么。Dr Kawaoka was interested in the role a protein called haemagglutinin plays in the transmission of avian influenza.河冈士关注一种称为血凝素的蛋白质在禽流感传播中的作用。HA is the viral equivalent of a grappling hook:HA处于病毒一方,像一个锚一样:it lets the virus latch onto a cell by binding to substances called sialic acids that are found in receptors on the cells surface.它通过绑定受体细胞表面的唾液酸,使得病毒抓紧细胞。This done, the virus infects the cell with its DNA.这样做,接下来病毒就可以以其DNA感染细胞了。But because the sialic acid found in birds is chemically different from that in mammals,但是由于禽类身上发现有唾液酸在化学成份上不同于哺乳类的,and because bird flu has evolved to recognise only the avian variety, it cannot stick easily to mammalian cells,也由于禽流感进化得只能识别禽类变种,所以HA吸附到哺乳类动物细胞上不那么容易,limiting its ability to infect people.也就是说它感染人类的能力十分有限。The researchers wanted to know what it would take to enhance that ability.研究人员想要了解HA怎样才能提高这种能力。They took the HA gene from avian influenza viruses found in Vietnam and made millions of mutant versions, each of which was spliced back into a copy of the original virus.他们将在越南发现的禽流感病毒中的HA基因提取出来,并制造了数百万个变种,又把每一个插回到原来的病毒当中。They then screened 2.1m of these mutant viruses to see which bind to sialic acid of the mammalian variety.之后,他们扫描了二百一十万个变种病毒,看看它们中的哪一个可以与哺乳动物的唾液酸绑定。Just eight can do so, and just one of those has become, in effect, a mammalian specialist, because it can no longer bind to avian cells.其中只有8个能这样,而且只有其中之一实际上变得不再能绑定禽类细胞,而变成了专门绑定哺乳动物品种。Dr Kawaoka decided to concentrate his efforts on this specialist. Further tests revealed that two mutations in its HA gene, called N224K and Q226L, were responsible for its characteristics.河冈士决定集中精力研究这个特别的品种。进一步的测试显示,其中有两种HA基团的变种,N224K和Q226L,是它们决定了HA的特性。It is here that things get complicated.此时情况变得复杂起来。Instead of looking at the doubly mutated gene in bird flu, the team transplanted it into the virus that caused the human-flu pandemic of .这个团队将这种基因引入年引起人禽流感传播的病毒中,而不仅仅是去评判那些成倍变异的禽流感基因。By doing so, they virtually guaranteed they would make a virus that could pass between mammals.这样,使得他们实际上能够制造出测定哺乳动物间传播的禽流感病毒。And so it proved.最终,这也得到了实。When they tested it on ferrets, it passed through the air from one animal to another.当他们在雪貂身上进行测试后,病毒经过空气从一只传到另一只。Moreover, closer inspection showed that two other mutations, N158D and T318I, had spontaneously got tangled up in the mix.此外,进一步检测显示,另外两种变种,即N158D和T318I,同时也紧紧纠缠于病毒中。What all this means, then, is slightly obscure.实验的结果看起来有点晦涩。Dr Kawaokas purpose was to study how the mammalian-transmission mutations worked.河冈士的目的是研究哺乳动物间传播的变种如何起作用。In this, he succeeded.在这一点上他成功了。He found that N224K, Q226L and N158D all control areas in the head of the HA protein—ie, the hook—and probably help it attach to the mammalian flavour of sialic acid.他发现了N224K、Q226L和N158D位于HA蛋白头部的控制区,它们有可能帮助HA偏好于哺乳动物的唾液酸。T318I controls part of HAs stem and may help to stabilise the protein as it injects viral DNA into cells.T318I控制HA的根部,使得HA能在病毒向细胞中注入DNA时保持稳定。By transferring the genes into a virus that was known to be good at moving between mammals,通过将这些基因转录入病毒,使其易于在哺乳动物间传播。Dr Kawaoka has shown that the HA gene is not itself an obstacle to bird flu gaining that ability, though its other genes may be.这样,河冈士实了HA基因本身并不是禽流感病毒获得这种能力的障碍,尽管其他基因或许是。Perhaps Dr Fouchiers paper will shed more light on the matter.或许富希恩士的论文将会为此提供线索。 /201307/248479湖北医药学院附属医院好不好

襄城区妇幼保健中医院医生有哪些Business商业报道Cable television有线电视The 61 billion proposal耗资610亿的提案The latest plot twists in a continuing television drama电视连续剧中最新的情节突转SPURNED suitors usually nurse the wounds of rejection quietly.令人唾弃的起诉者通常悄然的治愈拒绝的伤口。Not in the cable-television industry. Having unsuccessfully approached Time Warner Cable twice last year, Charter Communications, a rival American cable operator, has gone public with a new proposal.这并不是在电缆电视行业。美国有线电视运营商的竞争对手Charter通讯,两次试图接近时代华纳有线公司都未能成功,现在又有一个新的提案已经上市。On January 14th Charter announced a bid valuing TWC at 61 billion including debt, offering 132.50 ashare compared with the 95 or so they were fetching early last June, when rumours of its approach emerged.1月14日charter宣布为时代华纳有限公司估价610亿,提供一个份额132.50美元相比于原来的95美元高出许多。早在去年六月这些做法就流传出来了。Charters boss, Tom Rutledge, wrote a public letter to Robert Marcus, the boss of TWC, beseeching him to consider the offer, and held a conference call to seek shareholders backing for the bid.Charter的老板汤姆?拉特里奇写了一封公开信给TWC的老板罗伯特马库斯,求他考虑该提案,并举行了电话会议,以寻求股东的持。TWCs executives are playing hard to get: they want a higher price, and vow not to let Charter steal the company.TWC的高管们欲擒故纵,他们希望得到更高的价格,并发誓决不让charter公司窃取。For those who have been following this cable drama, it has been a question of when, not if, the industry would consolidate.对于那些一直在遵循这种电缆剧的人来说,一直有个有关行业巩固的时间问题,而不是是否的问题。TWC isAmericas second-largest cable operator by subscribers, after Comcast, and Charter is the fourth-largest.TWC是继康卡斯特后的美国第二大有线电视运营商,而charter排名第四位。John Malone, one of the industrys pioneers, whose company, Liberty Media, is Charters biggest shareholder, is among many in the business calling for mergers.行业的先驱之一—约翰马龙,他的公司自有媒体是行业最大的股东,也是众多的业务中要求兼并的公司之一。This would help cable firms fend off competition from satellite operators, phone companies and streaming services like Netflix, which are poaching their customers for internet service and for films and TV shows.这将帮助有线电视公司抵御来自卫星运营商,电话公司和如Netflix的流媒体务等互联网务对他们客户的偷猎和对电视电影节目的竞争。Besides letting them cut costs—Charter reckons a merger with TWC could save at least 500ma year—scale would also give cable operators more clout when negotiating with content providers over the rates they have to pay to carry their channels.除了让他们削减成本,charter打算与TWC合并每年可以节省至少5亿,而且在于提供商洽谈必须付的渠道费率时也使有线运营商更有底气。Last year TWC got into a fight with CBS over its fees, which led to a blackout of CBS channels for a month until the two reached agreement.去年TWC与CBS战斗而花费了过多的费用,这导致CBS频道停摆了一个多月,直到两方协议达成。TWC lost more than 300,000 customers during the third quarter, many of them as a result of this spat.TWC在第三季度失去了超过30万客户,其中不乏是因为这种争吵而出现的结果。With its latest proposal judged still inadequate, Charter will have to decide whether to offer more.其最新的提案也有不足之处,charter将不得不决定是否要提供更多。Other cable firms, such as Comcast, may enter the fray, offering to buy all or part of TWC.其他的有线电视公司,如comcast公司,可能会加入战斗,提供购买TWC所需的全部或部分资金。Pay-television is not a growth business for cable operators, so they must become more creative to increase sales.付费电视并不是有线电视运营商增长业务的方式,所以他们想要增加销售必须变得更有创意。One area of experimentation is to offer broadband along with a light television package, as several cable providers are doing in certain markets, to appeal to wallet-wise youngsters.实验的一个方面是提供宽带伴随着光的电视包装,几个有线运营商正在做某些市场,以吸引钱包鼓鼓的青少年。Others are selling metered broadband, with the cost tied to usage.其他正在销售的计量宽带,花费和使用成本紧紧相连。Cable firms and other internet providers may soon be free to try even more radical experiments with pricing.有线电视公司和其他互联网务供应商们可能很快可以尝试更为激进的实验与定价。On January 14th an appeals court struck down federal rules that required them to treat all internet traffic equally—a policy called net neutrality.1月14日上诉法院推翻了一个名为网络中立的联邦规则,这个政策要求他们对待所有互联网流量相等。If the courts ruling prevails, this would let cable firms and other internet providers start demanding payment from bandwidth-hungry suppliers of , such as Netflix, for speedy delivery to viewers.如果以法院的判决为准,这将让有线电视公司和其他互联网务供应商开始要求高宽带视频用户,如Netflix快速传达给观众。Besides giving cable firms a juicy new source of income, this could curb the expansion of an increasingly powerful group of competitors for providing packages of content.除了给电缆公司提供收入的新来源,这可能遏制日益强大的集团竞争对手扩张提供视频内容。The cable firms could also favour sites in which they had an interest: for example, Comcast part-owns Hulu, a rival to Netflix.电缆公司也可能对视频网站感兴趣,例如,Netflix的竞争对手hulu—他们有用comcast的部分股权。As any fan knows, cable-TV dramas tend to be long-running and full of plot twists.由于任何人都知道,电缆电视剧往往是长时间运行而又情节曲折,This one will probably be no different. Stay tuned.这其中可能会没什么不同。敬请关注。 /201401/273718湖北化学纤维厂职工医院周末上班吗 老河口市妇幼保健中医院人流多钱

襄阳襄城妇幼保健院中医院缩阴Science and technology科学技术Misconduct in science学术不端An array of errors一系列的错误Investigations into a case of alleged scientific misconduct have revealed numerous holes in the oversight of science and scientific publishing.对一起学术不端的调查揭示出在对科学以及科学出版的监督中存在着诸多漏洞。ANIL POTTI, Joseph Nevins and their colleagues at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, garnered widesp attention in 2006.2006年,ANIL POTTI, Joseph Nevins和他们在杜克大学的同事们引起了广泛的关注。They reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that they could predict the course of a patients lung cancer using devices called expression arrays,他们在新英格兰医学杂志上报告说他们可以通过一种叫表达序列的设备预测病人的肺癌的扩散路径。which log the activity patterns of thousands of genes in a sample of tissue as a colourful picture.这种设备能够记录组织样本上成千个基因的活动模式,成为一幅色图像。A few months later, they wrote in Nature Medicine that they had developed a similar technique which used gene expression in laboratory cultures of cancer cells,几个月后,他们又在《自然-医学》杂志上发表说他们已经发展出了一种类似的技术-这类技术使用的是在实验室培养皿里癌细胞的基因表达,known as cell lines, to predict which chemotherapy would be most effective for an individual patient suffering from lung, breast or ovarian cancer.被称为细胞系,来预测对于某一位患肺癌、乳腺癌或者是卵巢癌的病人哪种化疗将会是最有效的。At the time, this work looked like a tremendous advance for personalised medicine—the idea that understanding the molecular specifics of an individuals illness will lead to a tailored treatment.这个工作在那时看起来是个人化医疗中的一个重大进步。The papers drew adulation from other workers in the field, and many newspapers, including this one, wrote about them.这些文章受到了一些同行以及包括《经济学人》在内的许多报纸的极力褒奖。The team then started to organise a set of clinical trials of personalised treatments for lung and breast cancer.于是研究小组开始着手组织一套针对肺癌和乳腺癌病人的个人化治疗临床试验。Unbeknown to most people in the field, however, within a few weeks of the publication of the Nature Medicine paper a group of biostatisticians at the MD Anderson Cancer Centre in Houston, led by Keith Baggerly and Kevin Coombes, had begun to find serious flaws in the work.可是大多数领域内的人不知道的是,由Keith Baggerly和Kevin Coombes领导的德州大学MD Anderson癌症中心的生物统计师们在这篇论文发表之后的几周就开始发现其中的严重问题。Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes had been trying to reproduce Dr Pottis results at the request of clinical researchers at the Anderson centre who wished to use the new technique.在希望使用这项新技术的Anderson中心临床研究员的请求下,Baggerly士和Coombes士一直在尝试重现Potti士的研究结果。When they first encountered problems,当第一次碰到问题时,they followed normal procedures by asking Dr Potti, who had been in charge of the day-to-day research, and Dr Nevins, who was Dr Pottis supervisor, for the raw data on which the published analysis was based—and also for further details about the teams methods,他们按照惯例向主管日常研究的Potti士和他的导师Nevins士索要他们发表的文章的原始数据和关于其研究方法的进一步细节,so that they could try to replicate the original findings.这样他们就可以尝试重现原先的实验结果了。A can of worms一罐虫子Dr Potti and Dr Nevins answered the queries and publicly corrected several errors, but Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes still found the methods predictions were little better than chance.Potti士和Nevins士回复了这些请求并且公布了几处修正后的错误,但是Baggerly士和Coombes士依旧发现由这个实验方法引出的结果几乎不比乱猜好。Furthermore, the list of problems they uncovered continued to grow.不仅如此,他们还发现了越来越多的问题。For example, they saw that in one of their papers Dr Potti and his colleagues had mislabelled the cell lines they used to derive their chemotherapy prediction model,例如,他们发现在Potti士和他的同事们发表的一篇文章中,错误标记了一个用来建立化疗预测模型的细胞系,describing those that were sensitive as resistant, and vice versa.把敏感的和抵制的弄反了。This meant that even if the predictive method the team at Duke were describing did work,这意味着就算杜克大学的这个研究小组的预测方法起作用,which Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes now seriously doubted, patients whose doctors relied on this paper would end up being given a drug they were less likely to benefit from instead of more likely.现在Baggerly士和Coombes士对这点都很怀疑,依靠这个研究给病人用药的医生也只会更可能得到坏的而不是好的效果。Another alleged error the researchers at the Anderson centre discovered was a mismatch in a table that compared genes to gene-expression data.另一个据Anderson中心的研究员指出的错误是一张表中基因和其基因表达数据的不匹配。The list of genes was shifted with respect to the expression data, so that the one did not correspond with the other.表中基因的一列相对于表达数据发生了调换,导致两项不相对应。On top of that, the numbers and names of cell lines used to generate the data were not consistent.最重要的是,用来产生数据的细胞系的序号和名称也互相不一致。In one instance, the researchers at Duke even claimed that their work made biological sense based on the presence of a gene, called ERCC1,比如,杜克大学的研究员甚至声称,基于一个叫做ERCC1的基因的存在,他们的工作是具有生物学意义的,that is not represented on the expression array used in the teams experiments.但是这个基因并没有出现在小组实验使用的表达序列中。Even with all these alleged errors, the controversy might have been relegated to an arcane debate in the scientific literature if the team at Duke had not chosen,即使已经有了这么多错误被指出,这个争论也本可以停留在艰深难懂的学术论文的辩论中。within a few months of the papers publication to launch three clinical trials based on their work.可是杜克大学的研究组选择在论文发表后的几个月内就(此时试验数据的质量已经受到质疑了。Dr Potti and his colleagues also planned to use their gene-expression data to guide therapeutic choices in a lung-cancer trial paid for by Americas National Cancer Institute.士Potti和他的同事们还计划利用他们的基因表达数据指导一个肺癌临床试验的治疗,这个试验由美国国家癌症研究所赞助。That led Lisa McShane, a biostatistician at the NCI who was aly concerned about Dr Pottis results, to try to replicate the work.这促使已经在关注Potti士的研究结果的NCI生物统计师Lisa McShane尝试重现这个结果。She had no better luck than Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes.她并不比Baggerly士和Coombes士更加幸运:The more questions she asked, the less concrete the Duke methods appeared.想了解的越多,杜克大学的这个方法就显得越不可靠。In light of all this, the NCI expressed its concern about what was going on to Duke Universitys administrators.考虑到这些,国家癌症研究所对杜克大学的管理状况表示了关注。In October , officials from the university arranged for an external review of the work of Dr Potti and Dr Nevins, and temporarily halted the three trials.年10月份,杜克大学方面安排了一个对Potti士和Nevins士研究工作的外部复审,而且暂停了那三个临床试验。The review committee, however, had access only to material supplied by the researchers themselves,可是,这个复审委员会只能得到杜克大学研究员自己提供的材料,and was not presented with either the NCIs exact concerns or the problems discovered by the team at the Anderson centre.国家癌症研究所的疑问和Anderson中心发现的问题也没有提交给这个复审委员会。The committee found no problems, and the three trials began enrolling patients again in February 2010.后来委员会没有发现任何问题,三个临床试验在2010年2月又开始招募病人。Finally, in July 2010, matters unravelled when the Cancer Letter reported that Dr Potti had lied in numerous documents and grant applications.终于在2010年7月,癌症快报揭发Potti士在多份文件和项目资助申请中撒谎。He falsely claimed to have been a Rhodes Scholar in Australia.他谎称自己是澳大利亚的Rhodes学者。Dr Baggerlys observation at the time was, I find it ironic that we have been yelling for three years about the science,Baggerly士当时的感想是,我们对研究结果大声疾呼了三年,which has the potential to be very damaging to patients, but that was not what has started things rolling.因为它有可能对病人产生非常有害的影响,但这却不能使得事情进展。 /201305/241936 Its four A.M.早上四点,Youre tucked safely into a warm bed, savoring the last few hours of sleep before daybreak.你还躺在温暖的被窝里,享受着天亮前几个小时的睡眠时间。And then, suddenly…然而就在这时突然一阵声音惊扰了你的美梦…It must be time to wake up, roll out of bed, and tend to the farm.听到起床号了就得爬出被窝开始劳作。Except its four A.M.,但是现在才四点!its still dark out, and youre not a farmer.外面仍然漆黑一片,而且你又不是农民。Its that neighbor of yours, the one that for some unimaginable reason keeps a rooster as a pet.鸣叫的公鸡是隔壁家的,那个家伙不知道为什么养了只鸡当宠物。A rooster that flaunts the most basic rules of neighborhood etiquette by crowing every morning before sunrise. What gives?每天太阳升起前,公鸡都会仿佛问候邻居早安一样的打鸣。原因何在? 201312/268351襄阳带环多少钱襄阳人流去哪个医院好



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