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泰安疏通输卵管多少钱安分享

2019年10月19日 00:35:49|来源:国际在线|编辑:365信息
The chemicals warehouse explosions in the port city of Tianjin last month reached straight into Yan Hongmei’s apartment, fracturing her mother’s pelvis when a window frame crashed on to her bed. A few days later, rain sprinkled the city with foamy yellowish flecks. The day after that, thousands of dead fish turned riverbanks into a silvery-white mass.上月发生在中国港口城市天津的化学品仓库爆炸,直接波及颜红梅的公寓,窗框掉在她母亲的床上,砸折了母亲的盆骨。几天后,雨后的天津出现黄色泡沫斑点。次日,数千条死鱼将一大片河岸染成银白色。“They say there are no problems now, but what about the future? What if our children will be affected down the road?she said as she begged officials to buy her home. “We are afraid of the pollution posed by chemicals. Even though they say there is no pollution and it is safe, we still believe pollution exists.”“他们说目前没有问题,但是以后呢?如果我们的孩子将来受到影响怎么办?”在请求政府回购其住房时,颜红梅称,“我们担心化学品造成的污染。即使他们说现在没有污染、现在是安全的,我们仍然认为存在污染。”The fallout in Tianjin from air, to water, to soil is mirrored in industrial pollution across China. The thick smog that blocks the sun and causes hospital admissions to rise, often dubbed the “smog-ocalypse makes headlines worldwide. Rivers sometimes inexplicably turn red, plagues of dead fish can materialise overnight and algae blooms turn lakes bright green.天津事件产生的冲击波——从空气、水、到土壤——反映了整个中国的工业污染问题。遮天蔽日的浓雾造成入院就诊人数上升,并成为世界各地的新闻头条,常被冠以“末日之雾smog-ocalypse)的称号。有时河流会不明原因地泛红,死鱼疫情可能在一夜间出现,或者藻类将湖水变为翠绿色。But soil pollution invisible, its effects lingering long after the original polluter is gone may be the thorniest problem of them all.但是,土壤污染可能是最为棘手的污染。这种污染是看不见的,在初始污染源消失后,其影响还会持续很久。Faced with public discontent, Beijing has started to address air pollution by modernising factories and moving coal-consuming industries away from cities. By 2020, many major waterways are supposed to meet new drinking water standards. Some of these remedies may be counter-productive, since moving polluting factories to the hinterlands can have the perverse effect of fouling air, soil and water closer to river sources.面对公众不满,北京方面已开始通过对工厂进行现代化改造、并将燃煤工业迁至远离城市的地方来解决空气污染。按照规划,020年很多大型水道将达到新的饮用水标准。其中一些补救措施或许会适得其反,因为将污染工厂迁移至内陆地区可能在更接近江河源头的地方污染空气、土壤和水,产生反效果。Yet the government is only now beginning to grapple with soil pollution, after years in which experts struggled to bring attention to the issue.不过,中国政府刚刚开始应对土壤污染问题——在专家们多年呼吁关注这一问题之后。In 2004, workers digging Beijing’s Songjiazhuang subway station were poisoned by gases leeching from an abandoned pesticide plant. That sparked China’s first regulations on decontaminating abandoned industrial sites. Recent incidents, including cyanide contamination after the Tianjin blasts, are raising public awareness.2004年,有工人在北京宋家庄地铁站施工时中毒,毒源为一家废弃农药厂里残留的气体。这导致中国首次对消除废弃工业遗址污染工作进行监管。近来的事故,包括天津爆炸之后的氰化物污染,提高了公众意识。“China has entered its Love Canal era,says Lan Hong, a professor at Renmin University’s School of Environment and Natural Resources, who is drafting a plan to finance China’s soil pollution clean-up. The 1970s discovery that the Love Canal neighbourhood near Niagara Falls was built on toxic waste led to the US “Superfundfor brownfield sites.“中国已进入了自己的拉夫运河(Love Canal)时代,”中国人民大学环境学院副教授蓝虹表示。她正在草拟一份为中国土壤污染清理工作融资的方案970年代,人们发现尼亚加拉大瀑布(Niagara Falls)附近的拉夫运河社区建在堆放了有毒废弃物的地块上,导致美国政府建立了迫使污染企业清理场地的“超级基金”制度。China needs Rmb7tn (.1tn) to clean up soil pollution, equivalent to one-third of its entire foreign exchange reserves, if it uses practices developed in the US and Japan, Ms Lan estimates. “China can’t afford it,she says.蓝虹估计,若采用美国和日本发展的方法,那么中国需要为清理土壤污染投入7万亿元人民币(约.1万亿美元),这个数字相当于中国外汇储备总量的三分之一。她说,“中国花不起这么多钱。”The Chinese central bank estimates that the environment ministry’s targets for cleaner air and water alone require Rmb2tn a year over the next five years, although the central bank wants “green financingto relieve government coffers. A soil pollution action plan in the works will also involve significant budget allocations during the next five-year plan from 2016-2020. Otherwise, Ms Lan says, at current spending of about Rmb40bn a year, sorting out soil pollution “will take us 1,000 years中国央行估计,单单是环境部的水和空气净化目标就需要在未来5年内每年投入2万亿元人民币,不过中国央行想要使用“绿色融资”来减轻国家财政压力。一份拟议中的土壤污染治理方案也要求016010年的下一个五年计划期间安排可观治污预算。蓝虹说,按照当前每年投入约400亿元人民币的水平,治理土壤污染“将需000年”。Redevelopment concerns重建担忧“Green financingonly goes so far. Investors can charge for treated wastewater, but there is little return on soil remediation. “The biggest challenge is financing. Where’s the money coming from?one businessman says.“绿色融资”能够解决的问题是有限的。投资者可以对废水处理收费,但是土壤修复没什么回报。“最大的问题是融资。钱从哪来?”一名商人称。One funding source is developers who, according to World Bank studies, should be willing to clean up contaminated urban sites to raise the value of their land. But that idea has yet to bear fruit. A special fund was created for one flagship site, the blackened former campus of Shougang Steel in Beijing, after Shougang balked at spending 0m to rehabilitate the land.世界(World Bank)的研究显示,其中一个资金来源是房地产开发商,他们应该乐于清理受污染的城市土地,以此抬高其土地的价值。但是,这个想法尚未结出果实。有一个特殊基金为一个标志性场地——受污染的首钢前北京厂区——创建,此前首钢拒绝出8亿美元来恢复土地。When housing has been built near reclaimed sites, there are scant profits for developers. China’s largest clean-up project to date, a former coking plant in Beijing, is ringed by low-income apartments housing Beijingers forced out of historic hutong neighbourhoods. Bitter residents spend three times their subsidised rent on bottled water.当改造过的场地附近建造住宅后,开发商的利润不足。中国迄今最大的清洁项目——北京一个前焦化厂的厂区——如今被低收入住宅区环绕,居民是被迫离开历史悠久的胡同社区的北京人。如今,这些不满的居民掏出三倍于房租补贴的钱购买桶装水。Yet even if urban industrial sites do begin to sprout luxury apartments, soil pollution will still blight rust belt towns and prime farmland. “The US and Europe have a lot of brownfield sites but China is different, because a lot of its agricultural land is polluted,says Chen Tongbin, director of the Center for Environmental Remediation at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.然而,即使豪华公寓高楼开始在城市工厂原址拔地而起,土壤污染问题仍将困扰衰败的工业城镇和基本农田。“美国和欧洲有很多棕地(brownfield,待重新开发的城市用地——译者注),但是中国的国情不同,因为中国连很多农业用地都被污染了,”中科院(Chinese Academy of Sciences)环境修复中心(Center for Environmental Remediation)主任陈同斌称。Despite the challenges China faces in cleaning up its soil, some give it credit for doing far more than most other developing economies. The former Soviet Union is full of abandoned industrial sites while pollution from mining and factory waste is a growing problem in Africa and Asia.尽管中国在清理土壤的问题上面临挑战,但是一些人对于中国比其他多数发展中经济体做得更多给予肯定。前苏联满是废弃的工业厂址,而采矿业和钢厂废弃物造成的污染正成为非洲和亚洲日益严重的问题。“The country that’s furthest along in all this is China. The steps they have taken are far beyond any other country outside of the west,says Rich Fuller, president of soil remediation specialists Pure Earth.“在所有这些问题当中,走得最远的就是中国。他们采取的措施远多于其它任何非西方的国家,”专业从事土壤修复的Pure Earth公司总裁里奇富勒(Rich Fuller)表示。Beginning in the 1950s, central planners built heavy industrial plants deep in the countryside. Winds and rain carried black smoke and dust into surrounding towns. Worse, irrigation canals distributed wastewater from mines and smelters into fields miles away. When economic reforms kicked off in the 1980, farmers over-applied pesticides and fertiliser to combat stunted yields from dead soil.自上世纪50年代开始,中央规划者便在遥远的农村建造重工业工厂。大风和雨水卷携着黑烟和灰尘进入附近的城镇。更糟糕的是,灌溉渠把来自矿区和冶炼厂的废水排入数英里外的田地中。当上世0年代经济改革拉开帷幕后,农民过度使用杀虫剂和化肥,以此提高贫瘠土地的收成。A growing recognition that soil pollution contaminates water, which in turn pollutes farmland, has forced Beijing to speed up its soil pollution plan, rather than tackling air, then water and leaving soil for last.随着有关方面日益认识到土壤污染会进入水中、进而污染农田,北京方面正加快土壤污染治理方案,而非先治理空气污染、之后对付水污染、把土壤污染留在最后处理。In 2011, Caixin magazine shocked the nation with its cover photo of a rice plant, the grain turned a silvery metallic colour. It revealed that rice from southern Hunan province, the top producer, was contaminated with cadmium.2011年,《财新》杂志以一张水稻的封面照片震撼了整个中囀?照片中的稻米带有银白金属色。这揭露了湖南省南部(大米产区)所产大米被镉污染的情况。The report hit a nerve with city dwellers aly anxious about food safety and persistent smog. “The effects of pollution and of the misuse of agricultural inputs like pesticides and fertiliser will become the next big stage in the food safety debate,says Xu Liqing, who researches food safety and environmental issues at Jiangnan University School of Business.该报道触动了城市居民的神经,他们已经为食品安全和持续雾霾而备感焦虑。“污染以及滥用杀虫剂和化肥等农业投入品的影响,将成为食品安全辩论的下一个重大议题,”江南大学商学院研究食品安全和环境问题的徐立青称。Worried about sales of rice and other crops, Hunan’s provincial government has been vague about where exactly the contamination lies. It is not alone.担心大米和其他农作物销售的湖南省政府,对具体的污染地点一直含糊其辞。这并非个案。In 2014, China finally published a 0m national soil pollution survey from 2006-2011 that had been classified as a “state secret Officials and experts were “really tensebefore the report’s release, one insider says, fearing it would harm agricultural trade. Hunan’s reputation for “cadmium ricehas hurt sales, many believe, even though official statistics show output has risen since the Caixin report.2014年,中国最终公布了斥资1.5亿美元、于2006-2011年所做的全国土壤污染调查,而该调查之前被列为“国家机密”。一名内部人士称,报告公布前,政府官员及专家“真的很紧张”,担心这会有损农业贸易。很多人认为,湖南的“镉大米”名声已经影响了销售,尽管官方统计数据表明,自《财新》发表那篇报道以来,湖南的大米产量有增无减。The findings were alarming: nearly one-fifth of arable land was contaminated. There was no indication of how the contamination was distributed, or where the hotspots are.结果令人震惊:近五分之一的可耕种土地受到了污染。公布内容并不包括污染的分布情况,或者哪里是问题最严重的热点。The fern gently sping its fronds at Mr Chen’s office at CAS represents another hope. Phytoremediation the use of plants to suck heavy metals from fields and paddies promises a cheap and effective solution. It also carries risks. The crop must be burnt and buried, or the heavy metals will re-enter the soil. Rice is particularly suited to absorbing heavy metals, but what if someone sells the tainted crop?在陈同斌的中科院办公室里,轻缓伸展叶子的蕨类植物提供了另一种希望。植物修phytoremediation)——使用植物从旱田和稻田里吸收重金属——有望成为一种廉价有效的解决方案。它也带有风险。作物必须被焚烧并掩埋,否则,重金属将重新进入土壤。水稻尤其适合用来吸收重金属,但有人出售被污染的大米怎么办?Some badly contaminated villages are switching to ornamental crops, like flowers or saplings, that cannot be eaten. That preserves agricultural income but does not address health risks. And it cannot be applied broadly without denting food production.有些污染严重的村庄转而种植不能食用的观赏性植物,比如花和树苗。那种做法保留了农业收入,但并未化解健康风险。这么做也不可能大规模推广,否则会严重影响粮食产量。Slower, cheaper options carry hidden costs. The longer it takes to treat a plot, the longer that land is idle. Even the generous cost estimates developed by Ms Lan of Renmin University do not include compensation for lost harvests.更慢、更便宜的选项附带隐藏的代价。处理一块土地所需时间越长,土地的闲置时间也越长。即便中国人民大学的蓝虹得出的慷慨的成本估算,也没有包括对耕地闲置的补偿。That means that Chinese farmers might oppose removing the pollutants that are slowly seeping into their own bones and blood. Even stunted crops can be sold, and many in the countryside have no other source of income.这意味着,中国农民或许会反对清除那些正慢慢渗入他们自己的骨骼与血液的污染物。即使长得不大的作物也可以卖出去,而许多农民没有其他收入来源。Relocation issues搬迁问题A decade ago, heavy metal concentrations in the Xiang river prompted Hunan’s government to relocate metals processors from two cities, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou, to protect drinking water in the capital, Changsha. Upstream cities like Hengyang enthusiastically welcomed the factories as a boost to growth.10年前,湘江重金属污染促使湖南省政府将金属加工厂迁离湘潭和株洲,以保护省会长沙的饮用水安全。衡阳等上游城市为推动经济增长,踊跃接纳了这些工厂。Last year, children living near one Hengyang plant tested for high levels of lead. The city pledged to move it again, to the other side of town.去年,居住在衡阳一家工厂附近的孩子们被检测出血铅含量超标。衡阳市政府承诺要再次搬迁这家工厂——迁到该市的另一头。Poisoning by lead, cadmium or other metals particularly harms the young. Riots by parents of poisoned children add social unrest to the long list of reasons for covering up the extent of soil pollution. “Access to information is currently limited for the bottom 40 per cent, who are known to be relatively more exposed to degraded or highly polluted areas than other population groups,the World Bank wrote when it provided a m grant this April to clean up former pesticide factories.铅、镉等金属中毒对青少年的危害尤其大。地方政府已经有许多理由掩盖土壤污染程度,如今又有了一条:防止中毒患儿家长闹事引起社会不安定。世界银World Bank)今年4月提50万美元清理原农药企业。世行表示:“目0%的底层民众获得信息有限,相较于其他人群,这部分人更易受到退化或污染严重地区的危害。”The “bottom 40 per centare the only people living in the village of Zhengjiang, tucked between an abandoned chemicals compound and the high levees of the Xiang river in Hunan. Crops used to die when heavy rains washed soot from the complex into the fields. Now they grow better, explains Mr Yang, a local scrap dealer, while his mentally handicapped teenage assistant grins behind him.正江村位于湖南省境内,它夹在一座废弃的化工厂和湘江高耸的堤坝之间,0%的底层民众”是该村的唯一居民。过去每逢天降暴雨,烟灰就随着雨水渗入田地,导致农作物死亡。当地一名废品收购商杨先生表示,现在它们长得好多了。他身后有一名十几岁的智障少女咧嘴笑着,她是杨先生的助理。Zhengjiang’s first plant opened in 1980. Soon 20 different processors spewed smoke into the air and fouled the river and fields. “Back then, no one cared if it was poison or not. They only wanted the money,Mr Yang says.1980年,正江村首家工厂开业,不久后又开0家加工厂,它们将滚滚浓烟排向空中,将工业废水排入河流和田地。杨先生说:“那时候没人关心它们是不是有毒。人们只想要钱。”Eight years ago, a provincial environmental team arrived to test the village well. They were so horrified that they cemented it up. Yellow bubbles used to appear in boiling water, says a shopkeeper whose wife, daughter and baby granddaughter have stuck with bottled water ever since.八年前,一个省级环保小组来村里检测水井。检测结果令他们大为震惊,以至将村里的水井用水泥封了起来。当地一个店主说,以前烧开水时能看见黄色的气泡,他妻子、女儿和外孙女一直坚持喝瓶装水。The chemical plants left Zhengjiang two years ago. “They went somewhere in the mountains, where people aren’t crowded up against them like here,Mr Yang says. Remediation plans posted online by the Xiangtan government include transforming the area into a “service industry hub One retired village cadre was vaguely aware of plans to relocate. No one else had been told.两年前这家化工厂搬离了正江村。杨先生说:“它们搬到山里去了,那儿的人不会像这儿的村民一样合伙反对它们。”在湘江政府网上公布的整治计划中,有一条是将该地区转变成“务业中心”。只有一名退休的村干部对搬迁计划有模糊印象,其他人都没听说过。A few months ago, the villagers noticed a team testing the ground. One said he was testing for soil pollution. Villagers have not heard anything since.几个月前,村民发现有一些人在检测土地,其中一人说他们是在检测土壤污染。村民们至今没听说任何下文。来 /201509/397095Chinese Officials to Restructure Beijing to Ease Strains on City Center北京市宣布市政府外迁计划Beijing will undertake a major restructuring of the capital government as part of a broader plan to create a giant urban corridor in northern China, officials said Saturday.官员在周六表示,北京将对首都市政府进行大规模重组,此举属于在北方建立一条城市走廊的宏伟计划的一部分。At the end of a Communist Party meeting, city officials said on the evening news that hospitals, wholesale markets and some of the city’s administrative offices would move outside the city center. Beijing is to limit its population to 23 million, slightly more than its current estimated population of 22 million, and reduce the population of its six core districts by 15 percent. Many important services will move to suburbs or neighboring Hebei Province, officials said.在晚间新闻中,市政府官员在一场党内会议的最后表示,医院、批发市场和北京市的部分行政机构将搬出市中心。北京将把人口控制在2300万,略高于当前的2200万。北京还将把城六区的常住人口减少15%。官员称,很多重要的务设施都将搬至郊区或是邻近的河北省。The centerpiece of the plan will be an administrative center in the Beijing suburb of Tongzhou, a historic move that reverses decades of urban planning that wedged government offices into the imperial city center. The move will begin by 2017 at the latest, the Beijing party secretary, Guo Jinlong, said in a speech.该方案的核心是在北京的郊区通州建立一个行政中心。这一历史性举措一反过去几十年让政府机构往皇城中心挤的城市规划。北京市委书记郭金龙在发言中表示,计划最晚将017年开始实斀?In addition, city officials said, 50 city hospitals will begin cooperating with hospitals in Hebei Province, and some will move important facilities to surrounding communities. The neurological unit in Tiantan Hospital, for example, will move to another suburb, Fengtai, by 2017, they said.此外,市政府官员表示,市0家医院将开始同河北省的医院合作,其中一些将把重要设施搬至周边地区。比如,他们称天坛医院的神经科将017年以前搬至丰台区。The city also said it would move 1,200 pollution-causing businesses out of the urban center.北京市还表示将把1200家污染企业搬出市中心。The moves are part of the creation of a major new urban area called Jing-Jin-Ji, after the three districts it encompasses. The city is trying to develop industries like tourism in poorer mountain areas surrounding the capital, with one area bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.这些举措是创建京津翼大型城市新区的一部分。北京市正试图在周边较贫困的山区发展旅游等产业,其中一个地区正在申022年的冬奥会。The plan has been debated for decades, but only began to be implemented in recent months as part of an effort by President Xi Jinping to reform the Chinese economy. The idea is to reduce the sort of duplicative, polluting enterprises like coking and steel that dominate the greater Beijing area and other large urban centers, and in their place create a more modern economic structure.该方案已讨论了数十年,但最近几个月才开始实斀?这是国家主席习近平发动的经济改革行动的一部分。其目的是减少重复性的污染企业,如在北京地区占主导地位的焦化厂和钢铁厂,代之以更现代的经济结构。Jing-Jin-Ji would have more than 100 million residents and be about the size of Kansas, with high-speed rail lines making most cities in the corridor reachable within an hour.京津翼新区将囊括1亿多人口,面积与堪萨斯州大致相当,并将建成高铁线路,让人们在一个小时以内抵达该走廊内的多数城市。来 /201507/386075The world has a massive food crisis on its hands. The crisis is so big that organizations like the World Bank and the ed Nations say there won’t be enough food to feed the global population when it jumps from the current seven billion people to nine billion by 2050.全球正面临着一场大规模的粮食危机,世界和联合国等国际组织甚至声称,随着全球人口由当前的70亿人增长050年的90亿人,地球上的粮食将难以满足全球人口的需求。Some research even suggests a food scarcity crunch as early as 2030 just 15 years from now.有些研究甚至认为,全球粮食危机可能最030年就会爆发,也就是说离现在只5年。The reasons? Severe weather events like droughts and floods, economic hardships, and political unrest in underdeveloped countries, as well as agribusiness expansion.造成粮食危机的原因,主要是干旱和洪水等极端气候环境、经济困难、欠发达国家的政治动乱以及农业综合企业的扩张等等。While many experts say that producing more food will make the crisis go away, others contend it’s not that simple.有许多专家认为,只要生产更多的食物,就能解决粮食危机问题,但同时也有一些专家认为,问题并非这么简单。“To address food security, we need a shift in the way we address poverty and inequality in the world,Stephen Scanlan, a professor of sociology at Ohio University. “There should be a reframing of food as a fundamental human right in a way that governments actually stand by.”俄亥俄大学社会学教授史蒂芬o斯坎兰指出:“要解决食品安全问题,我们需要转变我们解决全球贫困和贫富差距问题的方式。食物应该被确定为一项基本人权,得到各国政府的真正持。”But feeding the world is big business. Multinational food companies and retailers are heavily involved in food production. Corporations such as Kraft KRFT 0.21% , ConAgra C 0.77% , Cargill, and PepsiCo PEP 0.08% dominate global food distribution.但喂饱全世界也是一笔大生意。不少跨国食品公司和零售企业都在积极从事食物生产。像卡夫、康尼格拉)、嘉吉和百事可乐)等公司,已经成为全球粮食分配的主宰者。Companies like Monsanto MON 1.28% , the biggest maker of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) seeds, promote their high tech products as a way to increase food production.像全球最大的转基因种子生产商孟山都这样的公司,则主要通过推销其高科技产品来提高粮食产量。And those companies are seeing benefits. Global food prices increased by four percent between January and April of this year, according to the World Bank, stopping a decline in food prices starting in August 2012.这些公司都见到了效益。根据世界的数据,从今年一月到四月,全球食品价格增长了4%,结束了肇始012月的下跌趋势。While those figures may please company shareholders, that kind of consolidation and profit puts too much control over food supplies into too few places, according to critics like Scanlan. Beyond the perceived threats from the business world, global food supplies, one analyst argued, are at the mercy of some nations seeking to feed their own populations at the expense of others.不过斯坎兰等批评人士指出,虽然这些数据或许能够取悦企业的股东,但它也会导致少数几个地方掌握过大的食品控制权。一名分析师还表示,除了来自企业界的威胁以外,全球食品安全还取决于,某些国家是否会以牺牲他国的人口食品安全为代价来喂饱本国国民。“China is the largest purchaser of farmable land in the world,said Usha Haley, a professor of business management at West Virginia University. “They’re doing it to acquire resources as they have a huge gap between what they produce and what they use.”比如,西弗吉尼亚大学工商管理学教授乌沙o哈利指出:“中国是全球可耕种土地的最大买家,他们这样做是为了获得资源。因为在他们的产出和消耗之间存在着巨大的差距。”Food scarcity now粮荒已然发生For many, food scarcity is aly here. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that 842 million people in the world remain undernourished. And nearly two thirds of them are living in the Asia-Pacific region. One in four children under the age of five is stunted due to malnutrition.在很多人看来,粮荒已经发生了。联合国粮农组织的报告称,全球有8.42亿人口营养不良,几乎其中的三分之二都集中在亚太地区。在五岁以下儿童中,有四分之一因营养不够而发育不良。Fueling the problem are worldwide diets that rely on an ever smaller group of crops, leaving global food supplies at the mercy of inflation, insects, disease, and bad weather. Also, there’s the increasing creation of inedible products such as fuel from crops that normally get put on the kitchen table.雪上加霜的是,目前全球人口依赖的农作物种类越来越少,使全球粮食产量越来越多地受到通货膨胀、虫灾、疫病和极端天气的影响,另外,现在人们经常使用粮食制造一些不能吃的产品(如能源),这也使它们无法被送上餐桌。“What concerns us is biofuel expansion,said Kristin Sundell, director of policy and campaigns for ActionAid, an international group that focuses on ending poverty.致力于解决贫困问题的国际组织“行动援助”的政策与活动主任克里斯汀o桑德尔表示:“我们很担心生物燃料的扩张。”“We’ve seen a 50 percent expansion in recent years in using crops like sugar, corn and soy to create fuels for gas tanks, and that’s taking away food crops from people and making what there is more expensive,Sundell said.他表示:“近年来,糖、玉米和大豆等粮食作物被用来提炼汽油的数量,已经扩张0%,这一方面从人们那里抢走了农作物,一方面也使粮食变得更贵了。”Sundell added that the large-scale investment by private agriculture businesses to buy up more farm land in poor countries is forcing local growers out of business. Farmers who do have land in areas like East Africa often face a Faustian bargain, said Scott Ickes, a professor of public health and nutrition at the College of William amp; Mary.桑德尔补充道,一些私人农业公司在穷国大规模投资购买土地,迫使当地种植者无法再以农为生。威廉与玛丽学院公共健康与营养教授斯科特o伊克斯指出,东非等地的一些拥有土地的农民经常面临这种“浮士德式的交易”。“Farmers have to choose between growing specialty cash crops like cocoa, tea and coffee or food staples to make a living,Ickes said. “They usually pick the cash crops as it’s a challenge for them to make ends meet.”“农民必须选择是种植可可、茶和咖啡等专门的经济作物,还是选择种植养家糊口的主食作物。由于生活艰难,他们经常会选择种植经济作物。”伊克斯说。Helping those help themselves助人即自助While agricultural innovations like genetic modified organisms (GMOs) hailed by many and condemned by others are often offered up as solutions, one analyst said simple ways to distribute and store food are needed.尽管有人认为,全球粮食危机的解决方案在于转基因技术等农业创新(虽然转基因也受到了很多非议与指责),但也有一名分析人士表示,我们还需要一些简单的分配和储存粮食的方法。“A lot of food rots because of bad storage facilities in poor countries, and bad infrastructure in those areas prevents delivery of food to a lot of the poor,said College of William amp; Mary’s Ickes.威廉与玛丽学院的伊克斯表示:“许多粮食之所以腐烂,是因为一些穷国的储存设备不好。在这些国家,糟糕的基建设施,导致粮食不能分配到很多穷人手里。”A key element in all this is helping those in need learn how to take care of themselves, said Mark Rieger, dean of the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Delaware.特拉华大学农业与自然资源学院院长马克o里格尔认为,解决这个问题的重要一环在于教会那些需要帮助的国家如何进行自助。“We have an agricultural program so people can develop their own food,Rieger said. “I just got back from Kenya where we bring students here and then send them back home to help their own countries.”“我们有一个农业项目,让人们可以种植自己的粮食。我刚刚从肯尼亚回来,而且还带回来了一些肯尼亚学生,等他们学成后,我们会让他们回国帮助他们自己的国家。”Wars over food?抢夺粮食的战争?The World Bank reports that to avoid food shortages by 2050, the global community needs to produce at least 50 percent more food than it does today.世界的报告指出,要想避免2050年出现粮食短缺,全球社会需要把粮食产量在今天的基础上至少提0%。Many analysts say they are hopeful the world is waking up to the food scarcity problem, as more governments like the U.S. and those in Europe, ramp up efforts to provide aid to developing countries.许多分析人士认为,全球已经开识意识到粮荒问题,比如美国和欧洲各国政府都加大了对发展中国家的援助力度。But a clear consensus on exactly how to end the growing food shortage remains elusive. And that could lead to even greater disasters, said West Virginia’s Haley.但西弗吉尼亚大学的哈利表示,目前国际社会对如何解决日益显著的粮食紧缺仍缺乏共识。而这甚至可能导致更大的灾难。“The food scarcity problem is serious. I think the next world wars could be fought over resources like food and water,she said.她表示:“粮食短缺问题非常严重,我认为对粮食和水等资源的争夺,有可能引爆下一场世界大战。”(财富中文网) /201412/350918

The US is debating whether to position more naval assets in Europe as Russian warships and submarines operate at levels not seen in two decades, according to the new head of the US navy.美国海军新任作战部长约翰理查森上Admiral John Richardson)表示,在俄罗斯军舰和潜艇活动升级0年未见的水平之际,美国正就是否在欧洲部署更多海军力量展开辩论。Admiral John Richardson, chief of naval operations, told the Financial Times the navy was reassessing its global posture in the face of the Russian activity, which stretches from the Black Sea and Mediterranean to the Pacific.理查森向英国《金融时报》表示,面对从黑海和地中海一直到太平洋的俄罗斯海上活动,美国海军正在重新评估其全球部署。“Their submarine force and their navy are as active as they have been in a long time 20 years or so,Adm Richardson said. “How are we going to posture our forces to make sure that we maintain the appropriate balance and are suitably engaged?”理查森上将表示:“他们的潜艇力量和海军活动程度与很久以前——大0年前——差不多。那么,我们要怎样部署我们的力量,才能确保我们能维持适当平衡、并恰当地介入?”Adm Richardson said the navy was evaluating whether to boost its presence in Europe and the Pacific. “That is the conversation we are having right now.”理查森上将表示,美国海军正在评估是否要加大在欧洲和太平洋的军事存在。“这是我们目前正在商讨的。”While some of Russia’s activity stems from its involvement in Syria, its navy has been increasingly active elsewhere. Admiral Viktor Chirkov, head of the Russian navy, recently said Russian submarine patrols had risen 50 per cent from 2013.尽管俄罗斯部分军事行动源自对叙利亚的介入,但其海军在其他地区也一直在加大活动力度。俄海军总司令维克托奇尔科夫上将(Admiral Viktor Chirkov)最近表示,俄潜艇的巡逻活动已013年增加了50%。US officials are particularly alarmed by signs that Russian submarines are monitoring telecommunications cables on the Atlantic seabed, in activity Adm Richardson said was “very concerning有迹象显示俄潜艇在监听大西洋海底电信电缆,这令美国官员尤为警觉。理查森上将表示这类活动“极为令人关切”。“It is very hard to reconstitute that type of traffic in any other channel,he said. “That would be a threat against the other global system, the information system... is linked to prosperity, linked to security.”他说:“很难将这类通信改到其他渠道。这可能威胁到另一个全球体系,也就是信息体系……这个体系和繁荣有关,和安全有关。”The Russian activity comes as the US conducts new operations in the South China Sea to counter Chinese activity there assertive actions at sea and the construction of artificial islands that many nations believe threatens freedom of navigation in waters that carry 30 per cent of global trade.就在俄实施这些军事行动之际,美国在南中国海展开了新的行动,以对抗中国在南中国海的活动,包括在海上的强硬行为以及人工造岛活动。许多国家认为,中国的这些活动威胁到了南中国海的航行自由。目前,南中国海承载着全球30%的贸易。Adm Richardson said the Russian and Chinese activity underscored the need for nations to adhere to maritime rules to ensure that global commerce and prosperity were not threatened. While the South China Sea is a main trade route, another 20 per cent of trade travels through the Mediterranean.理查森上将表示,俄罗斯和中国的活动凸显出,各国有必要遵守海洋法,以确保全球商业和繁荣不受威胁。尽管南中国海是全球主要的贸易通道,但还有20%的贸易是经由地中海完成的。The “ambiguous motivationsof China and Russia raised fears about the health of a global system that ensures freedom of navigation and unfettered trade. “It again perturbs that global system,he said. “The current model is equal access for all... that been threatened?”中国和俄罗斯“含混不清的动机”,使得人们对这个为航行自由和贸易自由提供保障的全球体系的健康状况感到担忧。“这些活动再次扰乱了全球体系。”理查森上将表示,“当前的模式是所有国家拥有平等的通航权力……这一模式是不是已面临威胁?”Adm Richardson said Russian President Vladimir Putin was trying to propel the country’s navy back on to the global stage to “make sure that they are being part of this whole conversation that’s emerging, that they’re seen as... players and that the phenomenon was “not a short-term thing理查森上将表示,俄总统弗拉基米尔渠Vladimir Putin)正试图将俄罗斯海军再次推上全球舞台,以“确保它们是正在出现的整个对话的一部分,确保它们被……认真对待”,并确保这种现象“不是一时的”。Russia has maintained strong military investment since the end of the cold war and had recently demonstrated the quality of its navy by firing cruise missiles at targets in Syria from warships in the Caspian Sea. “That is a significant capability, a significant demonstration,Adm Richardson said.自冷战结束以来,俄罗斯一直保持着对军事的强劲投入。最近,俄曾从位于里海的军舰向叙利亚境内目标发射巡航导弹,显示了其海军的水平。理查森上将表示:“那是一项令人瞩目的能力,一次令人瞩目的宣示。”The Russian naval activity comes as the US also faces the prospect of a rapidly expanding Chinese navy. China protested last week when a US warship sailed near one of its man-made islands in the South China Sea, a move aimed at showing that the US does not recognise Chinese territorial claims.此外,俄升级海军活动之际,美国还面临着中国海军迅速扩张的可能性。上周,当一艘美国军舰驶近中国在南中国海的一个人造岛屿时,中国方面表示了抗议。美国的这一举动,旨在宣示美国不承认中国的领土主张。Adm Richardson pointed out that Washington did not object when Chinese ships recently passed through US territorial waters around the Aleutian Islands following a joint naval exercise with Russia. The US also says China is jeopardising a global maritime system that helped its economy grow dramatically over the past three decades.理查森上将指出,中国军舰最近在和俄罗斯开展海军联合演习后,穿越了阿留申群岛周围的美国领海,当时美国政府并未表示反对。美国还表示,中国正危及全球海洋体系,而正是这一体系帮助中国经济在过0年里实现了高速增长。“In many ways, they are behaving in full compliance and even advocating for this rule of law. Their contribution to the counter-piracy task force is one [example]. They were very clear about their freedom of navigation operation around the Aleutians,said Adm Richardson. “It is just in these other areas, in the South China Sea, they seem to be taking a different position.”理查森上将表示:“从许多方面来说,他们完全遵循、甚至还提倡这种法治。他们对打击海盗的特遣部队的贡献就是一例。他们非常明确地阐明了自己在阿留申群岛周围的航行自由行动。只是在其他地区,在南中国海,他们似乎持不同立场。”The US was also paying attention to the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea which Japan controls but China claims as the Diaoyu where Chinese ships routinely sail inside what Japan says are its territorial waters.此外,美国还注意到了东中国海的尖阁诸岛(Senkaku Islands,中国称钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿;该群岛由日本控制,但中国声称对其拥有主权)。在那里,中国舰艇会定期在被日本人称为领海的水域航行。“It’s something... ’ve just got to continue to pay close attention to,he said. “While it might not be as tense as it was a couple of years ago... do we want to become complacent and take our eye off that part of the world as well and I don’t think that we are.”他说:“对此……你必须继续予以密切关注。尽管那里的局势可能不像几年前那么紧张……但我们也不想掉以轻心、不再关注那块地方,而且我不认为我们对那里的局势满意。”来 /201511/407466

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