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楼主:365信息 时间:2019年06月17日 04:44:30 点击:0 回复:0
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Women have made much progress in gaining equality in work and life over the past half century. In many developed countries such as the US and the UK, women now earn more college and graduate degrees than men do. Women make up half the workforce and are closing the gap in middle management.过去的半个世纪里,女性工作和生活上的地位变得更加平等。在英美等发达国家,上大学并且拿到学位的女性甚至比男性还要多。公司里,一半的员工都是女性,而中等管理层中男女比例的差距也日益减小。But however hard women work, it is the men around them who continue to get promoted faster and be paid more. In both the corporate and the political worlds, women are nearly absent from the top positions.然而,不论女性如何努力工作,她们身边的男性总能更快晋升,获得更多薪酬。不论在商界还是在政界,女性几乎一直被排除在最高领导层之外。It has been argued that women’s maternal instinct makes it harder for them to find a balance between their home and work lives. Other commentators say cultural and institutional barriers hinder female success. But according to a latest best-seller, all these arguments miss something more basic: women’s lack of confidence.有人认为,女性的母性本能让她们很难平衡家庭与工作。而另一些者则表示,文化和社会习俗的壁垒才是女性事业成功的拦路虎。但是,在最近的一部畅销书中,作者却认为所有这些观点都忽略了一个最基本的原因:女性本身缺乏自信。The book, tilted The Confidence Code: The Science and Art of Self-Assurance, is co-authored by distinguished women journalists Katty Kay and Claire Shipman. Success depends as much on confidence as competence, according to Kay and Shipman, and there is “a vast confidence gap that separates the sexes”.在这本名为《信心代码:女性应该掌握的自信科学与艺术》中,两位作者——同时也是出类拔萃的女性记者——凯蒂#8226;肯和克莱尔#8226;希普曼认为,自信和竞争力一样对成功都至关重要,而男女性别之间却存在“巨大的信心差异”。In two decades of covering American politics as journalists, Kay and Shipman have interviewed some of the most influential women in the country. In their jobs and lives, they walk among women anyone would assume to be brimming with confidence. And yet their experience suggests many of these women are full of self-doubt.在二十年的美国政治记者生涯中,肯与希普曼曾经采访过美国一些最具影响力的女性。她俩曾接触到了很多人们眼中信心满满的女性,但多年的经验让肯与希普曼发现,即使在这些女性中,也有很多人对自己充满怀疑。High expectations期待过高Even Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg told the writers: “There are still days I wake up feeling like a fraud, not sure I should be where I am.”就连Facebook的首席运营官雪莉#8226;桑德伯格都曾在书中对作者坦言,“即使现在,我有时还是会一觉醒来觉得上天在耍我,并且怀疑自己应不应该待在现在的位置。”In a feature story in The Atlantic, Kay and Shipman say that conversations like this inspired them to write the book. After expansive research, they found that, compared with men, women don’t consider themselves as y for a promotion until they meet 100 percent of the requirements; and they generally underestimate not only their abilities but also their performance.在《大西洋月刊》的一篇专题报道中,肯与希普曼说,正是上面这样的对话让她们萌生了写作本书的想法。在经过大量调查研究之后,她们发现:与男性不同,女性觉得自己只有达到了所有要求才算为升职做好了准备;而女性不仅普遍低估了自己的能力,而且对自己的表现也缺乏信心。According to The New York Times, in one recent British study, a business school professor asked students how much they would deserve to earn five years after graduation. The women’s estimates were 20 percent lower than the men’s.而在《纽约时报》最近披露的一项英国研究中,某商学院的教授问他的学生,觉得自己毕业五年后应该挣多少钱?结果,女生给出的要比男生低20%。The writers point out that a lack of confidence is behind a number of familiar female habits. For example, many women have the tendency to take the blame when things go wrong, while crediting circumstance — or other people — for their successes.作者指出,导致女性缺乏信心的原因在于她们一些常见的工作习惯。比如,许多女性在出问题时,总喜欢责怪自己,而将自己的成功归功于环境或他人。Perfectionism is another confidence killer, the writers point out. Women don’t answer questions until they are totally sure of the answer. They don’t submit a report until they’ve edited it a thousand times.作者还认为,完美主义是另一个“信心杀手”。如果没有百分之百的把握,女性一般不会回答问题;不经过一遍遍修改,她们也不会递交报告。In short, because women think they’re less competent than they really are, they’re also less self-confident than they should be. It’s a vicious circle.简而言之,正是因为女性低估了自己的竞争力,导致她们缺乏信心,从而形成恶性循环。 /201408/321144Trying to eat right and stay fit continues to challenge many people. Sometimes it#39;s hard to find the time to shop for the right foods or to prepare a healthy meal. But there are some small and easy steps everyone can take toward better health. Here are 10 ways you can change up your eating habits to improve your diet.既要吃得好还不增肥,对大多数人而言都是个挑战。有时候花时间去买好食材或是准备一顿健康食物,真不是件容易的事呢。但每个人都能为了健康采取简单易行的小措施。下面为你改善饮食培养良好的饮食习惯提供的十条建议。 /201402/276740

Silence may be golden, but “the silent treatment” can ruin a relationship, according to a recent study, the online magazine Salon reported.美国《沙龙》网络杂志指出:“沉默是金”的道理没错,但是“沉默对待”却能毁了一段感情。The silent treatment is one of the most common forms of conflict within a relationship, especially a romantic one. Researchers call it the “demand-withdraw” pattern. It happens when one partner repeatedly approaches the other with a request, whether asking for attention or change — or criticism, but is met with avoidance or silence.在一段关系,尤其是爱情关系中,沉默对待是最常见的感情冲突之一。研究者将其称为“要求/退缩沟通”模式。在这种模式下,一方不断提出要求,寻求注意或是希望另一方做出改变,而另一方则沉默或回避。Frustrated by the lack of response, the person who made the demands makes more. The person who withdrew retreats further — initiating a vicious cycle.由于缺乏反馈,于是提要求的一方变本加厉,而退缩的一方则愈发回避,从而形成恶性循环。According to Paul Schrodt, professor of communication studies at Texas Christian University, in the US, engaging in the silent treatment can kill romance.在美国德克萨斯基督教大学从事沟通研究的保罗#8226;施罗特认为,沉默对待将使感情消磨殆尽。Schrodt is the head of a meta-analysis of 74 studies including more than 14,000 participants. The study found the demand-withdraw pattern to be one of the most damaging types of relationship conflict and one of the hardest patterns to break.施罗特领导的一项对14000多名参与者、涉及74个研究的元分析显示,要求/退缩模式是伤害最大的感情冲突之一,也是最难打破僵局的冲突之一。“Partners get locked in this pattern largely because they each see the other as the cause,” Schrodt was ed as saying in ScienceDaily.com. “Both partners see the other as the problem.”正如施罗特在每日科学网站所言,“这种模式下,冲突双方很容易陷入僵局,因为他们都觉得是对方引起了事端,认为问题出在对方身上。”To break the vicious cycle, Schrodt says each partner has to become aware that they are engaging in the silent treatment. They need to know their role in it and the other partner’s point of view. The person making demands usually feels abandoned; the silent person is protecting himself. Each needs to ask, “Why am I behaving this way? How does my behavior make my partner feel?”他说,要想打破这种恶性循环,冲突双方必须意识到自己正处在“沉默对待”之中。他们应知自己所扮演的角色和对方的想法。提要求的一方总有被抛弃之感,而沉默的一方则觉得一直在自我保护。他们双方都应问问自己:“我为何会如此表现?我的行为又会让对方有何感受?”Opening up打破僵局Schrodt suggests talking with your partner about the demand-withdraw pattern and your own part in it. Then trying to stop yourself next time you start to engage in it.施罗特的建议是:与对方谈谈“要求/退缩模式”,以及你在其中扮演的角色,并在下一次陷入此种模式之前,及时悬崖勒马。A Wall Street Journal column talked to other experts about how to break the silent treatment cycle.在《华尔街日报》的一篇专栏文章中,其他专家就打破“沉默对待”模式也提出了自己的建议。Diana Weiss-Wisdom, a psychologist based in California, advises that partners take a break.美国加利福尼亚州的心理学家戴安娜#8226;维斯#8226;威兹德姆建议冲突双方应先冷静一下。“People have to be calm enough to listen to each other,” she says: “Cool your jets, and come back together at a specified time to talk about the feelings underlying the conflict before you try to solve anything.”她说:“人们只有在冷静之时才能听进对方所说,所以,先冷静下,选个具体的时间点先一起说说冲突时的感受,再试着解决问题。”If your demands and requests are being ignored, you’ll need to give your partner space. Try to engage his or her empathy. “The only way to do this is to use the word ‘I’,” says Fran Walfish, another Californian psychotherapist. Say: “This is how I feel when you pull away.” But be careful to avoid labels such as “selfish”, “rude” and “uncaring”.同样来自加州的心理学家弗兰#8226;沃尔费什则建议:如果你的要求总是被忽视,那么你需要给对方一些空间,试着引起他/她的同情。而这样做的唯一方法就是用“我”打头的句子,对他/她说,“我被你决绝时就是这样的感受”。但是,要慎用一些标签性的词语,比如“自私、粗鲁、漠不关心”等。If you are the one who withdraws, acknowledge your need to pull away, and tell your partner that you need space. “At least the other person won’t feel shut out,” says Warren Kennaugh, a behavioral scientist based in Sydney, Australia. “It’s the non-explanation that drives them to a high level of discomfort.” Try to approach your partner more. “Be courageous about how you feel,” Kennaugh says.来自悉尼的行为学家沃伦#8226;肯诺的建议是:如果你是退缩的一方,那么你需要承认自己在逃避,同时告诉对方你需要空间。至少让对方不再感到被拒绝,因为不解释往往会让对方更难过。试着接近对方,勇敢地告诉他/她你的感受。” /201409/327363

Hate dining alone? One Japanese restaurant has a semi-awkward yet totally adorable solution for all your table-for-one woes.不喜欢一个人独自用餐?一家日本餐厅想出了一个不那么尴尬而又非常可爱的解决办法,将你独自用餐的痛苦一扫而光。The Moomin Café in Japan seats solo diners with cuddly stuffed animals to make the experience of dining alone a little less lonely, Food Beast reports. (Sure, the stuffies might not be the greatest conversationalists, but they have to be better listeners than your last date.)根据Food Beast网站的报道,这家叫做Moomin Café的日本咖啡店(其取名源自芬兰出产的动画Moomin Valley,中文译名姆明一族、噜噜咪一家、姆明谷等)会给单独进餐的顾客提供可爱的毛绒公仔,让他们独自用餐时没那么孤独。(当然,这些公仔可能不是最棒的唠嗑伙伴,但是同你上一个伙伴相比,公仔们肯定是个更好的听众。)The cafés are themed around The Moomins, a Swedish-Finnish book and animated series about a family of friendly hippo-esque critters. Each location features food, drink and decor inspired by the whimsical franchise, but the main draw is clearly the option to dine with a wide-eyed Moomin of your own.这家咖啡店的主题围绕着The Moomins,这是一本瑞典-芬兰的卡通书,也被制作成了动漫剧集,讲的是友善的河马家族里的一系列生动有趣的故事。得到授权后,餐厅的食物、饮品和装修灵感都来自这部异想天开的卡通作品,但是餐厅的主线是很清晰的:就是可以自己选一个大眼睛姆明一起用餐。We#39;d just like to point out that texting at dinner is rude, even when your date is a stuffed animal.我们要指出的是,在吃饭时发短信是不礼貌的,即使和你约会的只是个毛绒公仔。We#39;re conflicted here: Would dining with a plush-y as your plus-one make going to a restaurant by yourself more palatable -- or does it just make the whole situation that much more embarrassing? Tell us what you think in the comments!让我们有争议的是:把一个长毛绒玩具作为另一半是会让你独自用餐变得更加惬意,还是会让你的用餐变得更加尴尬呢?告诉我们你怎么看! /201405/297842

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