原标题: 襄阳四院治疗咽喉炎价格天涯门户
It has taken decades for factory bosses in China to wake up to the idea that allowing their workers to sleep on the job is good for productivity.中国老板用了几十年时间才意识到让工人在上班时睡一会觉有利于提高生产率。So for half an hour every day, the seemployees at a plant in Guangdong are allowed to settle back in their spring-back chairs and grab some precious shut-eye.位于广东的这家工厂里的工人每天都可以坐在自己的回弹椅上休息个半小时。Sitting in a chair might not be the mostrelaxed way of dropping off to sleep, as shown in this photo, but this is avast improvement from years gone by when slumbering at the work desk was treated as a cardinal sin and often meant instant dismissal.坐在椅子上睡觉可能并不是最舒的,但相比于以前,这真是好多了,以前,如果你在工作台上睡着,可能就会被看成是重大过失,而且经常会被立马开除。Granting official permission for workers to enjoy an apres-lunch nap at their benches is all part of reforms that have been implemented in recent years - and factories are reaping the benefits in increased productivity.最近几年,实行了一系列的改革,其中就包括允许工人在饭后睡一会觉,而工厂也从这样的措施中得到了好处,那就是工人们的效率提升了。The #39;sleeping on the job#39; rule has benefited workers so much that the Chinese government now happily reveals that there has been a 30 per cent increase in work flow since it came about,combined with the introduction of a 40-hour working week, a drop in eighthours.“工作时睡觉”这项措施给工人们带来了很多好处,以至于中国政府现在开心的宣布称自从这项措施实施以来,工作流提高了30%,而且现在每周的工作时间从原来的48小时,下降到40小时。This picture was taken by photographer Zhan Youbing who is well qualified to understand why even grabbing a nap in a chairis a matter of great comfort - for he is a former employee from a number of factories producing toys and electronic products.这张照片由摄影师詹幼兵拍摄,他能体会到躺在椅子上睡觉也是一种享受——因为他以前就是一名工人,在不同的玩具和电子厂里工作过。Later learning photographic skills, he embarked on a project to observe what he says is the evolution of the manufacturing world, taking more than 40,000 photos revealing the various conditions his comrades were working under.后来他学习了摄影技术,通过拍摄来观察他所谓的制造业世界的变迁,总共拍摄了4万张图片,展示了工人们不同的工作环境。He recalls how, in 1995 at the age of 22,he arrived in the city of Guangdong along with many young Chinese from the villages seeking work in the burgeoning export-oriented industry.他回忆说1995年的时候22岁的他和其他很多来自中国农村的年轻人来到广东生机勃勃的出口导向型行业寻找工作的历程。The factories chose workers aged between 18 and 25 because the conditions were demanding - 15 hour shifts six or seven daysa week with only short breaks for as little as 34p an hour.当时,由于工作条件的要求,工厂都是选择18-25岁的工人——15个小时一班,每周工作6或者7天,上班时只有很少的休息时间,每个小时的工资只有34便士。But since 2005 there have been vast improvements in working conditions, withsalary increases, dormitories being provided for workers who prefer to grab anap lying down, renovated dining halls and leisure areas where workers can playtable tennis or simply relax.但是自2005年开始,工作环境得到了很大的改善,工资提高,提供宿舍让工人可以躺在床上午休,重新装修餐厅和休闲区,工人可以在休闲区里打乒乓球和放松。Some factories have even helped to providethe children of their workers with education and make clean drinking water available to them.有些工厂还帮忙为工人的子女提供教育,并向他们提供清洁的饮用水。But in an increasing number of factories these days, the greatest torture - sleep deprivation - is becoming a thing of the past. Well-rested workers are happy workers, bosses are now agreeing.如今在越来越多的工厂里,最大的折磨——剥夺睡眠——已经一去不复返了。休息好的员工才是快乐的员工,老板们现在都同意了这种看法。 /201412/348128

Chinese patients are fed up with their doctors, and doctors are fed up with their patients.中国的病人已经受够了他们的医生,而医生也受够了他们的病人。During a two-week stay in a Beijing hospital, here’s what I wrote in my diary: ‘‘One has a curious sense of being in a machine, an irritant, like a grain of sand. … No one has the right to anything, not even medical care. You can only demand, beg or seize.’’在北京一家医院住院两周期间,我在日记里写下了以下文字:“有一种奇怪的感觉,仿佛身处机器里,仿佛令人生厌,像是一粒沙子……人没有任何权利,就连获得医疗护理的权利也没有。你只能要求、恳求或尽力去抓。”And people do. ‘‘Kan bing nan,’’ or ‘‘It’s hard to see a doctor,’’ they say about the country’s oversubscribed, underfunded, often corrupt, health system. In frustration, patients may attack their physicians. Bribery is common.大家确实就在这么做。提到中国的医疗体系需求过多、资金不足,而且经常出现腐败现象时,人们将其概括为“看病难”。一些心怀不满的病人可能会攻击医生。收受贿赂的现象也颇为常见。Patients’ relatives gather in hospital waiting rooms and corridors, or camp out in wards cooking and tending to the sick, to make up for inadequate nursing. They may stage noisy protests to get the attention of staff members.病人的亲属聚集在医院的候诊室和走廊里,或者暂住在病房中,做饭并照顾病人,以此弥补医院看护不足的问题。他们可能会故意进行激烈的抗议活动,为的是引起工作人员的关注。‘‘I think you will find that most doctors are good people,’’ said a doctor at another Beijing hospital. Yet, physicians are unpopular and need advice on ‘‘upholding their rights,’’ according to an article on the website of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association. Common problems: What should a doctor do when bitten by a patient with syphilis? Assaulted by a drunk? Besieged at home for 10 years by a couple angry over their daughter’s unsuccessful operation?在北京另一家医院工作的一名医生表示,“我想,你会发现大多数医生都是好人。”不过,中国医师协会网站上的一篇文章却显示,医生不受欢迎,需要“维权”方面的建议。常见问题包括:被梅毒携带者咬伤后,医生该怎么办?遭到醉酒者攻击时,该如何应对?被不满女儿手术失败的夫妇围堵家门长达10年时,该做些什么?China’s medical system is a ‘‘market of distrust,’’ according to Cheris Shun- ching Chan, a sociologist at the University of Hong Kong. An emphasis on profits, a culture of ‘‘gift giving’’ and a lack of professional ethics have produced a difficult atmosphere, she said.香港大学的社会学研究者陈纯菁(Cheris Shun-ching Chan)称,中国的医疗体系是一个“信任缺失的市场”。她表示,对盈利的重视、“送礼”文化的盛行,以及职业道德的缺乏产生了一种不利的氛围。‘‘During the Mao period, doctor-patient relationships were relatively harmonious,’’ Ms. Chan said. Money was scarce and resources were few, for all. But after decades of market liberalization as hospitals sought to generate revenue, contributing to treatment shaped by commercial rather than medical concerns, trust is gone. ‘‘The conflict really is between patients and doctors,’’ she said.陈纯菁说,“在毛泽东时代,医患关系相对融洽。”尽管当时也存在经费和资源匮乏的问题。不过,经过数十年的市场自由化后,随着医院寻求盈利,出于商业而非医疗方面的考虑进行治疗,这种信任已经荡然无存。她表示,“这实际上就是病人与医生之间的矛盾。”The government says 90 percent of Chinese have some health insurance, but underfinanced state programs leave many patients covering the bulk of their costs themselves. One attempt to overcome the inefficiencies of the system and ensure a physician treats a patient well is to give ‘‘hongbao,’’ or red envelopes — bribes.政府声称90%的中国人都有某种医疗保险,但资金不足的国家医保导致很多病人需要自己付大部分的医疗费用。要想克医疗系统效率低下的问题,确保医生认真治疗,一种办法就是送“红包”——贿赂医务人员。Such payments are illegal. In 2014 the National Health and Family Planning Commission issued its 13th notice in two decades demanding that patients not give them and physicians not take them, Ms. Chan said.此类报酬属于非法所得。2014年,国家卫生和计划生育委员会发布通知要求病人不送红包,医生不收红包。陈纯菁表示,这是20年来的第13份相关通知。Hongbao, typically of 1,000 to 5,000 renminbi per envelope, or 0 to 0, are particularly common before major surgeries, said Ms. Chan, citing a survey she conducted. Of 572 people interviewed in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, 31 percent said they had offered hongbao, and these were accepted in 80 percent of cases, she said.陈纯菁称,她所做过的一项调查显示,在重大手术前送红包是一种常见的现象,金额从1000元到5000元不等。她表示,应答者包括北京、上海及广州的572人,其中31%表示,他们送过红包,80%的情况下被对方收下。‘‘You have to ‘buy’ a doctor’s effort to save the life of a person,’’ she said. ‘‘The main aim is to get the physicians to perform the surgery to the best of their ability. It’s what surgeons are supposed to do, of course.’’“要想拯救一个人的生命,你得‘收买’医生,”她说。“主要目的是让医生尽力做好手术。当然,医生本来就应该这样做。”The government recognizes the problems. On April 1, a meeting of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms discussed the need for change in the medical system.政府承认存在上述问题。4月1日,中央全面深化改革领导小组举行会议,讨论医疗系统改革的必要性。‘‘We must realize the responsibility of the state to provide medical care, break the system of public hospitals pursuing profit, and build an appropriate salary system that matches the special skills of the medical profession,’’ reported Xinhua, the state news agency. Leaders know more investment is needed.官方新闻机构新华社报道,“要落实政府办医责任,破除公立医院逐利机制,建立符合医疗行业特点的人事薪酬制度。”看来,领导人知道需要加大投入。But money may not be enough. A lack of professionalism skews everything, according to a recent report by David Blumenthal and William Hsiao in The New England Journal of Medicine. A century into China’s quest to be a modern state, ‘‘the norms and standards of medical professionalism’’ and ‘‘the independent civic organizations that could promote and enforce them’’ are still missing, they write.不过,光是加大投资可能还不够。戴维·布鲁门萨尔(David Blumenthal)和萧庆伦(William Hsiao)近期在《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)发表文章称,职业精神的缺失会扭曲一切。文中写道,中国寻求成为现代国家已有一个世纪的时间,但仍旧缺乏“医学职业精神的规范和标准”,以及“能够推广并加强这些规范和标准的独立民间组织”。Said Ms. Chan: ‘‘Doctors often joke that they are afraid to sit in offices with their backs to the door in case they’re stabbed.’’ And everyone feels the deficit of humanity.陈纯菁表示,“医生们经常开玩笑说,他们不敢背对着门坐在办公室里,以防被捅。”大家都能感觉到这当中人性的缺失。 /201504/369422

The co-pilot of the Malaysia Airlines jetliner that has been missing since early on Saturday invited two female passengers into the cockpit on a previous flight, in a possible breach of security, one of the women said on Tuesday.曾搭乘过马来西亚航空(Malaysia Airlines)飞机的一名女子周二称,该航空公司失联航班的副机长曾在此前一个航班上邀请包括她在内的两名女性乘客进入驾驶舱,这可能违反了安全规定。South African holidaymaker Jonti Roos said she sat with the co-pilot, Fariq Ab Hamid, and other members of the flight crew from takeoff to landing, and took photos with them while the plane was in the air.南非度假者鲁斯(Jonti Roos)说,当时从飞机起飞到降落,她一直与这位名叫哈米德(Fariq Ab Hamid)的副机长和其他机组成员坐在一起,并且在飞行途中与他们合了影。Ms. Roos, a South African, was flying with a friend on Malaysia Airlines in late 2011 from the beach resort of Phuket in Thailand to Kuala Lumpur. She said they were invited by the pilots to travel in the cockpit while queuing to board the plane.鲁斯是在2011年年底与一位朋友共同搭乘了这个从泰国普吉岛飞往吉隆坡的马航的航班。她说,她们排队登机时,飞行员邀请她们在驾驶舱中度过这个行程。#39;My friend and I were I invited into the cockpit by (the) pilot and co-pilot, Fariq Ab Hamid, and sat there for the duration of the flight from takeoff until landing,#39; Ms. Roos said in a Facebook message sent to The Wall Street Journal. She said at least one of the pilots was smoking during the flight.鲁斯在发给《华尔街日报》的Facebook消息中说,她和她的朋友被机长和副机长邀请进入驾驶舱,从飞机起飞到降落,她们一直坐在那里。她说,在飞行过程中至少有一位飞行员抽烟了。#39;My friend and I were allowed to take photos in the cockpit without intervention, but didn#39;t in any way distract the pilots from their duties,#39; she said.她说,她和她的朋友被允许在驾驶舱中拍照,没有受到阻拦,但她们没有以任何方式影响这些飞行员值飞。Ms. Roos said she didn#39;t question the flight crew#39;s professionalism and didn#39;t feel unsafe during the flight. She said she wasn#39;t trying to imply that Mr. Fariq had any role in the disappearance of Flight MH370 and expressed sympathy to the families of those aboard.鲁斯说,她对机组的专业水平没有质疑,在飞行途中也没有感到不安全。她说,她并不是想暗示哈米德可能对MH370航班失联负有责任,她还对机上所有人的家属表示同情。Earlier Tuesday, Ms. Roos told Australian television network Nine that the two pilots at times were facing away from the airplane controls.周二早些时候,鲁斯对澳大利亚电视网Nine表示,当时机上两名飞行员的目光有时会离开飞机控制系统。Photographs given by Ms. Roos to Nine#39;s #39;A Current Affair#39; showed Mr. Fariq and another member of the flight crew posing with the women, who had put on the pilots#39; caps. At times, the flight crew flirted with the two friends, commenting on their nail varnish and suggesting they arrange to stay for a few days in Kuala Lumpur so they could meet up.鲁斯提供给Nine电视网“A Current Affair”节目的照片显示,哈米德和另一位机组成员与她们合影,她们还带着飞行员的帽子。当时,机组还时不时与她们调情,她们的指甲油,并建议她们在吉隆坡停留几日,那样他们就能见面了。#39;Throughout the whole flight they were talking to us,#39; Ms. Roos told the program. #39;They asked us if we couldn#39;t arrange a trip to stay in Kuala Lumpur for a few nights and they will take us out.#39;鲁斯对该节目表示,机组全程都在与她们交谈,并且询问她们是否能在吉隆坡住几晚,以便能带她们出去玩。The report comes as search and rescue teams attempt to locate the missing plane, which disappeared from radar early on Saturday over Malaysian and Vietnamese airspace less than an hour after takeoff on a flight to Beijing. The Boeing 777-200 aircraft was carrying 227 passengers and 12 crew when it vanished.目前搜救队还在努力寻找这架失联飞机,周六早间这个原定飞往北京的航班在起飞后不到一小时突然在马来西亚和越南之间从雷达上消失。这架波音777-200飞机失联时机上有227名乘客和12名机组人员。A Malaysia Airlines representative said the company wanted to review the television report before commenting. The identities of the second pilot and the friend in the photos weren#39;t immediately known.马来西亚航空一位代表说,该公司要先了解一下这个电视报道,再做。鲁斯所说的另一位飞行员以及她的朋友的身份尚不得而知。 /201403/279613China’s central planning agency is trying to stimulate growth by appealing for private investment in prospective infrastructure projects worth more than 0bn.中国的中央计划机构正试图为耗资逾3000亿美元的潜在基建项目吸引私人投资,以刺激经济增长。The National Development and Reform Commission, which runs the country’s five-year plans, on Monday listed 1,043 public private partnership projects for which it was seeking partners in 29 regions, including Beijing.周一,负责五年计划的中国国家发改委(NDRC)发布了1043个政府和社会资本合作(PPP)项目,并在29个地区(包括北京)寻求合作伙伴。Attracting private funding is seen as a crucial means of filling funding gaps as growth slows.随着中国经济增速放缓,吸引私人资本被视为填补资金缺口的重要手段。China’s economy grew 7 per cent year-on-year in the first quarter, the slowest pace in six years. The government has rolled out a series of measures to sustain growth, including monetary-policy easing, more central-government spending and a plan to allow local governments to sell bonds.今年第一季度,中国经济同比增长7%,为六年来最低。为了稳增长,中国政府推出了一系列措施,包括放松货币政策、加大中央政府出,以及出台允许地方政府发债的计划。Infrastructure and transport stocks traded on the Shanghai stock exchange jumped on the news.该消息一经发布,在上海券交易所挂牌上市的基建和运输类股票应声上涨。The list of projects released by the NDRC includes three subway projects in Beijing, seven water-resource projects in the southwestern province of Sichuan and high-speed rail and expressway projects in east China’s Shandong province.发改委此次发布的项目库包括:北京的三个地铁项目、四川省的七个水利项目以及山东省的高速铁路和公路项目。In another measure designed to spur growth, China’s finance ministry said on Monday it would cut import duties on cosmetics, shoes and clothes by 50 per cent on average, as part of a plan to boost domestic consumption.另一项旨在刺激增长的举措是,中国财政部周一宣布将降低化妆品、鞋类和装的进口关税,平均降幅达50%,以此作为提振国内消费计划的一部分。Over the next few years China’s policy makers have said they want to see a switch from investment-driven growth, based on government spending, to a consumption-driven economy where private spending by consumers replaces headline project spending by the government as the driver of growth.中国政策制定者已表示,未来几年里,他们希望看到中国经济从依靠政府出的投资驱动增长模式,转型为消费驱动型经济,让消费者的私人消费取代政府的项目出,成为经济增长的驱动力。China’s State Council, the top government body, last month said it planned to cut taxes on a wide range of imported consumer goods to spur retail spending.上月,中国国务院表示,拟大范围降低进口消费者产品税率,以刺激零售消费。 /201505/377160

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